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excavation, and that ancient relics are probably buried in this
locality. " The form of the Castle as built by the Romans would
be a polygon, and the two round towers corresponding in shape
with the foundation of other Roman towers since discovered, lead
to the belief that the Castle once consisted of seven of these towers,
distant from each other about twenty-six paces, and joined by a
wall and open gallery."

Roman Remains.

In 1772, while digging a cellar on the site of an old house in
Cheapside, there was found in a bed of sand a square stone, four
feet by two and a half in dimensions, and the inscription thereon
was as follows :

D I S . M A N 1

BVS

L I V L A P o L

L I N A R I S

REVteR A N

XXX . EQ A 1

A E A I

I V .



-o TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



The stone, broken on the lower corner of the right hand side, is
said to have represented the time of the Emperor Gordian. Similar
inscriptions have been found at Olenacum (Old Carlisle).

In 1794, when Lancaster Canal was being" formed, while
workmen were digging - near Ashton in a field then belonging to the
Duke of Hamilton, several figures cut in freestone were found ; one
represented Ceres, and was about two feet in height ; there were
several with sculptured heads of men, and two figures of lions.
Clark says, page 78, that they were to be seen " in the carpenter's
yard, near the canal basin."

A Roman pottery was discovered at Quernmore, by the Hon.
Edward Clifford. A great variety of bricks, tiles, and vessels were
found. One tile with turned edges bore impressed on each end the
words "Ala Sebusia," which indicates a Roman wing of Cavalry.
The like inscription was observed on some of the bricks, on smaller
labels. These relics were supposed to have been cut in the time of
the Emperor Severus, a.d. 207. On the bricks the letters were
square, from which it was inferred that the wing had long been
stationed at Lancaster.

In 1802 a Roman Altar was found on the * Foley estate, bear-
ing this inscription : —

D E O

I A L O N O

C O N T R E

S A N C I S S I

M O I Y L I V S

I A N V A R I V S

E M E X D E C V

A Roman milliarium or milestone was turned up in the
Spring of 181 1 , while ploughing a field adjoining the canal in the
township of Ashton. It bore upon it these letters :—

* Clark, page 80.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 71



IMP C M J V L I O
P H I L I P P O

P 1 O FEL A Y G

They signify " Imperatori Caesari Marco Julio Philippo, Pio, Felici,
Augusto." Clark says "consequently this stone was erected in
the reign of and dedicated to the Emperor and Caesar, Marcus
Julius Philippus ; Pious, Fortunate and August, — which pious,
fortunate and august personage was originally an obscure Arabian
soldier, who bv his merits obtained the first military appointments ;
assassinated the Emperor Gordian the Younger in 244 ; and was
himself proclaimed. Emperor and afterwards murdered at Verona in
the year 249. This fixes the age of the stone." The Roman Road
from Lancaster to Manchester was near to the place where this
stone was found. The stone was about six feet high but unfortun-
ately it was accidently broken in two. It was preserved by Dr.
Lawson Whalley, of Stodday Lodge.

A stone hammer was found near Lancaster gy 2 inches long,
and 4)2 inches broad at the broadest part. The diameter of the
eye for the shaft was \)/ 2 inches and the weight ylbs. This ham-
mer was a relic of the Ancient Britons.

A Roman Antique was discovered in the Spring of the year
181 2, several feet below the surface in the garden of Mr. Richard
Willis, Church Street, along with various Roman Tiles and Tile
fragments. It was found in a bed of fine sand.

Here is an explanation of the inscription on the stone found
in the garden of Mr. Richard Willis, at the higher end of Church
Street, February, 1812, (by the Rev. Dr. Rigby.) " The inscription
is believed to have been put up by the cavalry of the Sebusian troop,
under their officer Flavius Ammausio, under Octavius Sabinus,
governor, probably, of Lancaster, or the district, on account of the
reparation of a Bath, and the re-building of a hall or Basilica which



72 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



time had reduced to a ruinous state, dated August 22nd, in the
2nd Consulate of Censor and Lepidus.

OB Balneum refectum et ob Basilicam vetustate conlab-
sam (for collapsam) A S Corestitutam, Equites Alae Sebussiana
Sub Octavio Sabino.

The *V. C. I can make nothing of. Is it Vici Corvicario ?
Praeside N Curante Flavio Ammausio Praefecto Equitum Dedicav-
erunt undecimo Kal Sept. Censore II et Lepido II Coss (consulibus).

The N is left unexplained as well as the V. C. Is it numi'ne,
as Camden has sometimes so explained the single N, meaning either
the Divinity or more probably the numen oi the reigning Emperor
whose name, perhaps, was in the first line, as something has been
considerably erased. Can it be negotiant curante, eve. ? "

Simpson gives the following explanation: -" Imperatore
Marco Aurelio, Antonino Augusta, Balineum refectum et Basilicam
vetustate conlabsum a solo restitutam Equites Alae Sebussianae
Antonincanae nib Octavio Sabino, viro consulari, praeside nostro,
curante Flavio Ammausio, praefecto Equitum dictorum undecimo
Kalendas Septembres secundum et Lipido secundum eonsute."

The same historian also states that "we have no other
authority for an Ala Sebussiana in Britain but from this stone, which
is itself a competent witness. Sabis is the river Sambre ; ami I
have little doubt that it is this word corruptly and vulgarly pro-
nounced out of which the word Sebussiana was formed. The garrison
of Lancaster, therefore, at the date of the inscription, was an ala of
Gallic horse from the banks ol the Sombre, their prefect being
Flavius Ammausius, to whom had been committed the charge of
restoring the dilapidated bath and court-house of the station.



V. C, " vii consularis clarus vel clarissimus usucapio urbis conditae. See
Littleton's Latin Dictionary, 410. '' Ahbreviaturae quas vocant sine compendia
scriptionis in veterum monumemis usitata."



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 73



The two dolphins probably allude to the maritime character of the

place."

Here is the inscription found on a stone at Stoddayj on the
property o\' Dr. Whalley, May, 1831.

IMP . C . D N

C A I O . M E S S I O

Q U I N T O . D E C I O

T R A I A N O . PI . F E L

I C I INVICTO AVG.

I m pern tore Caesare Domino nostro Caio Messio Quinto Decio Trajano

pio felice invicto Augusto.

Roman Altar Discovered at Hai.tox.

This altar was found early on in the present century in Hal-
ton Churchyard. The stone is broken on the right side, therefore
the full text of the letters is missing. Another altar without any
inscription was discovered at the same time.

Such altars and other fragments, including Disci and Syni-
puvia, or cups used in sacrifice, abundantly testily to the fact that
Lancaster was an eminent Roman station.



74



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER



CHAPTER IV.



The Royal Grammar School— Some Past Masters and Ushers of the
School — Educational Charities.




HE Grammar School, built in 1485, by the
feoffees of John Gardyner now demands at-
tention. This institution is very ancient.
It is mentioned as belonging to the Corpora-
tion as earl}- as the year 1495. But in 1682,
it had sunk into decay, and was eventually
rebuilt by the Corporation and a number of
individual inhabitants and made capable of
accommodating 120 scholars. It was said
that Dr. Pilkington, Bishop of Durham, sub-
scribed liberally to this new erection, but, as
Harland remarks, the story is incorrect, since Bishop Pilkington
founded and endowed Rivington School in 1566, and though the
prelates of Durham are usually long-lived, they have none of them
yet attained the patriarchic age of 180 years. Bishop Pilkington died
on the 23rd of January, 1 575- A piece of land anciently called 'the
deep carr,' but now ' the usher's meadow,' probably granted origin-
ally by one of the Dukes of Lancaster, is appropriated to the increase
of the usher's salary. Till the month of July, 1824, the freemen of
Lancaster were educated free of charge, except that a gratuity was
expected to be given at Shrove-tide, while the sons of non-freemen
paid 7s. 6d. per quarter when under the second master, and 10s. 6d.
when under the headmaster. But i^reat reforms have occurred
since this rule obtained, for, about 1825, the school underwent an
important change, and the Corporation, as trustees of the school, in
council assembled, ordered " that the annual gratuity, called cock-
pennies, to the master and ushers, should be discontinued ; and that



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



in lieu thereof all boys under the care of the usher should pay jos
per quarter ; that boys on the two lowest benches under the head-
master should pay 15s. per quarter ; and boys on the upper benches
20s. per quarter. That the salary of the principal should be increas-
ed from ^70 to £110 per annum, that the usher should have
guaranteed to him by the headmaster the sum of ,£60 per annum,
including the rent of the usher's meadow and Randal Carter's legacy
of ^,10 per annum, and that the headmaster should have the appoint-
ment of both the usher and the writing-master, subject to the
approbation of the Corporation in council assembled. The head-
master, in these days of change, was the Rev. John Beetham, A.M.,
and the usher, the Rev. George Morland. The Grammar School
formerly occupied a portion of the western side of the churchyard.
The present or new School is very different, both as a fabric and
as a school, from its predecessor. It was erected in the East-road,
in 1851, at a cost of ^"6,000, and is built in the Tudor style. Queen
Victoria contributed ^100 towards its erection. The Corporation
have still an interest in the institution which, under its present
erudite master, the Rev. W. E. Pryke, assisted by T. T. Knowles,
Esq., M.A., and an able staff, is second to none in England, and
this, though saying a great deal, is strictly true. Two eminently
scientific men received their education at this academy, namely,
Professor Owen and Dr. Whewell. To the memorial tablet of the
latter we alluded when treating upon the Church. Dr. Higgin and
the late J. C. M. Bellew, the eminent elocutionist, were also trained
within this school. The tuition fee for boys is eight guineas a year,
tor board and tuition sixty guineas. Several valuable scholar-
ships are attached to the school. The year 1887 being the jubilee a
beautiful sanatorium was attached in architectural keeping with the
rest ot the structure, and the motto over the doorway is pre-
eminently classic and refers to the lustrations of old performed every
live years by the Romans. The motto is Vict. Reg. lustris decern
clausis. Truly a grand lustration at the close of a reign counting
of years, ten fives or ten half decades. The school certainly needed
a hospital of this kind, since when sickness occurred a house had to
be hired for the purpc>se, not only of isolating complaints which



76 TIME-HONOURED EANCASTER.



might prove infectious, but in order to ensure quietude, and such
attention as is necessary. Now all that is requisite, attention and
isolation, can be had on the spot, as it were. Scholars attend
this school from all parts oi' Europe, and are prepared for
any university their parents may choose to send them to. As for
languages, native teachers are employed in many cases, and there is
a high character pervading" this institution, and it stands well as a
school wherein special attention is paid to mathematics. Near to
is a good field for athletic and other amusements, and altogether
the academy is a model of kindness, discipline and root principles, as
far as education is concerned.

The sum of ^227 is given away annually, in November,
to pupils of the Grammar School in the manner following : — Three
Victoria scholarships of ^30 per annum, tenable for three years at
Oxford or Cambridge, founded 1859 ; one Storey scholarship oi
,£.50 per annum, tenable for three years at Oxford or Cambridge,
1873; one Blades scholarship of ^.40 per annum for three years,
tenable at Oxford or Cambridge, 1887 ; one Booker scholarship of
about ^32 per annum, tenable for one year at Oxford or Cambridge,
1870 ; the Moon and Wane scholarships of about £(3 were founded
in 1882 ; one Queen's prize, of the value of ,£.15, to a pupil not
proceeding to the university, 1859. In addition to the usual form
and class prizes, the following are awarded annually : The Greg
Gold Medal for mathematics, 1882 ; Bishop Prince Lee's Greek
Testament prize, value ^5, 1856 ; the Whewell divinity prize, value
_£. 1, 1872 ; the Sanderson prize for botany and geology, value ^,5 ;
the Vicar of Lancaster's chemistry prizes ; classical composition
prizes ; Alderman Sir T. Storey's reading and writing prizes ;
essay prizes ; swimming prizes ; gymnasium prizes, value ^.5.
The school vear is divided into three terms. The vacations are :
Four weeks at Christmas, three weeks at Easter, and seven weeks
in the Summer. The Summer vacation generally begins about July
30th. At the end of the summer term an examination is held by
graduates of Oxford or Cambridge in all the subjects oi the school
course. The prizes and scholarships are awarded in accordance



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. 77



with the results of this examination. Examinations at other times
are conducted by the masters of the school. The annual charge for
board and tuition is ^60. This includes tuition in every subject of
the school course except instrumental music, which is charged for
at the rate of two guineas a term. The annual charge for two
brothers is reduced to ^57 each, and for three brothers to ,£.54 each.
A special reduction is also made in the case of very young boys.
Extra charges are as follow (per term) : Obligatory extras — Laund-
ress, 20s; gymnasium, 3s. 6d ; seat in Church, 7s ; school games
subscriptions, 7s. Optional extras — Instruction in carpentry, 10s. 6d ;
rent of study, 14s 21s; swimming bath, ros 6d.

Some Past Masters op the School.

I have endeavoured to secure a list of past masters of our
ancient Grammar School. But very far from satisfactory is the re-
sult of the efforts put forward in this direction. I have referred to
seyeral gentlemen in town likely to haye information, but all to no
purpose. I have examined yarious documents and gone over the
Church Books, perused many mediaeval publications, and the only
outcome of all is the following list :

1 st William Baxterden, priest, 1485.
Thomas Foster, acting in 1622-3.
Thomas Lodge, appointed about 1679.
William Boardlev, acting in 1690-7.
Thomas Holmes.

William Baxterden would probably be the first principal
judging from the will of the Founder, viz. : " Item, I will have a
certain Grammar School within the \ ille of Lancaster, upheld and
maintained at my own proper expenses, and that the grammarian
keeping the said school have yearly six marks (80s.) to be paid out
of the said mill [Newton mill] by the hands of my executors, and
that William Baxterden shall keep the said school during his life,
to wit, so long as he the said William can teach and instinct boys."
That the master was to be a priest is evidenced by the next item,



78 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



in which arrangements are made for the furnishing" of the salary to
be paid "yearly to the said priest and grammarian. The will of
John Gardyner is dated 1472, and the old school is said to ha\'e been
erected in 1485. Query, Was this William Baxterden acting as
school teacher as well as priest in some house or in the Church
vestry at this date, that is prior to the building of the school ?
The conjecture that he was is not un-natural. If officiating in a
house, that house might be the house of John Gardyner, who
appears to have been a " Man of Ross " to our old borough. I
have never come across the name Baxterden in any directory of
modern times, to my recollection, and it may be pardonable to
analyse this name for once, which evidently comes from the old
word beakster, a forest hunter, who carried a pike called a peak,
and from the Celtic dan , British dyn, slope oi~ a hill, or a sunken
and wooded vale, Icelandic equivalent dune. Thomas Foster
appears to have been the father of Thomas Foster one of the seven
gentlemen appointed to report on the site of the new Town Hall in
the 19th of Charles II. 1667. It has been suggested that this
Thomas Foster is one of the Fosters (both are named Thomas),
interred on the North side of the chancel, oue of whom died
December 23rd, 1671, and the other June 22nd, 1675. I cannot
fully accept the suggestion because neither of these Fosters is
marked on the stones as having been a priest or clerk. The name
ffoster, is frequently met with in the older register.

According to "William Stout's Autobiography" a Mr.
Thomas Lodge, a relation of the Stolt family and of the Lodges
of Lancaster who had been Master of the Bolton Grammar School,
became Master of the Lancaster Free School in the year 1679.
Now as to William Boardley. This gentleman may have been
the son of Thomas Boardley or Bordleye, of Skerton, buried,
according to the Register Book of St. Mary's on the 13th of Febru-
ary, 1687. The Boardleys were an old Skerton family. A Mr.
Boardley and the Rev. Thomas Holmes* are mentioned as the

* Curate of Stalmine, 26th October, 1725; Rector of Claughton from 1711 to 1740.



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER 79



local instructors of Dr. Bracken. According to the European
Magazine, for 1804, both gentlemen were masters o\' the Grammar
School, during the doctor's youth. Up to October, 1794 we
have the Rev. J. Watson, succeeded by the Rev. J. Widditt,
who was followed after his resignation by the Rev. Joseph Rowley,
appointed January 22nd, 1802, and who held the office until 1825
when the Rev John Beetham became Master, and remained master
until 1850. Then the Rev. T. Falkner Lee appeared on the scene
retaining the position until 1872 when he was succeeded by the
present worthy principal, the Rev. W. E. Prvke. The Rev. Jas.
Watson died in June 1799 ; the Rev. John Widditt died at
Cockerham, December 20th, 1820, aged 61. The Rev. Joseph
Rowley, sixty-five years incumbent of Stalmine, and the oldest
Freemason in England at the time of his death, was born at Kirk-
burton on the 20th of March, 1773. He died January 3rd, 1864,
aged 90. The Rev. John Beetham died March 13th 1855, aged
65, and lies interred at Melling. Dr. Lee died September 12th,
1875, aged 58. Of ushers or under-masters the following names
occur : — Francis Ashton, who was appointed about the year 1717,
and who retired owing to his age in 1757. An advertisement for
a successor appeared in the Newcastle Journal, and in the same the
salary is put down at ^23 16s. yearly besides perquisites. With
perquisites the amount reached ^30. James Winfied followed,
appointed January 2nd, 1758. Then in 1765 Richard Taylor, who
was unfortunately drowned. On February 17th, 1802, a Mr.
Waterworth was elected usher, and in 1808, a Mr. Kidd became
writing master. The Rev. George Morland was appointed usher
in 1814, holding this post until 1824. This gentleman died October
5th, 1862, aged 71 .

In April, 1790, the Rev. James Watson became perpetual
curate of Wyresdale. He held a prebendal stall in Lincoln Cathedral
prior to 1786. He married on the 5th of July, in the year last named,
a Mrs. Lawson, of Lancaster.

The Rev. George Morland was a native of Ravenstonedale



So TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



He was rich only in a certain amount of learning' and in energy
when he "came to Lancaster, and upon that true searcher after
talent the Rev. Joseph Rowley — finding that he was a young-
man of mettle and an able writer, he was not long ere he became
usher at the Grammar School, and in July, 1817, we find him made
assistant chaplain of Lancaster Castle, he having been librarian to
the Christian Knowledge Society's Lancaster branch from October
16th, 1815.

Of the old masters it may be remarked that the Rev. J.
Widditt seems to have been a great favourite, for he was unani-
mously voted a freeman of the borough, and upon resigning his
preceptorial duties became Vicar of Cockerham. To Dr. Lee's
exertions are due the foundation of the present school's success,
whatever may be said to the contrary. When the rev. gentleman
came in 1850, he found the ancient seminary "a cheerless, damp
building behind St. Mary's Churchyard," and less than a dozen
pupils on the books. By his zeal, tact, and energy he wrought such
a change that the numbers rapidly increased, and at onetime during
his mastership there were 200 pupils. It was in his time that the state-
Iv edifice in East Road was erected, and but for his untiring interest
we doubt if the Royal Patronage and Victoria Scholarships would
have been secured. At any rate what has been so well done in the
past bv this excellent man would perhaps have been even more
difficult to accomplish in later times. Several of the valuable prizes
and scholarships of a local character were first identified with the
Lancaster Grammar School during Dr. Lee's rule. We may con-
clude bv stating that this past principal graduated at Queen's
College, Cambridge, in 1848, and was for two years second master
of the Grammar School at St. Alban's, leaving there for Lancaster
in 1850. He held the living of Christ Church from 1857 until 1872,
when he was offered the rectory of Thorndon, Suffolk. His death
was the result of an apoplectic lit, while on his way from a neigh-
bouring rectory and just as he entered his own parish. The Rev.
Canon Knox- Little was an assistant at the Grammar School in
Dr. Lee's time. ( Sec Biographical Xolice).



TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER. Si

The Rev. W. E. Pryke, M.A., of St. John's
College, Cambridge.

The present headmaster, the Rev. W. E. Pryke, M.A., four-
teenth wrangler, 1866; and late Naden Divinity Student, was a
Foundation Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge, and select
preacher at Cambridge, in 1873 and 1887. There are six resident
and four non-resident Masters. G. A. Stocks, M.A.. late
second master, has been appointed principal of the High School,
Barrow-in-PTirness. The present second Master is T. T. Knowles,
Esq., M.A.

I may add that the will oi' Randall Carter, who left the sum
of ^"io per annum in order to pay for an usher at the Grammar
School, is dated 18th April, 1615. This annual allowance was made
chargeable on tenements, situated in White Cross Street, London.

In the Lancaster Gazette, of January 16th, 1813, this adver-
tisement appears : —

Lancaster Free Grammar School. Gentlemen educated
at the Lancaster Free Grammar School, under the Rev J. Widditt,
will dine at the Eagle and Child, in Cockerham, on Wednesday,
the 13th January, 1813. Dinner at 3 o'clock. Tickets, 10s. 6d
each, to be had at W. Minshull's. It is requested that those
gentlemen who wish to attend will send in their names to the
Gazette office, and take tickets as early as possible.

T. W. Sallsbikv, Esq.,
Lancaster, A. Eidsforth, Esq.,

Dec. 24th, 1812. Stewards.

On the 19th January, 181 3, the Rev. John Widditt married a
Miss Cragg, of Cockerham.

An "Old Free School Boy" writing to the Lancaster
Observer of February 20th, 1891, says : —



82 TIME-HONOURED LANCASTER.



" I was seven years old when I went to the Free School in 1821. We had
to be there from 6 to 8 in the morning in summer, ami at 8 in winter, from 9 to 12
o'clock, and from 2 to 5, and we used to take our own dip candles to finish the
afternoon lessons in winter.

When the judges were sitting, half-a-dozen Free School hoys would stand —
three on each side — at the entrance to the judge's lodgings, and when Judge Bailey
came we took off our hats, and our spokesman said, 'Will your lordship please to
grant the Free School hoys a holiday to go into court to-morrow?" and he always
answered, ' I will send a note to your master.' Accordingly a man in livery brought
a note to the head master, the Rev. Mr. Beetham, who then said ' The judge has kindly
requested a holiday for you.' and ' ( io,' was thundered forth, and no repetition required.
< In Shrove Tuesday it was usual for the boys each to bring a coin to the master,
called 'cock-pennies.' Gentlemen's sons each brought a guinea, and other boys
half-a-crown or a shilling. We thought this custom a remnant of the old cock-fight-
ing days. Also, on this day the master gave two or three book prizes, which were
placed on a low desk called ' the old woman." from the supposition that boys used



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