est," Livy, xlii. 44 ; " Animal hoc
262 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
significant in its parts by being analysed etymologically as
Jcugam + ldti, " one who gathers ku6a grass for the sacrifice,"
is here employed to mean "expert " through the relation of
a similarity in character, as both are persons of discern-
ment; and this does not need a motive any more than
Denotation does, since each is the using a word in its recog-
nised conventional sense in accordance with the immemorial
tradition of the elders. Hence it has been said
" Some instances of ' indication ' are known by notoriety
from their immediate significance, just as is the
case in ' denotation ' [the primary power of a
Therefore indication based on notoriety has no regard
to any motive. Although a word, when it is employed,
first establishes its principal meaning, and then by that
meaning a second meaning is subsequently indicated, and
so indication belongs properly to the principal meaning and
not to the word ; still, since it is superadded to the word
which originally established the primary meaning, it is
called [improperly by metonymy] a function of the word.
It was with a view to this that the author of the Kavya-
praka^a used the expression, " This is ' Indication,' the
superadded function of the word." But the indication based
on a motive is of six kinds : I. inclusive indication, 1 as
" the lances enter " [where we really mean " men with the
lances "] ; 2. indicative indication, as " the benches shout "
[where the spectators are meant without the benches] ; 3.
qualified z superimponent indication, as " the man of the
Panjab is an ox " [here the object is not swallowed up in
the simile]; 4. qualified introsusceptive indication, as
" that ox " [here the man is swallowed up in the simile] ;
5. pure superimponent indication, as " ghi is life ;" 6. pure
1 I have borrowed these terms from his stupidity ; pure indication
from Ballantyne ! s translation of the from any other relation, as cause and
Sdhitya-darpana. effect, &c., thus butter is the cause of
2 Qualified indication arises from longevity,
likeness, as the man is like an ox
THE PATANJALI-DARSANA. 263
introsusceptive indication, as " verily this is life." This
has been all explained in the Kavya-prakasa [ii. 10-12].
But enough of this churning of the depths of rhetorical
This yoga has been declared to have eight things ancillary
to it (anga) ; these are the forbearances, religious observ-
ances, postures, suppression of the breath, restraint, atten-
tion, contemplation, and meditation [ii. 29]. Patanjali
says, " Forbearance consists in not wishing to kill, veracity,
not stealing, continence, not coveting " [ii. 30]. " Eeligious
observances are purifications, contentment, mortification,
recitation of texts, and resignation to the Lord" [ii.
32] ; and these are described in the Vishnu Purana [vi. 7,
"The sage who brings his mind into a fit state for
attaining Brahman, practises, void of all desire,
" Continence, abstinence from injury, truth, non-steal-
ing, and non-coveting ;
" Self-controlled, he should practise recitation of texts,
purification, contentment, and austerity,
"And then he should make his mind intent on the
" These are respectively called the five ' forbearances '
and the five ' religious observances ; '
"They bestow excellent rewards when done through
desire of reward, and eternal liberation to those
void of desire."
" A ' posture ' is what is steady and pleasant " [ii. 46] ;
it is of ten kinds, as the padma, bhadra, vira, swastika,
dandaka, sopasraya, paryanka, krauftchanishadana, ushtra-
nishadana, samasamsthdna. Yajnavalkya has described
each of them in the passage which commences
" Let him hold fast his two great toes with his two
hands, but in reverse order,
" Having placed the soles of his feet, chief of Brah-
mans, on his thighs ;
" This will be the padma posture, held in honour by all."
264 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
The descriptions of the others must be sought in that
work. When this steadiness of posture has been attained,
" regulation of the breath " is practised, and this consists
in " a cutting short of the motion of inspiration and ex-
piration " [ii. 49]. Inspiration is the drawing in of the
external air ; expiration is the expelling of the air within
the body ; and " regulation of the breath " is the cessa-
tion of activity in both movements. " But [it may be
objected] this cannot be accepted as a general definition
of ' regulation of breath,' since it fails to apply to the
special kinds, as rechaJca, ptiraka, and kunibhaka." We
reply that there is here no fault in the definition, since the
" cutting short of the motion of inspiration and expira-
tion " is found in all these special kinds. Thus rechaka,
which is the expulsion of the air within the body, is
only that regulation of the breath, which has been men-
tioned before as " expiration ; " and puraJca, which is
the [regulated] retention of the external air within the
body, is the " inspiration ; " and kumbhaJea is the internal
suspension of breathing, when the vital air, called prdna,
remains motionless like water in a jar (Jcumbhci). Thus
the " cutting short of the motion of inspiration and ex-
piration " applies to all, and consequently the objector's
doubt is needless.
Now this air, beginning from sunrise, remains two
ghatikds and a half * in each artery 2 (nddi), like the re-
volving buckets on a waterwheel. 3 Thus in the course
of a day and night there are produced 21,600 inspirations
i I.e., an hour, a gkatikd being tras repeated with the offerings to
twenty-four minutes. the seasons, is discussed. " The
- The nddis or tubular vessels are seasons never stand still ; following
generally reckoned to be 101, with each other in order one by one, as
ten principal ones ; others make spring, summer, the rains, autumn,
sixteen principal nddis. They seem the -cold and the foggy seasons, each
taken afterwards in pairs. consisting of two months, and so
3 Madhava uses the same illus- constituting the year of twelve
tration in his commentary on the months, they continue revolving
passage in the Aitareya Brahmana again and again like a waterwheel
(iii. 29), where the relation of the (yhatiyantravat) ; hence the seasons
vital airs, the seasons, and the man- never pause in their course."
THE PATANJALI-DARSANA. 265
and expirations. Hence it has been said by those who
know the secret of transmitting the mantras, concerning
the transmission of the ajapdmantra l
" Six hundred to GanesX six thousand to the self-
" Six thousand to Vishnu, six thousand to Siva,
" One thousand to the Guru (Brihaspati), one thousand
to the Supreme Soul,
" And one thousand to the soul : thus I make over the
So at the time of the passing of the air through the
arteries, the elements, earth, &c., must be understood,
according to their different colours, by those who wish to
obtain the highest good. This has been thus explained
by the wise
" Let each artery convey the air two ghatis and a half
" There is a continual resemblance of the two arteries 2
to the buckets on a revolving waterwheeL
" Nine hundred inspirations and expirations of the air
take place [in the hour],
" And all combined produce the total of twenty-one
thousand six hundred in a day and night.
" The time that is spent in uttering thirty -six guna
" That time elapses while the air passes along in the
interval between two arteries.
" There are five elements in each of the two conduct-
1 This refers to a peculiar tenet of 3 I cannot explain this. We
Hindu mysticism, that each invo- might read yuruvarndndm for guna-
luntary inspiration and expiration varndndm, as the time spent in
constitutes a mantra, as their sound uttering a guruvarna is a vipala,
expresses the word so'ham (i. e., sixty of which make a pala, and two
hamsah), "I am he." This mantra and a half polos make a minute ; but
is repeated 21,600 times in every this seems inconsistent with the other
twenty-four hours ; it is called the numerical details. The whole pas-
ajapdmantra, i.e., the mantra uttered sage may be compared with the
without voluntary muttering. opening of the fifth act of the Mala*
2 I.e., that which conveys the in- timddhava.
haled and the exhaled breath.
266 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
" They bear it along day and night ; these are to be
known by the self-restrained.
" Fire bears above, water below ; air moves across ;
" Earth in the half-hollow ; ether moves everywhere.
" They bear along in order, air, fire, water, earth, ether;
" This is to be known in its due order in the two con-
" The palcts l of earth are fifty, of water forty,
" Of fire thirty, of air twenty, of ether ten.
" This is the amount of time taken for the bearing ; but
the reason that the two arteries are so disturbed
" Is that earth has five properties, 2 water four,
" Fire has three, air two, and ether one.
" There are ten palas for each property ; hence earth has
" And each, from water downwards, loses successively.
Now the five properties of earth
" Are odour, savour, colour, tangibility, and audibleness ;
and these decrease one by one.
"The two elements, earth and water, produce their
fruit by the influence of ' quiet,'
" But fire, air, and ether by the influence of ' brightness/
' restlessness,' and ' immensity.' 3
" The characteristic signs of earth, water, fire, air, and
ether are now declared ;
" Of the first steadfastness of mind ; through the cold-
ness of the second arises desire;
" From the third anger and grief ; from the fourth
fickleness of mind ;
" From the fifth the absence of any object, or mental
impressions of latent merit.
" Let the devotee place his thumbs in his ears, and a
middle finger in each nostril,
1 Sixty palas make a ghatikd 2 Cf. Colebrooke's Essays, vol. i.
(50 + 40 4- 30 + 20 + 10 = 150, i.e., p. 256.
the palas in two and a half gJiatikds 3 Literally "the being ever more."'
3r one hour).
THE PATANJALI-DARSANA. 267
"And the little finger and the one next to it in the
corners of his mouth, and the two remaining fingers
in the corners of his eyes,
" Then there will arise in due order the knowledge of
the earth and the other elements within him,
'The first four by yellow, white, dark red, and dark
blue spots, 1 the ether has no symbol."
When the element air is thus comprehended and its
restraint is accomplished, the evil influence of works
which concealed discriminating knowledge is destroyed
[ii. 52]; hence it has been said
"There is no austerity superior to regulation of the
" As the dross of metals, when they are melted, is con-
" So the serpents of the senses are consumed by regu-
lation of the breath." 3
Now in this way, having his mind purified by the " for-
bearances" and the other things subservient to concen-
tration, the devotee is to attain "self-mastery" (samyama) 4
and " restraint " (pratydhdra). " Eestraint " is the accom-
modation of the senses, as the eye, &c., to the nature of the
mind, 5 which is intent on the soul's unaltered nature, while
they abandon all concernment with their own several ob-
jects, which might excite desire or anger or stupid indiffer-
ence. This is expressed by the etymology of the word; the
senses are drawn to it (d + hri), away from them (pratipd).
" But is it not the mind which is then intent upon the
soul and not the senses, since these are only adapted for
external objects, and therefore have no power for this
supposed action ? How, therefore, could they be accommo-
1 For these colours cf. Chhdndogya 4 This is defined in the Yoga Sut.,
Up., viii. 6; Maitri Up., vi. 30. iii. 4, as consisting of the united
2 This is an anonymous quotation operation towards one object of con-
in Vyasa's Comm. templation, attention, and medita-
s This seems a variation of Sloka tion.
7 of the Amrita - ndda Up. See 5 I.e., the internal organ (chitta).
Weber, Indisclie Stud., ix. 26.
268 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
dated to the nature of the mind ? " What you say is quite
true ; and therefore the author of the aphorisms, having
an eye to their want of power for this, introduced the
words "as it were," to express " resemblance." " Eestraint
is, as it were, the accommodation of the senses to the
nature of the mind in the absence of concernment with
each one's own object" [ii. 54]. Their absence of con-
cernment with their several objects for the sake of being
accommodated to the nature of the mind is this " resem-
blance" which we mean. Since, when the mind is re-
strained, the eye, &c., are restrained, no fresh effort is to
be expected from them, and they follow the mind as bees
follow their king. This has been declared in the Vishnu-
purana [vi. 7, 43, 44]
" Let the devotee, restraining his organs of sense, which
ever tend to pursue external objects,
" Himself intent on restraint, make them conformable
to the mind ;
" By this is effected the entire subjugation of the un-
steady senses ;
" If they are not controlled, the yogin will not accom-
plish his yoga." l
"Attention" (dhdranti) is the fixing the mind, by with-
drawing it from all other objects, on some place, whether
connected with the internal self, as the circle of the
navel, the lotus of the heart, the top of the sushumnd
artery, &c., or something external, as Prajapati, Vasava,
Hiranyagarbha, &c. This is declared by the aphorism,
"'Attention' is the fixing the mind on a place" [iii. l];
and so, too, say the followers of the Puranas
" By regulation of breath having controlled the air, and
by restraint the senses,
" Let him next make the perfect asylum the dwelling-
place of his mind." 2
i This couplet is corrupt in the - Vishnu-pur., vi. 7, 45, with one
text. I follow the reading of the or two variations. The " perfect
Bombay edition of the Purdna (only asylum " is Brahman, formless or
reading in line 3 chaldtmanAm). possessing form.
THE PATANJALI-DARSANA. 269
The continual flow of thought in this place, resting ou
the object to be contemplated, and avoiding all incon-
gruous thoughts, is " contemplation " (dliydnd) ; thus it
is said, " A course of uniform thought there, is ' contem-
plation ' " [iii. 2]. Others also have said
" A continued succession of thoughts, intent on objects
of that kind and desiring no other,
" This is ' contemplation,' it is thus effected by the
first six of the ancillary things."
We incidentally, in elucidating something else, dis-
cussed the remaining eighth ancillary thing, " meditation "
(samddhi, see p. 243). By this practice of the ancillary
means of yoga, pursued for a long time with uninterrupted
earnestness, the " afflictions " which hinder meditation are
abolished, and through " exercise " and " dispassion " the
devotee attains to the perfections designated by the names
Madhumati and the rest.
" But why do you needlessly frighten us with unknown
and monstrous words from the dialects of Karnata,
Gauda, 1 and Lata ? " 2 We do not want to frighten you,
but rather to gratify you by explaining the meaning of
these strange words; therefore let the reader who is so
needlessly alarmed listen to us with attention.
i. The Madhumati perfection, this is the perfection of
meditation, called " the knowledge which holds to the
truth," consisting in the illumination of unsullied purity
by means of the contemplation of " goodness," composed of
the manifestation of joy, with every trace of " passion " or
" darkness " abolished by " exercise," " dispassion," &c.
Thus it is said in the aphorisms, " In that case there is
the knowledge which holds to the truth " [i. 48]. It holds
" to the truth," i.e., to the real ; it is never overshadowed
by error. " In that case," i.e., when firmly established, there
arises this knowledge to the second yogin. For the yogins
1 The old name for the central and part of Guzerat ; it-is the Aapiic^
part of Bengal. of Ptolemy.
2 A country comprising Khandesh
2 ;o THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
or devotees to the practice of yoga are well known to be
of four kinds, viz.,
i. The prdthamakalpika, in whom the light has just
entered, 1 but, as it has been said, " he has not won the light
which consists in the power of knowing another's thoughts,
&c.;" 2. The madhubhumika, who possesses the knowledge
which holds to the truth ; 3. The prajndjyotis, who has
subdued the elements and the senses ; 4. The atikrdnta-
Widvaniya, who has attained the highest dispassion.
ii. The Madhupratika perfections are swiftness like
thought, &c. These are declared to be " swiftness like
thought, the being without organs, and the conquest of
nature" [iii. 49]. "Swiftness like thought" is the attain-
ment by the body of exceeding swiftness of motion, like
thought ; " the being without bodily organs " 2 is the attain-
ment by the senses, irrespective of the body, of powers
directed to objects in any desired place or time ; " the con-
quest of nature " is the power of controlling all the mani-
festations of nature. These perfections appear to the full
in the third kind of yogin, from the subjugation by him of
the five senses and their essential conditions. 3 These per-
fections are severally sweet, each one by itself, as even a
particle of honey is sweet, and therefore the second state
is called Madhupi^atikd [i.e., that whose parts are sweet],
iii. The Visokd perfection consists in the supremacy
over all existences, &c. This is said in the aphorisms,
"To him who possesses, to the exclusion of all other ideas,
the discriminative knowledge of the quality of goodness
and the soul, arises omniscience and the supremacy over
all existences " [iii. 50]. The " supremacy over all ex-
istences " is the overcoming like a master all entities, as
these are but the developments of the quality of "good-
ness " in the mind [the other qualities of " passion " and
1 In p. 178, 1. 2, infra, read pra- aspati explains it as " videhanam in-
vritta for pravritti. Cf. Yoga S., driydn&m karanabhdvah."
iii. 5 2 i Q Bhoja's Comm. (50 in '* Vyasa has karanapanchakariipa-
Vydsa's Comm. ) j<*ya> ', Vachaspati explains nipa by
* Read vikaranabhdvah ; Vach- grahanddi (cf. iii. 47^.
THE PATANJALLDARSANA. 271
"darkness" being already abolished], and exist only in
the form of energy and the objects to be energised upon. 1
The discriminative knowledge of them, as existing in the
modes " subsided," " emerged," or " not to be named," 2 is
" omniscience." This is said in the aphorisms [i. 36], " Or
a luminous immediate cognition, free from sorrow 3 [may
produce steadiness of mind]."
iv. The Samskdraseshatd state is also called asamprajndta,
i.e., " that meditation in which distinct recognition of an
object is lost;" it is that meditation " without a seed" [i.e.,
without any object] which is able to stop the " afflictions"
that produce fruits to be afterwards experienced in the
shape of rank, length of life, and enjoyment; and this
meditation belongs to him who, in the cessation of all
modifications of the internal organ, has reached the highest
" dispassion." " The other kind of meditation [i.e., that
in which distinct recognition of an object is lost] is pre-
ceded by that exercise of thought which produces the en-
tire cessation of modifications ; it has nothing left but the
latent impressions " [of thought after the departure of all ob-
jects] [i.e., samsJcdrasesha, i. 1 8]. Thus this foremost of men,
being utterly passionless towards everything, finds that the
seeds of the "afflictions," like burned rice-grains, are bereft
of the power to germinate, and they are abolished together
with the internal organ. When these are destroyed, there
ensues, through the full maturity of his unclouded " discri-
minative knowledge," an absorption of all causes and effects
into the primal prahriti ; and the soul, which is the power
of pure intelligence, abiding in its own real nature, and
escaped from all connection with the phenomenal under-
standing (buddhi), or with existence, reaches "absolute
isolation" (kaivalya). Final liberation is described by Patan-
jali as two perfections : " Absolute isolation is the repressive
absorption 4 of the 'qualities' which have consummated
1 I read in p. 179, 1. n, vyava- 3 VisoJcd.
sdyavyavaseydtmakdndm, from Vya- * This is explained by Vachaspati,
sa's Comm. " The latent impressions produced
2 I.e., as past, present, or future. by the states of the internal organ
272 THE SARVA-DARSANA-SANGRAHA.
the ends of the soul, i.e., enjoyment and liberation, or the
abiding of the power of intelligence in its own nature "
[iv. 33]. Nor should any one object, "Why, however,
should not the individual be born again even though this
should have been attained ? " for that is settled by the
well-known principle that " with the cessation of the
cause the effect ceases," and therefore this objection is
utterly irrelevant, as admitting neither inquiry nor de-
cision ; for otherwise, if the effect could arise even in the
absence of the cause, we should have blind men finding
jewels, and such like absurdities ; and the popular proverb
for the impossible would become a possibility. And so,
too, says the Sruti, "A blind man found a jewel; one
without fingers seized it ; one without a neck put it on ;
and a dumb man praised it." J
Thus we see that, like the authoritative treatises on
medicine, the Yoga-s'astra consists of four divisions; as
those on medicine treat of disease, its cause, health, and
medicine, so the Yoga-sastra also treats of phenomenal
existence, its cause, liberation, and its cause. This exist-
ence of ours, full of pain, is what is to be escaped from ;
the connection of nature and the soul is the cause of our
having to experience this existence ; the absolute abolition
of this connection is the escape ; and right insight is the
cause thereof. 2 The same fourfold division is to be similarly
traced as the case may be in other Sastras also. Thus all
has been made clear.
called vyutthdna (when it is chiefly ment of these ' qualities ' when one
characterised by ' activity, ' or ' dark- or another becomes predominant,
ness,' iii. 9) and nirodha (when it is 1 This curious passage occurs in
chiefly characterised by the quality the Taittiriya - Aranyaka i. 1 1, 5.
of 'goodness'), are absorbed in the Mddhava in his Comment, there
internal organ itself ; this in 'egoism' explains it of the soul, and quotes
(asmita) ; 'egoism' in the 'merely the^veta\sv. Up. , iii. 19. Mddhava
once resolvable ' (i.e., buddhi) ; and here takes avindat as " he pierced
buddhi into the 'irresolvable' (i.e., the jewel," but I have followed his
prakriti)." Pralcriti consists of the correct explanation in the Comm.
three 'qualities' in equilibrium ; and 2 This is taken from Vdchaspati's
the entire creation, consisting of Comm. on Yoga S. ii. 15. Cf. the
causes and effects, is the develop- " four truths " of Buddhism.
THE PATANJALI-DARSANA. 273
The system of Sankara, which comes next in succession,
and which is the crest-gem of all systems, has been ex-
plained by us elsewhere ; it is therefore left untouched
here. 1 E. B. C.
NOTE ON THE YOGA.
There is an interesting description of the Yogins on the Mountain
Raivataka in Magha (iv. 55).
" There the votaries of meditation, well skilled in benevolence
(maitrfy and those other purifiers of the mind, having successfully
abolished the * afflictions ' and obtained the ' meditation possessed
of a seed,' and having reached that knowledge which recognises
the essential difference between the quality Goodness and the Soul,
desire yet further to repress even this ultimate meditation."
It is curious to notice that maitri, which plays such a prominent
part in Buddhism, is counted in the Yoga as only a preliminary
condition from which the votary is to take, as it were, his first start
towards his final goal. It is called a parikarman ( =prasddhaka) in
Vyasa's Comtn. i. 33 (cf. iii. 22), whence the term is borrowed by
Magha. Bhoja expressly says that this purifying process is an
external one, and not an intimate portion of yoga itself ; just as in
arithmetic the operations of addition, &c., are valuable, not in them-
selves, but as aids in effecting the more important calculations which
arise subsequently. The Yoga seems directly to allude to Buddhism
in this marked depreciation of its cardinal virtue.