sakala. The first class are again subdivided into samdpta-
kahishdh and asamdpta-kalushdh, according as their in-
herent corruption is perfectly exhausted or not. The
former, having received the mature penalties of their
corruptions, are now, as foremost of men and worthy of
the privilege, raised by Siva's favour to the rank of the
Lords of Knowledge (the VidyesVaras), Ananta, and the
rest. This ogdoad of the Lords of Knowledge is described
in the Bahudaivatya
" Ananta, and Sukshma, and Sivottama,
" Ekanetra, and again Ekarudra and Trimurttika,
" Srikantha and Sikhandin, these are declared to be
The latter Siva, in his mercy, raises to the rank of the
seventy million Mantras. 1 All this is explained in the
Tattva-prakasa. 2 Similarly Soma-Sambhu has said
"One class is named vijndndkala, the second prala-
"The third sakala, these are the three whom the
Sastra regards as objects of mercy.
" The first is united to mala alone, the second to mala
" The third are united to all the tattvas beginning with
kald and ending with " earth." 3
1 See J. A. 0. S. iv. p. 137. I read vijndna-Tcevala, pralaya-leevala, and
anugrahakarandt in p. 86, line 3. sakala.
2 I omit the quotation, as it only 3 I.e., thus including five of the
repeats the preceding. It, how- vidydtattras and all the twenty-four
ever, names the three classes as dtmatattvas.
122 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
The Pralaydkaldh are also twofold, as being pakvapdsa-
dvaya or not, i.e., those in whom the two remaining fetters
are matured, and those in whom they are not. The
former attain liberation, but the latter, by the power of
Jcarman, are endowed with the puryashtaka 1 body, and
pass through various births. As has been said in the
" Those among the Pralayakalas whose Jcarman and mala
"Go, united with the puryashtaka body, into many
births by the power of barman?
The puryashtakais also thus described in the same work
"The puryashtaka is composed of the internal organ,
thought (dhi), karman, and the instruments."
This is thus explained by Aghora Siva Acharya, " the
puryashtaka is a subtile body apportioned to each indi-
vidual soul, which continues from the creation until the
close of the kalpa, or until liberation : it is composed of
the thirty 2 tattvas beginning with ' earth ' and ending
with kald" As has been said in the Tattva-sangraha
" This set of tattvas, commencing with ' earth ' and end-
ing with kald, is assigned to each soul,
" And wanders by the law of karman through all the
bodies produced by the world."
The following is the full meaning of this passage :
The word " internal organ" which properly includes
"mind," "intelligence," "egoism," and "reason," 3 includes
also the seven tattvas which enter into the production of
enjoyment [or experience], viz., those called kald, time,
fate, knowledge, concupiscence, nature, and quality ; 4 the
1 This term seems to be derived prakriti, and guna. Hoisington, how-
from purl, "body", (cf. purisaya for ever, puts puruslian "the principle
purusha, Brihad Ar. Up. ii. 5, 18), of life," instead of guna, which seems
and ashtaka (cf. also the Sankhya better, as the three yunas are included
Pravachana Bhstshya, p. 135). in prakriti. He translates kald by
2 Or rather thirty-one ? "continency," and describes it as
3 Manas, buddhi, ahamkdra, chitta. " the power by which the senses are
4 These are the seven vidyd tattvas, subdued and the carnal self brought
kald, Mia, niyati ^fate), vidyd, rdga, into subjection."
THE SAIVA-DARSANA. 123
words " thought " (dhi) and karman signify the five cog-
nisable gross elements, and their originators, the subtile
rudiments. By the word " instruments " are comprehended
the ten organs of sense and action.
"But is it not declared in the Srimat Kalottara that
' The set of five, sound, touch, form, taste and smell, in-
telligence, mind and egoism, these constitute the pur-
yashtaka ? ' '
How, then, can any different account be maintained ?
We grant this, and hence the venerable Rama Kantha has
explained that sutra in its literal meaning [i.e, as puryash-
taka, is derived from ashta, " eight "], so why should we
be prolix in the discussion ? Still, if you ask how we can
reconcile our account with the strict nominal definition of
puryaslitaka, we reply that there is really no contradiction,
as we maintain that it is composed of a set of eight in the
following manner: (i.) The five elements; (2.) the five
rudiments ; (3.) the five organs of knowledge ; (4.) those
of action; (5.) the fourfold internal organ; (6.) their in-
strument ; l (7.) nature [prakriti] ; and (8.) the class com-
posed of the five, beginning with kald, which form a kind
of case. 2
Now in the case of some of those souls who are joined
to the puryashtaka body, MahesVara Ananta having com-
passionated them as possessed of peculiar merit, constitutes
them here as lords of the world ; as has been said
" Mahes*vara pities some and grants them to be lords of
The class called sakala is also divided into two, as
pakvakalusha and apakvakalusha. As for the former, the
Supreme Being, in conformity with their maturity (pari-
1 This " instrument " (karana) - The thirty-one tattras are as
seems to mean what Hoisington calls follow : Twenty-four dtma-tattras,
puruslian or "the principle of life five elements, five tanmdtras, ten
which establishes or supports the organs of sense and action, four
whole system in its operation ; " he organs of the antahkarana, and seven
makes it one of the seven vidyd- vidydtattvas as enumerated above.
tottvas. According to Madhava, it (See J. A. O. S. iv. pp. 16-17.)
should be what he calls guna.
124 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
pdka), puts forth a power agreeable thereto, and transfers
them to the position of the hundred and eighteen Lords of
the Mantras, signified by the words Mandali, &c., as has
" The rest are denominated sakala, from their connection
with KalA, &c., seized by time whose mouths are
" The Supreme of his own will makes one hundred and
eighteen of these the Lords of the Mantras.
" Eight of these are called Mandolins ; eight again are
Krodha, &c. ;
" Vire^a, Srikantha, and the hundred Eudras, these
together are the hundred and eighteen."
In their case again, the Supreme, having assumed the
form of a teacher, stops the continued accession of maturity
and contracts his manifested power, and ultimately grants
to them liberation by the process of initiation; as has
"These creatures whose mala is matured, by putting
forth a healing power,
" He, assuming the form of a teacher, unites by initia-
tion to the highest principle."
It is also said in the Srimad Mrigendra
" He removes from that infinitesimal soul all the bonds
which previously exerted a contrary influence over
All this has been explained at great length by Nara-
yana-Kantha, and there it is to be studied; but we are
obliged to pass on through fear of prolixity.
But as for the second class, or those called apakvaka-
lusha, the Supreme Being, as impelled by the desert of
their respective actions, appoints them, as bound and
endued with infinitesimal bodies, to enjoy the rewards of
their previous actions. 2 As has been said
1 I take anu in this verse as the mdyd-mala, the second dnava-mala,
soul, but it may mean the second the third kanma-mala (Icannari).
kind of mala mentioned by Hoising- 2 " The soul, when clothed with
ton. The first kind of mala is the these primary things (desire, know-
THE SAIVA-DARSANA. 125
" The other souls, bound [in their material bonds] he
appoints to enjoy their various deserts,
'According to their respective actions: such are the
various kinds of souls."
We now proceed to describe the third category, matter
(or pdsa). This is fourfold, mala, 1 Jcarman, mdyd, and
rodha-sakti. 1 But it may be objected, " Is it not said in
the Saiva Agamas that the chief things are the Lord, souls,
and matter? Now the Lord has been shown to mean
Siva, ' souls ' mean atoms (or beings endowed with atomic
bodies), and matter (or ' bond ') is said to be the pentad, 2
hence matter will be fivefold. How then is it now
reckoned to be only fourfold ? " To this we reply as
follows : Although the vindu or nasal dot, which is the
germinal atom of mdyd, and is called a Siva-tattva,
may be well regarded as material in comparison with
the highest liberation as defined by the attainment of
the state of Siva, still it cannot really be considered
as matter when we remember that it is a secondary
kind of liberation as causing the attainment of the
state of such deities as VidyesVara, &c. Thus we see
ledge, action, the Icalddipanchaka, developed. From this atom are
&c.), is an exceedingly small body" developed the four sounds, the fifty -
(Foulkes). One of the three malas one Sanskrit letters, the Vedas,
is called dnava, and is described as Mantras, &c., the bodily, intellec-
the source of sin and suffering to tual, and external enjoyments of
souls. the soul that have not attained to
1 The first three are the three spiritual knowledge at the end of
kinds of mala in the J. A. O. S., viz., each period of the world's existence,
dnavam, kanmam, and mdyd, the last and have been swept away by the
is the " obscuring " power of Mdye- waters of the world - destroying
suran (cf. vol. iv. pp. 13, 14. The deluge; after these the three stages
Saivas hold that Pasa, like the San- of heavenly happiness are developed,
khya Prakriti, is in itself eternal, to be enjoyed by the souls that have
although its connection with any a favourable balance of meritorious
particular soul is temporary (see deeds, or have devoted themselves
J. A. O. S. iv. p. 228). to the service of God or the abstract
2 These are the five, vindu, mala, contemplation of the Deity, viz.,
l-arman,mdyd,a,ndrodhasakti. Vindu (i.) the enjoyment of the abode of
is described in Foulkes' translation Siva ; (2.) that of near approach to
of the Siva-prakasa-patalai : "A him; (3.) that of union with him."
sound proceeds out of the mystical Vindu is similarly described, J. A.
syllable om; . . . and in that sound O. y. iv. pp. 152, 153 (cf. also Weber,
a rudimentary atom of matter is Rdmatdpanyia Up. pp. 312-315).
126 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
there is no contradiction. Hence it has been said in the
" The bonds of matter will be fourfold."
And again in the Srimad Mrigendra
" The enveloper-controller (mala), the overpowerer
(rodha), action, and the work of Maya,
" These are the four ' bonds,' and they are collectively
called by the name of ' merit.' "
The following is the meaning of this couplet :
(i.) "Enveloping," because mala exceedingly obscures
and veils the soul's powers of vision and action ; " con-
trolling," because mala, a natural impurity, controls the
soul by its independent influence. As has been said
"Mala, though itself one, by manifold influence inter-
rupts the soul's vision and action ;
"It is to be regarded as the husk in rice or rust on copper." 1
(2.) The " overpowerer " is the obscuring power ; this is
called a " bond " [or matter] in a metaphorical sense, since
this energy of Siva obscures the soul by superintending
matter [rather than by itself partaking of the nature of
Thus it has been said
" Of these I am the chief energy, and the gracious friend
" I am metaphorically called pdsa? because I follow
(3.) Action [or rather its consequences, Jcarmari] as
being performed by those who desire the fruit. It is in
the form of merit or demerit, like the seed and shoot, and
it is eternal in a never-beginning series. As has been
said in the Srimat Kirana
" As Mala has no beginning, its least actions are begin-
" If an eternal character is thus established, then what
cause could produce any change therein ? "
1 See the same illustrations in J. A. O. S. iv. p. 150.
* Some forced derivation seems here intended as of pdsa from pasckdt.
THE SAIVA-DARSANA. 127
(4.) " Mdyd" because herein as an energy of the Divine
Being all the world is potentially contained (mdti) at a
mundane destruction, and again at a creation it all comes
(ydti) into manifestation, hence the derivation of the
name. This has been said in the Srimat Saurabheya
" The effects, as a form of the Divine energy, are absorbed
therein at a mundane destruction,
" And again at a renovation it is manifested anew in the
form of effects as kald, &c." a
Although much more might be added on this topic, yet
we stop here through fear of extending this treatise too
far. Thus have the three categories been declared, the
Lord, the soul, and matter.
A different mode of treating the subject is found in the
Jnanaratnavali, &c., in such lines as
" The Lord, knowledge, ignorance, the soul, matter, and
"Of the cessation thereof, these are collectively the
But our readers must seek for full information from the
work itself. Thus our account of the system is complete.
E. B. C.
1 In p. 90, line 2, read sd Mryena.
( 128 )
THE PRATYABHIJNA-DARSANA, OR RECOGNITIVE SYSTEM.
OTHER MahesVaras are dissatisfied with the views set out
in the Saiva system as erroneous in attributing to motive-
less and insentient things causality (in regard to the bond-
age and liberation of transmigrating spirits). They there-
fore seek another system, and proclaim that the construction
of the world (or series of environments of those spirits) is
by the mere will of the Supreme Lord. They pronounce
that this Supreme Lord, who is at once other than and the
same with the several cognitions and cognita, who is
identical with the transcendent self posited by one's own
consciousness, by rational proof, and by revelation, and
who possesses independence, that is, the power of witness-
ing all things without reference to aught ulterior, gives
manifestation, in the mirror of one's own soul, to all
entities l as if they were images reflected upon it. Thus
looking upon recognition as a new method for the attain-
ment of ends and of the highest end, available to all men
alike, without any the slightest trouble and exertion, such
as external and internal worship, suppression of the breath,
and the like, these MahesVaras set forth the system of
recognition (pratyabhijnd}. The extent of this system is
thus described by one of their authorities
"The aphorisms, the commentary, the gloss, the two
explications, the greater and the less,
1 Read bhdvdn for bhdvdt.
THE PRATYABHIJNA-DARSANA. 129
"The five topics, and the expositions, such is the
system of recognition."
The first aphorism in their text-book is as follows l :
" Having reached somehow or other the condition of a
slave of MahesVara, and wishing also to help man-
" I set forth the recognition of MahesVara, as the method
of attaining all felicity."
[This aphorism may be developed as follows] :
" Somehow or other," by a propitiation, effected by God,
of the lotus feet of a spiritual director identical with God,
"having reached," having fully attained, this condition, hav-
ing made it the unintercepted object of fruition to myself.
Thus knowing that which has to be known, he is qualified
to construct a system for others: otherwise the system
would be a mere imposture.
Mahesvara is the reality of unmtermitted self-luminous-
ness, beatitude, and independence, by portions of whose
divine essence Vishnu, Virinchi, and other deities are
deities, who, though they transcend the fictitious world,
are yet implicated in the infinite illusion.
The condition of being a slave to Mahes"vara is the being
a recipient of that independence or absoluteness which is
the essence of the divine nature, a slave being one to
whom his lord grants all things according to his will and
pleasure (i.e., ddsya, from da).
The word mankind imports that there is no restriction
of the doctrine to previously qualified students. Whoever
he may be to whom this exposition of the divine nature is
made, he reaps its highest reward, the ema.ns.toT'y principium
itself operating to the highest end of the transmigrating
souls. It has been accordingly laid down in the Siva-
drishti by that supreme guide the revered Somananda-
" When once the nature of Siva that resides in all things
1 Cf. supra, p. 113. Madhava in the beginning of the eleventh
here condenses Abhinava Gupta's century (see Biihler's Tour in Cash-
commentary. Abhinava Gupta lived mere, pp. 66, 80 .
130 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
has been known with tenacious recognition, whether
by proof or by instruction in the words of a spiritual
"There is no further need of doing aught, or of any
further reflection. When he knows Suvarna (or
Siva) a man may cease to act and to reflect."
The word also excludes the supposition that there is
room in self which has recognised the nature of MahesVara,
and which manifests to itself its own identity with him,
and is therefore fully satisfied, for any other motive than
felicity for others. The well-being of others is a motive,
whatever may be said, for the definition of a motive applies
to it : for there is no such divine curse laid upon man that
self-regard should be his sole motive to the exclusion of a
regard for others. Thus: Akshapada (i. 24) defines a motive :
A motive is that object towards which a man energises.
The preposition upa in upapddayami (I set forth) in-
dicates proximity : the result is the bringing of mankind
near unto God.
Hence the word all in the phrase the method of attaining
all felicities. For when the nature of the Supreme Being
is attained, all felicities, which are but the efflux thereof,
are overtaken, as if a man acquired the mountain Eohana
(Adam's Peak), he would acquire all the treasures it con-
tains. If a man acquire the divine nature, what else is
there that he can ask for? Accordingly Utpalacharya
" What more can they ask who are rich in the wealth
of devotion ? What else can they ask who are
poor in this ? "
We have thus explained the motive expressed in the
words the method of attaining all felicities, on the supposi-
tion that the compound term is a Tat-purusha genitively
constructed. Let it be taken as a Bahuvrihi or relative
compound. Then the recognition of MahesVara, the know-
ing him through vicarious idols, has for its motive the full
attainment the manifestation, of all felicities, of every
THE PRATYABHIJNA-DARSANA. 131
external and internal permanent happiness in their proper
nature. In the language of everyday life, recognition is
a cognition relative to an object represented in memory :
for example, This (perceived) is the same (as the remem-
bered) Chaitra. In the recognition propounded in this
system, there being a God whose omnipotence is learnt
from the accredited legendaries, from accepted revelation,
and from argumentation, there arises in relation to my
presented personal self the cognition that I am that very
God, in virtue of my recollection of the powers of that
This same recognition I set forth. To set forth is to
enforce. I establish this recognition by a stringent pro-
cess which renders it convincing. [Such is the articulate
development of the first aphorism of the Eecognitive
Here it may be asked: If soul is manifested only as
consubstantial with God, why this laboured effort to
exhibit the recognition ? The answer is this : The recog-
nition is thus exhibited, because though the soul is, as
you contend, continually manifested as self-luminous (and
therefore identical with God), it is nevertheless under
the influence of the cosmothetic illusion manifested as
partial, and therefore the recognition must be exhibited
by an expansion of the cognitive and active powers -in
order to achieve the manifestation of the soul as total
(the self being to the natural man a part, to the man of
insight the whole, of the divine pleroma). Thus, then, the
syllogism: This self must be God, because it possesses
cognitive and active powers ; for so far forth as any one
is cognitive and active, to that extent he is a lord, like a
lord in the world of everyday life, or like a king, therefore
the soul is God. The five-membered syllogism is here
employed, because so long as we deal with the illusory
order of things, the teaching of the Xaiyayikas may be
accepted. It has thus been said by the son of Udayakara
" What self-luminous self can affirm or deny that self-
132 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
active and cognitive is Mahesvara the primal
"Such recognition must be effected by an expansion of
the powers, the self being cognised under illusion,
and imperfectly discerned."
" The continuance of all living creatures in this trans-
migratory world lasts as long as their respiratory
involucrum ; knowledge and action are accounted
the life of living creatures.
" Of these, knowledge is spontaneously developed, and
action (or ritual), which is best at Ka^i,
"Is indicated by others also: different from these is
" The knowledge of these things follows the sequence
of those things :
" The knower, whose essence is beatitude and knowledge
without succession, is MahesVara."
Somananda-natha also says
" He always knows by identity with Siva : he always
knows by identity with the real."
Again at the end of the section on knowledge
"Unless there were this unity with Siva, cognitions
could not exist as facts of daily life :
" Unity with God is proved by the unity of light. He
is the one knower (or illuminator of cognitions).
"He is MahesVara, the great Lord, by reason of the
unbroken continuity of objects :
" Pure knowledge and action are the playful activity of
The following is an explanation of Abhinava-gupta :
The text, " After that as it shines shines the all of things,
by the light of that shines diversely this ALL," teaches
that God illumines the whole round of things by the
glory of His luminous intelligence, and that the diverr
sity or plurality of the object world, whereby the light
THE PRATYABHIJNA-DARSANA. 133
which irradiates objects is a blue, a yellow light, and the
like, arises from diversity of tint cast upon the light by the
object. In reality, God is without plurality or difference,
as transcending all limitations of space, time, and figure.
He is pure intelligence, self-luminousness, the manifester ;
and thus we may read in the Saiva aphorisms, " Self is
intelligence." His synonymous titles are Intelligential
Essence, Unintermitted Cognition, Irrespective Intuition,
Existence as a mass of Beatitude, Supreme Domination.
This self-same existing self is knowledge.
By pure knowledge and action (in the passage of Soma-
nandanatha cited above) are meant real or transcendent
cognition and activity. Of these, the cognition is self-
luminousness, the activity is energy constructive of the
world or series of spheres of transmigratory experience.
This is described in the section on activity
"He by his power of bliss gives light unto these objects,
through the efficacy of his will : this activity is
And at the close of the same section
" The mere will of God, when he wills to become the
world under its forms of jar, of cloth, and other
objects, is his activity worked out by motive and
" This process of essence into emanation, whereby if this
be that comes to be, cannot be attributed to motive-
less, insentient things."
According to these principles, causality not pertaining
either to the insentient or to the non-divine intelligence,
the mere will of MahesVara, the absolute Lord, when he
wills to emanate into thousands of forms, as this or that
difference, this or that action, this or that modification of
entity, of birth, continuance, and the like, in the series of
transmigratory environments, his mere will is his pro-
gressively higher and higher activity, that is to say, his
134 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
How he creates the world by his will alone is clearly
exhibited in the following illustration
" The tree or jar produced by the mere will of thau-
maturgists, without clay, without seed, continues
to serve its proper purpose as tree or jar."
If clay and similar materials were really the substantial
cause of the jar and the rest, how could they be produced
by the mere volition of the thaumaturgist ? If you say :
Some jars and some plants are made of clay, and spring