tinued in business until January 1, 1879. The firm
was largely engaged in the importation of sugar and
molasses and coffee, and its dealings in these articles
were the largest ever carried on in Newburyport.
For many years the house paid customs duties to tbe
amount of fifty thousand dollars a year, and for several
years exceeding one hundred thousand dollars.
During his business career he was highly respected,
and as a citizen was public-spirited, and always ready
to encourage and aid in whatever was for the bene-
fit of the community. He was married July 6, 1830,
and after fifty-three years of married life the death
of his wife in August, 1883, was followed by his own
on Sunday, November 4th, in the same year.
Daniel Dana was born in Ipswich, July 23, 1771,
and was the son of Rev. Joseph Dana, who for sixty-
three years was pastor of the Congregational Church
in that town. At the age of six he entered the pub-
lic school and remained two years. At the age of
eight he began the study of Latin, and the next year
Greek, and at the age of fourteen commenced a
school for girls, associated with his brother Joseph.
In 1785 he entered Dartmouth College, and at his
graduation in 1789 delivered the Greek oration.
After leaving college he was appointed preceptor of
Moore's charity school at Andover, and shortly after-
wards accepted the preceptorship of Phillips Acad-
emy at Exter. After two years' connection with the
academy, he returned to Ipswich, and pursued his
theological studies with his father.
On the 19th of June, 1794, he received a call to
become pastor of the Federal Street Church, in New-
buryport, and on the 19th of November he was or-
dained. In 1814, he received the degree of D.D.
from his abna mater, and in 1820, assumed the posi-
tion of president of that institution. He resigned
the presidency at the end of one year on account of
ill health, and was settled at Londonderry, New
Hampshire, in February, 1822. In March, 1826, he
received a call from the Harris Street Church, in
Newburyport, and was installed May 24, 1826.
Thus after an interval of six years he returned to a
former field of labor, though in another church and
pulpit. The Harris Street Church contained some
meuibers who had seceded from the Federal Street
Church at the time of his first settlement, and were
not long in discovering that their distrust of his
soundness in doctrine had been unfounded. Dr.
Dana died in 1859, and on the 4th of September,
a funeral discourse was delivered in the Federal
Street Church, by Rev. Heman R. Timlow, pastor
of the church over which he was last settled.
Thomas Huse was born in that part of Newbury
which was annexed to Newburyport in 1851, on the
80th of January, 1813. He was descended from Abel
Huse, who was born in London in 1602 and was
among the earliest settlers of Newbury. It is said
that the family to which he belonged can be traced
to the old Norman Barons who went into England
with the Conqueror. He was the son of Samuel Huse
and grandson of Captain Samuel Huse, who, with his
brother. Colonel Joseph Huse, was among the most
devoted patriots of 1776. He had ten brothers and
sisters. Of six brothers, including Thomas, one was
lost at sea, four died more than sixty-three years of
age, one was seventy-three at the time of the death of
Thomas; and of the three sisters who survived
infancy, one died at seventy-three and two at the
time of their brother's death were seventy and eighty-
two. He married Hannah L. Poor, whom he left a
widow with a son and daughter.
Mr. Huse had seen something of public life, having
served Newbury in the General Court, and the city as
Alderman from Ward 1 in 1851-52. For twenty
years he was in business at the head of Cofiin Wharf,
and died on Thursday, December 18, 1879, in the
sixty-seventh year of his age.
Charles Toppan was born in Newburyport in
1796, and was a descendant from Abraham Toppan,
who settled in Newbury in 1637. Edward Toppan,
the father of Charles, after serving in the Revolution-
ary Army with his uncle, Colonel Moses Little, was a
partner in the mercantile house of Hoyt, Coulidge &
Toppan. As a boy, Mr. Toppan displayed artistic
talent, and while yet young he was placed under the
instruction of Jacob Perkins, the inventor, with
whom he remained until 1814, when, at the age of
eighteen years, he went to Philadelphia to enter the
house of Draper, Murray & Fairman. In the early
days of the Republic, the bank-notes used were gen-
erally printed from type, on poor paper and without
any safeguards against the operations of the counter-
feiter. Among the early pioneers, as is stated in a
paper read before the Antiquarian and Historical
Society of old Newbury, which is freely u-ed in this
sketch, who led the way in the path of improvement,
was Gideon Fairman, of Connecticut, who established
himself in Philadelphia as an engraver, and in 1811
formed a partnership with Draper and Murray. In
1816 Jacob Perkins, also of Newburyport, went to
Philadelphia and entered the employment of the firm.
The engraving of bank-notes was carried by the
firm to such a state of perfection that in 1819 Mr.
Perkins and Mr. Fairman went to England, in the
expectation of obtaining the work of the Bank of
England. Mr. Toppan, then only twenty-three years
of age, but already skilled in his profession, was
taken with them. In a letter dated September 3,
1819, Mr. Toppan wrote from London that
"Th. nrrn i tn i imitovirs in the arts are one and all extravagant
,n till 11 I fl"^ beauty of the work and the merits of the
plan til I iinmend it for adoption. . . Some of my
^petiiu ) I II iiiJ T was pleased to hear them well-spoken
â€žf -Ml , I I fin well address, the title of which
J 1j,^\ I I II rheni There has never been a
pl^t,. ] 1 M il bere,and there are at this time
noeiiâ€žii I "' 'i I "â€¢' > '" III' inpt any large piece."
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
Upon the failure of the firm to sell its patent to the
Bank of England, Messrs. Perkins and Fairman
remained in London, where they established a house
in Fleet Street, and Mr. Toppan returned to the
United States in 1825. The nest year he married
Laura A., daughter of Dr. Robert Noxon, of Pough-
keepsie, N. Y., and granddaughter of General Lazarus
Kiigglcs, a Revolutionary officer from Connecticut.
In 1828 he began business again as a bank-note
engraver in Philadelphia, and was finally joined by
Mr. Draper of the old firm and Mr. Carpenter, when
the name of the house became Toppau, Carpenter &
Co. In 1858 all the bank-note firms in the country
were consolidated under the name of the "American
Bank Note Company," and Mr. Toppan was chosen
President. After organizing branches of the company
in Philadelphia, Boston, Cincinnati, New Orleans
and Montreal, with a principal office in New York,
Mr. Toppan resigned after two yeais' service. Work
is now done by this company not only for our own
government, but for Russia, the Swiss Cantons, Can-
ada, Greece, Italy, Spain, Japan and the South
American States. Mr. Toppan died in Florence in
October, 1874, leaving a widow and two children,
Harriette Rogers Toppan and Robert Noxon.
John Newmarch Cushing was born in Salisbury,
May 8, 1779. He was the sixth in descent from
Matthew Gushing, who came to New England in 1(538
with his wife Nazareth, and settled in Hingham.
The ancestry of the family is easily traced back to
the middle of the fifteenth century. Matthew, the
immigrant, was son of Peter Gushing, of Hingham,
England, who married Susan Hawes in 1585, and
Peter was son of Thomas whose father, John, was son
of Thomas, of Hardingham, who lived in 1450. John
Newmarch was son of Benjamin and Hannah Hazel-
tine Gushing, and married Lydia Dowe, by whom he
had two children â€” Caleb, born in Salisbury, January
17, 1800, who died January 2, 1879, and Lydia, born
in Newburyport in 1806, who died in April, 1851.
He removed to Newburyport in 1802, and, after the
lo.-s of his first wife, married Elizabeth, daughter of
Nicholas Johnson of that town, by whom he had four
children, â€” Phillip I., born in December, 1817, who
died in 184G ; John Newmarch, born October 20, 1820,
now living; William, born August 10, 1823, who died
October 15, 1875; and Mary Anna, born in March,
1816, who died in August, 1831.
His father, Benjamin, was in slender circumstances
and unable to give his son a better education than the
common schools of Salisbury afforded. Nor did he
enjoy that long, for at about the age of ten or eleven
years he began a sea life, and his preparatory instruct-
ion for a business career was the result of his native
power of observation, applied to the various incidents
and events going on under his eyes on ship-board and
in the different parts to which he sailed. While learn-
ing the sailor's profession he looked beyond its narrow
horizon into the field of commerce in which the
vessels he sailed in were engaged, taking a note of the
cargoes out and the cargoes home, the wants of Ifce
people in foreign lands, the methods of dealing with
them, and all the formula of trade, and thus, in a
higher and better school than cities and towns could
devise, laid the foundation of a mercantile career.
At about the age of twenty-one he became master,
and, not long after, part owner of the ve.'sel he com-
manded. In 1806 the ship " Hesper," of 303 tons,
was built in Amcsbury for Samuel Toppan and John
N. Gushing, and it is not unlikely that this was his
first venture in ownership and that he commanded the
vessel of which he owned a part. In 1814 the brig
" Hesper,'" of 187 tons, was built in Newburyport, of
which be was the chief owner, and it is probable that
before that date he had abandoned the sea and as a
merchant had begun to make use of his acquired
knowledge. In 1815, with Nicholas Johnson, Jr.,
whose sister he about that time married, he built at
Newbury the schooner "Success," of 75 tons, and
in 1823, with the same associate, at Newburyport, the
brig " Rapid," of 223 tons. In these two vessels Mr.
Johnson was the chief owner, but after 1823 Gapt.
Gushing seems to have accumulated sufficient capital
to stand alone and to extend more widely the busi-
ne.s3 in which for many years he was prominent and
Beginning with the West Indies trade, he soon
added to that a trade with Russia, Holland and other
north of Europe countries, and was among the first
to reap the benefits of the trade on the northwest
coast of America, in which Astor, of New York, and
Bryant and Sturgis, of Boston, took a prominent part.
In 1828 he built the" Czarina," of 218 tons ; in 1830 the
brig " Pocahontas," in which Henry Johnson was a
part owner; in 1632 the brig " Palos," of 277 tons, of
which his son Caleb owned a part; in the same
year, with Henry Johnson as part owner, the brig
"James Gaskie," of 283 tons ; in 1833, with Mr. John-
s^on, the brig " Carthage," of 296 tons ; in 1833, alone,
the brig "Ark," of 298 tons ; in 1834,with his sou Philip,
the brig " Corinth," of 414 tons; in 1837, with Mr.
Johnson, the brig "Pallas," of 102 tons; 1840, with
Mr. Johnson, the brig " Essex," of 273 tons ; in 1841,
with the same, the brig " Athens," of 300 tons, the
brig " Massachusetts," of 308 tons, and the brig
"Chenamus," of 202 tons ; in 1842, alone, the brig
" James Gray," of 300 tons ; in 1844, alone, the brig
" Salisbury," of 296 tons ; and in 1845 the brig " Key-
ing," of 300 tons. No other vessel appears to have
been built by him on the Merrimac before his death,
which occurred at Newburyport, January 5, 1849.
His son,bearinghisname, has, however, added largely
to the fleet of which Newburyport has in the past
been able to boast, and among the vessels built under
his chief ownership may be mentioned the brig
"Hesper," 1851, of 392 tons; the ship "John N.
Gushing," 1853, of 633 tons; the ship "Sonora,"
1854, of 708 tons ; the ship " Lawrence Brown," 18.55,
of 795 tons; the ship "Lyra," 1855, of 812 tons; the
shi^) " Elizabeth Gushing," 1857, of 888 tons ; the
ship " Elcano," 1864, of 1210 tons ; the ship " Whit-
tier," 18G9, of 1295 tons ; the ship " Nearchus," 1872,
of 1288 tons ; and the ship " Mary L. Gushing," 1883,
of 1(558 tons.
To the qualities of quick perception, keen observa-
tion, knowledge of human nature, active industry,
indomitable energy and promptness of decision, in-
dicated by the career here outlined, Mr. Gushing
added a dignity of character and a sterling integrity
which commanded the confidence and respect of his
Daniel Isgalls Tenney was the son of Richard
and Ruth (Ingalls) Tenney, and was born in New-
buryport, May 2, 1800. His father was a carpenter,
who lived at one time on Federal Street and at a later
date on the corner of Orange and Fair .Streets. Per-
ley Tenney, a brother of his father, kept a store on
Market Square, and in this store Daniel, at the age of
twelve years, was entered as a boy or clerk. During
the business depression caused by the War of 1812
he left his uncle and went on foot to Boston to seek
employment. He there entered the office of his uncle.
Dr. William Ingalls, a distinguished physician, who
furnished him with occupation until he obtained a
situation as an apprentice in mercantile life. After
a few years' residence in Boston he removed to the
city of >^ew York to serve as a clerk for his brother,
William I. Tenney, who was carrying on a jewelry
store at the corner of Murray Street and Broadway.
It was not long before his aptitude for business
made him sufficiently useful to his brother to be taken
into partnership with him, a connection which contin-
ued until his brother's death, in 1848. The business
was carried on after that date under his sole manage-
ment until May 1, 1856, when he withdrew from ac-
tive business life, with a well-deserved-fortune. Though
leaving Newburyport when a young man and forming
absorbing interests, surrounded by the bustle and ac-
tivity of city life, he never permitted his attachment
to his native town to wither and fade.
In 1863 he subscribed the sum of four hundred dol-
lars to aid in the purchase of the building now used
for a Public Library. This was his fir.st benefaction
in behalf of the city. His second was a new year's
gift, in 1877, of the lamp-posts and lanternswhich light
the entrance to the City Hall. Previous to this last
gift his sister, Mrs. Eliza Hanaford, who died in Brook-
lyn in 1872, leaving Mr. Tenney the only survivor of
the family, made a bequest of five thousand dollars to
the Society forthe Belief of Aged Femalesin Newbury-
port. On the 7th ol October, 1878, the city government
received the following communication.
" To His Honor the Mayor and C'dij Council of the City of Nembwyport :
"Gentlemen: â€” I have the honor to aunouuce to you that Dauiel I.
Tenney, of New York City, a native of Newburyport, feeling a very deep
interest in his birthplace, has contracted with the celebrated artist, J.
G. A. Ward, for a bronze statue of Washington, which, when completed,
" As his representative, I would respectfully petition your honoral>le
body for leave to locate the statue in the triangular spot at the east
end of the Bartlett Mali, and for permission to occupy the ground dur-
ing ita erection.
*' Respectfully Yours,
"Edward F. Coffin."
The request of Mr. Coffin was, of course, granted,
and on the 8th of November following a committee of
the city government was appointed "to make the ne-
cessary arrangements for the reception and unveiling
of the munificent gift." A committee was duly ap-
pointed, but in consequence of unavoidable delays a
new city government came into office before the re-
ception of the statue, and a new committee, consisting
of His Honor, John J. Currier, Aldermen Charles L.
Ayers and William H. Noyesand Gouncilmen Joseph
Hall, Thomas Huse, Jr., and Thomas H. Boardman,
was appointed to take charge of the ceremonies.
The statue was cast in bronze by George Fischer &
Brother, of New York City, and the pedestal was
wrought of granite by M. T. Jameson, of Rockland,
Maine, from designs drawn by Rufus Sargent, of New-
buryport. The reception and unveiling took place on
the 22d of February, 1879, the former, in consequence
of the inclemency of the weather, in the City Hall.
The ceremonies of the reception were in accordance
with the following programme :
Grand Fantaisie Bosquet.
Haverhill Cornet Band.
Introductory Prayer Itev. Samuel J. Spalding, D.D-
"Angel of Peace" To the uiusic of Keller's American Hymn.
Sung by a chorus of sixteen voices.
Address of Bev. Stephen H. Tyng, D.D., to the sons of Newburyport In
New York City, with accompauying resolutions presented by Rev.
Geo. D. Wildes, D D.
Original Hymn By a Son of Newburyport.
"Washington" â€” an original sonnet By Hon. George Luut.
Head by Kev. George D. Wildes, D.D.
Selections from " Martha " Arranged by Hartman.
Haverhill Cornet Band.
Address Eight Bev. Thomas M. Clark, D.D.
"Freedom, God and Right," J. Barnby
Sung by a chorus of sixteen voices.
Presentation of Statue By Edward F. Coffin, Esq.
Acceptance of Statue By John J. Currier, Mayor.
Musical Selections Haverhill Cornet Band.
At the close of the exercises in City Hall a pro-
cession was formed under the direction of Lieutenant-
Colonel Charles L. Ayers, chief marshal, escorted by
Company M of Lawrence (Sherman Cadet>), Capt.
Lawrence Duchesney ; Company A (Gushing Guard),
of Newburyport, Capt. David L. Withington ; Com-
pany F (Haverhill City Guards), of Haverhill, Capt.
Marshall Alden ; and Company B (City Cadets), of
Newburyport, Capt. Samuel W. Tuck, â€” four compan-
ies of the Eighth Regimenc,foruiiug a battalion under
the command of Major Edward F. Bartlett, â€” and
marched from Brown Square to the Mall, where the
statue was unveiled without further ceremony. Mr.
Tenney died at the Metropolitan Hotel, in New York,
where he had lived for many years, on Wednesday,
November 23, 1881, and was buried on Friday, the
25th, in Greenwood Cemetery.
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
Eleazek Johnsox was born in Newburyport
on the 12th of November, 1790. He was educated
first at Dummer Academy, and afterwards entered
Harvard College, but did not remain. His brother,
Jonathan Greenleaf Johnson, named after his grand-
father, who died in September, 1868, entered college
at the same time, and graduated in 1810. After leav-
ing Cambr.dge, Mr. Johnson made Newburyport hii
permanent place of residence, and few men within
its limits have been more conspicuous in town affairs
and more generally popular. As early as 1811 he
was chosen selectman and served in that capacity two
years. In 1831 he was moderator of the annual
town-meeting, and in the same year was chosen town
clerk, continuing in office until the incorporation of
the city, in 1851. On the organization of the city
government he was chosen city clerk, and remained
in office until his death, February 2-5, 1869. Upon
the announcement of his death, the church bells
were tolUd and the flagon City Hall was displayed at
Funeral services were held at the house of Mr.
Johnson at half-past one on Wednesday, March 2d,
followed by public services in the Pleasant Street
Church, attended by the Masonic societies of the
city, the city government and the living ex-mayors.
A large concourse attended the exercises and follow-
ed the remains to the grave.
John J. Sprague was born in Newburyport in
1810, and in early manhood was private secretary of
Lewis Cass. In 1834 he received an appointment as
second lieutenant in the Marine Corps. He served
through the Florida War under General Worth, and
in 1844 married the general's oldest daughter. When
the war broke out in 1861 he was in Texas, in com-
mand of a part of the troops surrendered by General
Twiggs. He was released on his parole and appointed
adjutant-general of the State of New York by Gover-
nor Seymour. In 1865, he was appointed colonel of
the Seventh Regular Infantry, and was made military
governor of Florida. When the army was reduced
he was placed on the retired list and settled in St.
Augustine. He died in New York Hospital, in New
Y'ork, on Friday, September 6, 1878, at the age of
William Lloyd Garrison was born in a little
frame house, believed to be still standing on School
Street in Newburyport, December 10, 1805. His
father was Abijah Garrison, a master of a vessel who
had settled in Newburyport in the spring of that year.
Abijah Garrison was born on the Jemseg, a tributary
of St. John's River in 1773, and was the sou of Joseph
Garrison, who was a farmer and is believed to have
been an Englishman, found there by grantees of lands,
who emigrated there from Essex County in 1763.
Joseph Garrison married, August 14, 1764, Mary
daughter of Daniel Palmer, one of the Essex
grants, who was great-grandson of Sergeant John Pal-
mer, who settled in Rowley in 1639. The wife of
Abijah Garrison was Frances Maria, daughter of An-
drew Lloyd, of Deer Island, in Pa-^samaquoddy Bay,
wliom he met while in port on one of his coasting
voyages. In 1804 Abijah removed to St. John, and
subsequently to Granville, Nova Scotia, from which
place the migration to Newburyport was made. His
children were Mary Ann, born on the Jemseg, who
died in infancy ; James Holley, born in St. John, July
10, 1801; Caroline Eliza, 1803 ; William Lloyd, Dec.
1, 1805 ; Maria Elizabeth, July, 1808. Not long after
this last date Abijah Garrison left his Atmily and
never returned. He went to New Brunswick, where
he is known to have been living in 1814, and is be-
lieved to have died in Canada. Mrs. Garrison, left
poor, managed, by the aid of friends and by her ser-
vices as nurse, to support her family, and when Wil-
liam Lloyd was old enough, he would be sent out on
election and other public days to earn a few pennies to
add to the family store.
During the War of 1812, Mrs. Garrison removed to
Lynn, taking James with her to learn the shoemaker's
trade, and William went to live with Deacon Ezekiel
Barllett, who lived at the corner of Water and Sum-
mer Streets. His earliest instruction was obtained at a
primary school in School Street, and his later educa-
tion at the grammar school on the Mall for three
mouths, at the end of which he was taken from school
to do chores for Mr. Bartlett. Being fond of music,
he joined, while yet a boy, the choir of theBaptist
Church and sometimes acted as chorister.
At the age of nine years he was apprenticed to
Gamaliel W. Oliver, of Lynn, to learn shoemaking,
but the work proved too hard for his delicate frame
and constitution. In October, 1815, ho went with his
mother and brother to Baltimore, in company with
Paul Newhall, a shoe manufacturer, who was removing
his business to that city. The experiment, however,
proved a failure, and Mr. Newhall returned to Lynn,
followed soon after by William, whom, at his own
earnest solicitation, his mother sent to Newburyport.
Soon after he was apprenticed to Moses Short, of
Haverhill, cabinet-maker, but, becoming liome-sick,
was permitted to return to his old friend, Mr. Bart-
lett, in Newburyport, where, in the autumn of 1818,
he was apprenticed to Ephram W. Allen, editor and
proprietor of the Newbtmjport Herald, to learn the
printer's trade. On the 18th of October he entered on
an apprenticeship of seven years, during which his
mind rapidly strengthened and improved in the liter-
ary atmosphere about him. He wrote not only for
the Herald, on which he was employed, but for the
Salem Gazette and other papers. In 1825, at the close
of his apprenticeship, he established the Free Press
in Newburyport, which proved a failure, and in 1827
he became editor of a total abstinence paper in Bos-
y, I ton, called the National Philanthropist. The next
i- year he went to Bennington, Vermont, as editor of
the Journal of the Times, and from thence to Balti-
more, in 1829, to edit the Genius of Universal Eman-
!tHE NEW YORKJ
'7^ ^ V ,-
His mother had previously died in Balti-
more on the 3d of September, 1823. In 1830, in Bal-
timore, he was convicted of libel for denouncing
Francis Todd, of Newburyport, for domestic piracy,
and for non-payment of a fine of fifty dollars and
costs was confined in jail forty-nine days.
On the 1st of January, 1831, he established the
Liberator in Boston, and on Wednesday, the 21st of
October, he was the victim of a mob, from whose