century, Samuel English and Joseph English, his
grandchildren, and John Umpee, his nephew, claiming
to be his heirs, made a fresh demand, and an elaborate
deed of release to the lands of Bradford was executed
by them in 1701 to John Tenny, Philip Atwood and
John Bointon, for themselves and the other freeholders
and proprietors of Bradford. The consideration was
£6 12s. The deed was attested by Nathaniel Salton-
stall and Dudley Bradstreet, the magistrates of
Haverhill and Andover, respectively, and was duly
The first committee upon roads in Bradford were
Sergeant John Gage, Joseph Pike and John Grifiin ;
but no labor was expended or money raised for
roads till long after this date. Although the Brad-
ford people had so many ties connecting them with
the mother town, the road from Haverhill to Rowley
was not laid out till 1680. It was eight rods wide.
But before there had been paths. At that early day
every man wanted his own road, " to mill, to market
and to meeting. "
Every town had its mark assigned to it in the early
day when cattle roamed at will, in the woods and over
the commons. That of Bradford was a bow and arrow,
the arrow penetrating the heart.
The first vote of the town upon schools, that is re-
corded was in 1701, when the selectmen were ordered
to provide a school, according to theii; discretion, and
to assess the town for the expense of the same. The
next year it was voted that those who sent children
to school should pay two pence a week for those who
learned to read, and four pence for those who learned
to write, the additional expense to be paid by the
town. The person's name who then kept was
Ichabod. Did Washington Irving borrow his
Ichabod Crane from the Bradford town records ? The
next school-master was Master White, who began in
1723, and received £24 lOs. per year. His successor
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
was one Hobey, who was followed by a Mr. Merrel.
All these persons kept through the year, most of them
for several years each. Dr. Perry thinks they were
well qualified for school-keeping. But the master,
without doubt, passed from one neighborhood to
The following is a copy of one of the town votes on
the subject of education : " March 24, 1710. The town
(led then Impoure the Selectmen to imply wemen to
teach letel children to read."
The first school-house was built on the meeting-
house lot, twenty-two feet long, eighteen feet wide,
seven feet posts, to cost twenty-five pounds. The
building committee were Jonathan Woodman, Ser-
geant Robert Haseltine and Nathaniel Walker. All
sorts of structures were put up on the meeting-house
lot. There was at least one "nooning-house"' built,
where the people could warm themselves in the noon
intermission and eat the food they had brought with
In 1820 there were seven school-houses in six
districts, in which were kept twenty-four months of
school annually by men ; in summer, good provision
w.as made for the instruction of small children.
May 20, 1754, the town voted " to ye school-master,
for four months .sarvice, £8 17s. 9rf." " To Samuel
Webster, for boarding saidschool-m;isterone-third part
of year, £4 10«. 8rf." That was probably the allowance
of men's instruction for one portion of the town.
September 19, 1754, " voted to pay Master Eames
for keeping school one-third part of last year,
" Voted that forty pounds be raised for the school-
master and his board."
" March 15, 1757, voted that the East Parish have
five months' schooling in twelve for ye time being."
" March 16, 1761, voted to erect a school-house in
ye centre of the town, as shall be found in ye follow-
ing manner, viz. ; from Newbury line to Andover
line, and from Abraham Gage's to Samuel Hale's,
and for money as shall be cast on the last town rate,
and the vote passed in the affirmative."
"Voted that £13 6s. 8d. be raised to defray the
charge of said building, £13 6s. 8d." " Voted that
Lieutenant Thomas Kimball, Lieutenant Nathaniel
Parker and William Easman be a committee to find
and prefix a centre according to the manner above
The committee were afterwards voted " three
shillings a peic for that sarvice."
The cost of erection was more than was expected,
for the committee were voted £17 18s. 3|rf.
The above are examples of the ancient votes about
schools, and are all that the record contains for the
period covered by them.
June 7, 1805, the town accepted a report made by
Moses Parker and others, a committee appointed for
that purpose, for the better regulation of the town
Dr. Perry's practical mind led him to suggest
what, after long delay, was adopted everywhere : first,
that school committees should be empowered to pre-
scribe in all cases the books which should be used ;
secondly, that towns should furnish the necessary sta-
tionery to be used in schools.
At the beginning of the present century, when
academies were springing up over New England,
intelligent people began to be very uneasy in towns
not so favored.
Thus in Bradford the following record explains
itself: " At a meeting of a number of the inhabitants
of the First Parish in Bradford, March 7, 1803, it
was mutually agreed upon that a building should be
erected for an academy, and the following persons
became subscribers to defray the charges of building
said house." The signers were a large majority of the
heads of families in the parish. In three months the
building was completed and the school was open-
ed. The first principal was Samuel Walker, a native
of Haverhill, and a graduate of Dartmouth College
in 1802. Miss Hannah E. Swan was preceptress.
The school was incorporated in 1804, with a
charter conferring ample powers. After Mr. Wal-
ker, the preceptors were as follows : Samuel
Greeley, 1803^; Rev. Dr. James Flint, 1805 ; Rev.
Dr. Abraham Burnham, who was much engaged in
the great revival of 1806 ; Isaac Morrill, 1807 ; Sam-
uel Peabody, 1808; Rev. Daniel Hardy, 1808-10;
Rev. Luther Bailey, 1811 ; Hon. Samuel Adams,
1811 ; Richard Kimball, 1811-12 ; Rev. E. P. Sperry,
1812; Rev. Nathaniel Dike, 1812-14; Daniel Noyes,
1814 ; Benjamin Greenleaf, 1814-36, who was the last
preceptor. After that time the school was estab-
lished for the education of young ladies only, having
previously been a mixed school.
There were thus, before Mr. Greenleaf gave the
school some appearance of permanency, fourteen
preceptors in a dozen years. No one of them, save
Mr. Greenleaf, expected to make school-keeping a
profession. There was therefore a lack of system and
continuity in the service. Benjamin Greenleaf, a
native of Haverhill, had graduated at Dartmouth
College in 1813, and was engaged the same year in
keeping school in his native town. He was cer-
tainly a very remarkable man, and made a deep im-
pression upon all with whom he came in contact.
Dr. Kingsbury says of him, justly and comprehen-
sively : " A man of versatile talent, an enthusiast in
teaching, a mathematician and author of world-wide
fame, a Christian of simple and unquestioning faith
and rigid virtue, a man of kindly susceptibilities,
generous, unsuspecting, unalterable in friendship, a
citizen pure, unselfish, upright, and a teacher devot-
ed, upright and unwearied in labor." After retiring
from the academy, Mr. Greenleaf was principal of
the Bradford Teachers' Seminary till 1848.
Mr. Greenleaf was born September 25, 1786, and
was descended from the Newbury family of that name.
His early opportunities for study were very meagre,
and he once said : " If I ever offered up an earnest
prayer, it was for rainy days that I miglit betake
myself to books."
Chief Justice Perley, of New Hampshire, said of
his old teacher: " He was an uncommon genius, in
the sense of having peculiarities entirely his own,
in the structure of his mind, the contour of his head
and face, the expression of his countenance, his utter-
ance, his manners, his motions, all his ways."
Mr. Greenleaf represented the town of Bradford in
the Legislature in 1837, 1838 and 1839, where he
earnestly supported all measures for the advancement
of education, introducing orders for a geological sur-
vey and a natural history survey of the State. He
was the author of many and valuable text-books.
Doubtless Bradford Academy was much indebted
to him for the repu-
tation it acquired
during his term of
service. Mr. Green-
leaf died Octobei 29,
1864, aged so\ent\- ^,
When Mr. Green -
leaf retired, Mi^-,
Abigail C. H.i'.e)-
tine, who had been
1815, carried on the
school for 1.1(1 11 ^
only. She sul)-,l.ui
cipal till her dc uli
only being relic \i I
in her later je.iis m
its more acti\e du-
ties. She bad irre.it
self-possession and ^^ __- '
dignity of manner.
When" Miss Hasel-
tine at last retired, her loss was severely felt.
A new Academy Hall had been built and dedicated
April 15, 1841. In 1853 the semi-centennial was
celebrated, which drew together fifteen hundred of
the friends of the school.
After the retirementof Miss Haseltine, the academy
was not considered fully prosperous again till it was
conducted by Miss Abby H. Johnson, a native of
Bradford, named for the former distinguished prin-
The fine new academy and dormitory was com-
l^leted in 1869, and dedicated in May, 1870, amid
great rejoicing of the friends of the institution. The
school building, including boarding and school depart-
ments under the same roof, is located near the centre
of an area of twenty-five acres. The view commands
the valley of the Merrimac.
Miss Annie E. Johnson is the present principal.
This institution has been very fortunate in its
trustees. Rev. Jonathan Allen was president of the
board, 1803-27; Rev. Isaac Braman, 1827-43;
Hon. Jesse Kimball, 1844; Hon. Samuel H. Walley,
1845-49; Benjamin Greenleaf, for several years
from 1850. Then, when the aims of the school were
broadened, Rev. Dr. Rufus Anderson, the secretary
of the American Board, was induced to take the
position. With him were associated Samuel D.
Warren, Ezra Farnsworth, Rev. Nathan Monroe,
Hon. E. S. Tobey, Hon. George Cogswell, Hon.
William A. Russell, Rev. Dr. J. H. Means and
others. After the new building had been erected, Dr.
Anderson retired from the board and was succeeded
by the Rev. Dr. James H. Means. Hon. George
Cogswell is the present president of the board, with
whom are associated Samuel D. Warren, vice-presi-
dent ; Dr. John Crowell (of Haverhill), secretary ;
Rev. Dr. E. K. Alden, Hon. William A. Russell,
Elbridge Torrey, Ezra Farnsworth, Rev. Dr. John D.
Kingsbury, Rev. Dr. Means, Rev. Nehemiah Bovnton
The institution is justly the pride of the town and
is itself, no doubt, largely benefited by the excellent
character of the town, in respect to beauty, health-
fulness, general good order and good government.
Distinguished men lecture here, like Prof. Charles
A. Young in astronomy. Indeed, it is the intention
of the able and earnest managers that the school
shall not be inferior to any in any department. With-
in the last year or two there has been great interest
among the friends of the academy in the fine por-
traits which have been presented to adorn its walls,
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
as of Kufus Anderson, pupil in youth and president
in age ; of Harriet Newell and Ann H. Judson, the
missionaries who were educated at the school ; Hon.
George Cogswell, who for more than fifty years has
been connected with it and done so much to build it
up ; of Eev. Nathan Monroe, the former pastor of
Bradford Church. It is believed the future of Brad-
ford Academy will be brilliant and useful, even ex-
ceeding its past extraordinary record.
In 1821 Merrimac Academy was established in the
East Parish, which for many years was successful.
In 1820 there were two libraries in the town.
Among education.al influences, Dr. Perry enumerated
also at that time the Washington Benevolent Society,
exclusively devoted to literary improvement.
April 2, 1813, the Philendian Society was formed
in what is now Bradford. Its object was " to support
female teachers" in places where they might be use-
ful in the moral and intellectual training of neglect-
ed children. Parson Allen was much interested in
this organization. Its membership embraced many
women of Haverhill and Newburyport. Schools were
established at Haverhill, Wenham, the Isle of Shoals
and Bytield, where Mary and Abigail C. Haseltine
were teachers. The results were considered eminent-
ly satisfactory. Long since superseded in its work,
to recall it now is mainly valuable as showing the
tone and spirit of Bradford women in the early years
of this century.
The public schools of Bradford have also kept full
step with the advance of progress. May 1, 1886, there
were 554 school children, 107 being between the ages
of five and eight and 387 between the ages of eight
and fifteen. The increase over the previous year was
nineteen. September, 1886, there were twelve
schools, with a teaching force of fifteen. The
number of recognized grades was eleven, viz. : two
second primary, two first primary, six grammar and
the high school. The high school was established in
From an early period in the history of this town, its
public officers have been respectable and respected.
One of its first town clerks, Shubael Walker, was a
superior ofiicer for the day in which he lived, being
an admirable penman and accurate in the discharge
of his duties. The town has generally reposed con-
fidence in its selectmen, who appear, upon the whole,
to have deserved it. The first selectmen were
Sergeant John Gage, Eobert Haseltine, Joseph Pike,
John Griffin and John Tenny. Thomas Kimball
was the first constable. And at the same meeting it
was voted that the houses of Benjamin Gage and
Thomas Kimball "should be legal places for posting
up any order or other business of public concernment
for the town." Contrary to the custom in most places,
the meeting-house was not employed for such noti-
fications until the division of the town into parishes.
In 1707 it was voted that there should be two con-
stables instead of one, as before, the compensation to
be divided between them. This was the first recogni-
tion of (he growth of the eastern part of the town,
leading to the division of town offices, employments
and conveniences. About twenty years afterwards
the town was divided into parishes; and thus things
proceeded in the way of equitable division until. May
20, 1766, it was " voted that the one-half of the town
meetings shall be held at the East Meeting-House in
said town for the future." This was a most important
vote, giving the clue to the course of things for nearly
a century after, till the East Parish was set up as the
town of Groveland, in 1850. But it is believed that
this vote has not been printed before the present oc-
Provision for order in the town meetings was also
made on the very first occasion, when it was voted
" that whoever did not appear at town meeting at the
time set for such meeting, should pay sixpence for
every hour that he was defective ; " and if anyone in
meeting should speak without leave obtained from the
moderator, he should pay the same sum for every
" ofiense." January 4, 1668, it was further " voted
that when the town are assembled in town meeting,
no one should leave the house without liberty obtain-
ed, under the penalty of twelvepence per hour, and
that no act passed by the town after sunset shall be of
Dr. Perry claimed that in respect to health, Brad-
ford had been as much favored as towns in general.
So far as was known, there had never been a specific
local disorder. One in ten of the deaths had been of
persons more than eighty years old ; Dr. Perry
thought full one in eight since his residence in the
place. That there were not so many persons of very
great age at the time of his writing as before
Hvd been the case, he ascribed to the destruc-
tiveness of the French Wars, but more especially
to the terrible destruction of infant and child
life, through the awful throat distemper of 1736,
which originated in Kingston, N. H., and of
which the Rev. John Brown, of Haverhill, published
an interesting account in a large pamphlet. This
disease in one year carried off in the East Parish of
Bradford, forty-seven children and nine grown per-
sons. "And it is said," proceeds Dr. Perry, "that
only two families entirely escaped the disorder, one
of which was that of their reverend pastor." If they
and he had known that across the river, in Haverhill,
the Rev. John Brown, the historian of the disease,
lost three of his children by it, there could not have
been much generalization from the exemption of the
Rev. Mr. Balch's children. In 1762, twenty-three
persons died of the same throat distemper, in a short
time ; and in 1794, fifteen more.
In 1777 the small-pox appeared in the East Parish,
and at that time, indeed, it was prevalent in this
vicinity, perhaps brought from the army. Bradford
built a pest-house, to which were removed those taken
with the disorder. Fourteen had it, of whom ten died.
Of the seven thousand persons, who, according to
his calculations up to and including 1820, had lived in
Bradford, Dr. Perry estimated that 12S4 had made
open profession of religion.
In 1720 the town's expense was £60 16.9. id. On
an average. for the ten years before 1820, it had been
£900, which Dr. Perry estimated was raised at least
as easily as the former taxes ; whence, of course, the
inference would naturally be drawn that the wealth
of the place had increased in that proportion. It
certainly has increased in at least as great a proportion
in both towns since 1820. Dr. Perry exhibited the
increase in the value of land since the early days by an
incident which hasbeen often repeated. Before Thomas
Kimball settled in Bradford, probably about the year
1660 or a little after, he was driving a herd of cattle
through on his way to Haverhill or Harapstead, when
one of the land owners, probably Haseltiue, offered to
take his cattle at a high price and pay him in land
upon the river, at eight pence an acre.
In 1810 the population of Bradford was 1369, and
in 1820, 1650. When in 1850 the two parishes separ-
ated, they were, as nearly as possible, equal in popu-
lation and valuation, Bradford had about 1300. In
1855, after the division, the population of Bradford
was 1372. In 1875, its population was 2347, contain-
ing 413 dwellings and 531 families. It had an agri-
cultural product of $43,635.
As a matter of curiosity and comparison, the in-
dustries of Bradford as returned in 1855, after the sep-
aration of Groveland, are here given. It is probably
however, an ajJproximation only.
val. of saddles. &c..
" Saddle, Harnesa and Trunk Manufactories,
$1500 ; cap., SlOO ; emp., 2.
"Boots of all kinds ra'd., 75 pairs; Shoes of all
pairs; val. of boots and shoes, $1000 ; m. emp , 12; f. emp., 11.
" Biicks m'd,, 250,000 ; yal. of bricks, S12.0O ; emp., 3.
"Horses, H ; Tal. of horses, J9160; Oxen over three years old, 94 ;
Steers under three years old, 30 ; val. of oxen and steers, 86235 ; Mi!ch
Cows, 258 ; Heifers, -30 ; val. of cows and heifers, $8110.
"Butter, 17,060 lbs. ; val. of butter, 84265; Cheese, 3825 lbs. ; val. of
cheese, (f3S2 ; Honey, 325 lbs. ; val. of honey, $60.
"Indian Cora, 142 acres; Indian Corn, per acre, 35 bush.; val..
" Wheat, 4acres; Wheat, per acre, 18 bush. ; val., $144.
"Bye, 17 acres ; Rye, per acre, 2(J bush. ; val., $376.
" Barley, 2 acres ; Barley, per acre, 25 bush. ; val., $50.
" Oats, 98 acres ; Oats, per acre, 40 bush. ; val., $^352.
"Potatoes, 61 acres ; Potatoes, per acre, 100 bush. ; val., $5190.
" Ou'ons, 1 acre ; Onions, per acre, 30 bush. ; val., $180.
*' Turnips, cultivated as a (ield crop, i acres ; Turnips, per acre, 150
bush. ; val., $1.50.
"Carrots, 2 acres ; Carrots, per acre, 300 bush, ; val., $180.
"English Mowing, 1130 acres; English Hay, 1240 tons; val.,
" Wet Meadow or Swale Hay, 40 tons ; val., $320.
" Apple Trees, cultivated for their frnit, 6850 ; val., $6580.
" Pear Trees, cultivated for their fruit, 420 ; val., $225.
■• Shoes made the past year, 102,700.
Jack Screws, 200; val., $1000."
In 1880 the population of Bradford was 2643; in
1885, 3106. The valuation in 1886 was, personal
estate, $305,867.00; real estate, §1,274,020.00: total,
$1,579,887.00— rate of tax, $15 per $1000. Total
When the Boston & Maine railroad was opened to
this town in 1837, the village contained but three
streets, the Andover road aud the Salem road, which
unite at the meeting house and extend to Haverhill
bridge — excepting the old Ferry Street.
The average expense of maintaining the town poor,
from 1810 to 1820, was $839. About the last date, the
town purchased a house and farm for their use, where
it was expected they would be more comfortable and
In 1882, on the two hundredth anniversary of the
church organization, it was stated that the " actual
necessities of the poor are so few that most of them
are supplied from private distribution of charity. The
town poor-farm was actually sold for the reason that
the town had no paupers to live on it." But, March,
1886, $2000 was appropriated for the poor. The town
paid for board, care, groceries, wood, boots and shoes,
burial, etc. In a word, it has recurred to the methods
of more than a century ago.
In 1752 there appear to have been two persons sup-
plied with out-door relief — Martha Simons and "Mr.
"Sept. 18, 1752, voted to Capt. MuUicken, for keeping Martha Simons
from May 22 to — Sept.; providing her with showes (shoes) and an
" To same, for keeping Martha Simmons twenty-seven weeks and one
cotton Handkerchief, £2 19«. 5d.
" Stephen Kimball, for making one pair of showes and mending one
payer for Martha Simons, 4». 6d.
" March 16, 1756, voted and allowed to David Hall, for seven yards of
too (tow) cloth for Martha Simmons aud making them, 8s.
" Dec. 18, 1759, voted yt ten shillings be raised for clothes for Martha
" March 9, 1762, Dudley Carlton, for Martha Simmons' coffen, 5s. id.
" To Benj. Walker, for diging her grave, 3s.
" To OUadiah Kimball, for a winding sheet, 3s.
" Sept. 18, 1852, voted to Joseph MuUicken, for providing a shirt for
Mr. Pufer, Os.
" Voted to Joseph Kimball, for providing another shirt for Mr. Pufer,
" Voted to Philip Tenney, for two payer of gloes (gloves?) for Mr.
Puffer's funeral, 4s.
" Voted to Joseph MuUicken, for rum and shugar that he provided for
Mr. Puffer in ye time of his sickness, 10s.
" Voted to Joseph Kimball, for a sheet and shurt and cap to bury Mr.
And thus pauperism seems to have come to an end,
temporarily. But the poor we have always with us.
At that time the selectmen were expected to keep
a sharp look-out that strangers coming into town did
not become chargeable to it; to prevent trouble of
that kind, they generally warned them out again im-
mediately — which explains the following : " Bradford,
Jany. ye 1, 1775 ; Peter Russell gives notice to select-
men that Alexander Montgomery has come from
Andover to live with him — son of John Montgomery."
September 24, 1745, in town-meeting : " It was put
to vote whether the town would abate the heads (polls)
of such persons who are or have bin in his Majesties
service this year & vote passed in ye negative."
The town was certainly not very liberal to such as
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
had come or were coming home from the famous
Loiiisburg expedition of that year.
The following is the most suspicious vote, though it
might be explained : " Dec. 18, 1759 : voted to Joseph
Mullicken for going to Newbury Court and dining ye
committee, & two ( ), £5 Os. Orf. "
17(J0-G1. In these years there are many charges,
about " the French.'' These were the poor Acadians,
who were distributed about among the towns to pro-
March 9, 1762," voted to Samuel Trask for building
a oven for the French, 4 shillings; voted to Samuel
Kimball for bricks and wood for ye French, March 15,
1763, £5 5s.0rf."
There has been some difficulty about tracing the
stocks in Bradford ; but March 19, 1763, " voted to
Deacon Thomas Carlton for mending the town