vices were conducted by Bishop Griswold, who, in
administering the communion, extended an invita-
tion to partake in the ordinance, so liberal as to
bring many members of the South Church to receive
the sacred emblems at his hands.
The present rec-
tor of the Episcopal Church, Rev. Leverett Bradley,
in his admirable semicentennial sermon, from which
the factg of this paper are mostly drawn, in recalling
this passage in the history of his church, says,
"Whatever may have been the spirit of the most
populous churches towards the Episcopal Church
during the first century of her life in America, it is
well to know that in Andover the Episcopal Church
has received nothing but the best wishes and kindly
interest from all denominations." " The South
Church by the loan of its building to our people on
several occasions, that they might hold liturgical
services and listen to preaching by one of their own
clergymen, disclosed a spirit of Christian brother-
hood, as the most carefully drawn resolutions could
not have done," — giving " new proof of the large-
minded. Christian spirit of the officers and members"
of this church.
Mr. Marland, as has been intimated, was the most
liberal supporter of this enterpiise. He gave the
cemetery lot, built and donated the " rectory," con-
tributed freely towards building the church edifice,
and sustaining public worship. His son-in-law and
partner in business, Mr. Benjamin H. Punchard,
gave seven thousand dollars, as a testamentary be-
quest, to the society, the income of which is available
for current expenses.
The churcli has had six rectors and two ministers,
all of whom have been worthy and capable clergy-
men, and some of them notably able. Dr. Fuller, in
his two pastorates, served the church sixteen years,
and in this time did much towards forming its char-
acter and shaping its destiny. He was a man, phy-
sically and intellectually, fitted to command the
respect of his fellow-men, and in heart and life such
as to win their confidence and esteem. His influence
was felt beyond his parish in the esthetic, educational
and moral interests of the town, and in the councils
of the diocese.
In the summer of 1885, Mr. John Byers, a liberal
merchant of New York, whose deceased parents were
members of this church, wishing to erect some mem-
orial to their memory, and, above all, to do something
that would be of permanent service t© the church and
thecauseof Christ, offered to build and furnish a new
stone church edifice, and give it to the parish. On
the evening of the Sabbath, February 28, 1886, while
preparation was going forward for confirmation ser-
vices, to be performed by the Bishop, the original
church building took fire from a defective chimney
and was entirely consumed. The present stone edifice,
the gift of Mr. Byers, was erected in 1886, and conse-
crated with appropriate services, Dr. Phillips Brooks
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
of Boston preaching the sermon, and Bishop Paddock
conducting the consecrating rites on January 4, 1887.
The new edifice is a tasty and commodious structure,
costing, with its furnishings, not far from forty-one
tliousand dolhirs. It is credited by all as a choice
specimen of church architecture, an instructive lesson
in enduring stone, an ornament to the town and a
priceless boon to the church. It is thought by some
good judges to be, architecturally, the finest public
building in town, while others give precedence to
the stone Chapel on the Hill.
" The building is of the Byzantine Romanesque
style of architecture, built of reddish granite with
trimmings of Kibbe stone. The church fronts to the
east, contrary to the usual custom, owing to the
position of the lot. The tower, situated on the south-
east corner, is a large, plain and solid structure, and
contains a semicircular staircase. It serves as the
principal porch of the building, and is balanced by
a smaller porch on the northeast corner. The chan-
cel is semi-circular in form. The rectangular
auditorium has a seating capacity of four hundred.
The pews are open and of oak finish. The roof of
the main body of the church is of hard pine con-
struction, the panels between the rafters being of
spruce, and the whole being shellaced in natural color.
The ceiling of the semi-circular chancel or apsis is
treated with honeycomb in gold, and is devoid of
stars. The decoration throughout the church is
exceedingly quiet and simple, particularly the stained
glass windows in the apsis, which, although very
rich in color, are framed by a ground of rather dark
color. Five of them represent the life of John the
Baptist, — as a child, in the wilderness, as a preacher,
in prison, and received up." A sixth is inscribed to
the memory of the donor's brother.
The organ was the gift of Mr. Horace H. Tyer
and Miss Catherine L. Tyer in memory of their
father and mother, Henry George and Elizabeth
Tyer, former worshippers at Christ Church. Miss
Catherine Tyer died suddenly intestate. Her heirs
discovered among her papers a memorandum of a
purpose to give $10,000 to the parish. In recogni-
tion of this wish, they have given the above sum as
a permanent fund, one-fourth of the income to be
expended for the care and improvement of the church
grounds, the remainder for the church music. There
is a chapel connected with the church at its north-
west corner, of corresponding architecture, and built
of the same material.
Universalists. — "A Universalist Society was
formed in town in the fall of 1838. A church was
formed later. Public worship was irregularly sus-
tained till 1846, when tor several years it was entirely
suspended." The declared purpose of organizing
this society, as set forth in its records, was " the
promotion of truth and morality among its members,
and also the world at large, and as the Gospel of the
Lord Jesus Christ is calculated above all truth to
inspire the heart with the emotions of benevolence
and virtue, this Society shall deem it one of its main
objects to support the preaching of the Gospel ac-
cording to the Society's ability, and to aid in spread-
ing a knowledge of it among men." The society
sustained public worship for twenty-five years, with
considerable intervals of suspension, when regular
preaching was abandoned, and the meeting-house
was finally sold and devoted to other uses. During its
existence, this church had seven resident ministers
or stated supplies, Rev. Varnum Lincoln being the
one longest in service. Mr. Lincoln was pastor for
five years, and, after an interval of several years, a
regular supply for a time. He now resides in An-
dover, where he has served for a term on the School
Committee, and is an active member of the " Farmers'
The Free Christian Church.— This church
was organized May 7, 1846, with a membership of
forty-four persons, drawn from the South and West
Parishes, and largely from the disbanded Methodist
Society. A number of circumstances combined at
this time to bring the church into existence. The
partners of the Smith & Dove Manufacturing Com-
pany w^ere natives of Scotland. Their operatives
were almost exclusively from Scotland. They did
not fully coalesce with the natives of Andover. The
factory village was at some distance from existing
places of worship. Above all, the anti-slavery agita-
tion had begun to introduce dissension into the
churches. The more determined opponents of slavery
held that the church should not fellowship with those
churches at the South which upheld slavery, or with
those churches at the North that fellowshiped with
the Southern churches, nor should they unite with
either of them in any missionary work at home or
abroad. Many of this class did not go to the extreme
of denouncing the entire church as "the bulwark of
slavery," or in demanding that all true friends of the
State should " come out " of the churches. They
wished to have a church connection, but in a church
that should be free from all alliance, near or remote
with slavery. Messrs. Smith and Dove belonged to
the latter class of anti-slavery men.
Under these converging circumstances the project of
a new church had its birth. The church took its
name — " The Free Christian Church " — partly, it
may be, from the attachment of many of its members
to the church of their home in the old country, but,
more especially, as a declaration of severance from
every religious organization which in any way tol-
erated slavery. Its seats were not free. It did not
fellowship with the neighboring churches by sitting in
council with them, or by an exchange of pulpit ser-
vices by its ministers with theirs for a number of
years. At first the congregation worshipped in the
vacant house of the Univcrsalists. In 1849 the meet-
ing-house of the Methodists was purchased by Mr.
John Smith, removed from Main Street to where it
now stands, repaired and fitted up within and with-
out, a spire and bell added, and, altogether, it made
a neat and commodious place of worship. It was
dedicated March 9, 1850. The expense was borne by
Mr. John Smith, who conveyed the property by deed
to the parish, and, in addition, gave the society a
permanent fund of five thousand dollars. Some years
subsequent to this a parsonage was built near by the
house of worship, and given to the society by Messrs.
Smith and Dove.
At first the church, not recognizing the neighbor-
ing churches, did not settle its ministers in the usual
Congregational method, through the medium of a
council composed of pastors and delegates from other
Congregational Churches. They were employed by
the year. In this way the church had, between Feb-
ruary 1, 1846, and November 5, 1865, five ministers,
who served it from one to six years each. This
church, while not in fellowship, was always at peace
with its neighbors, and its stated supplier were always
in brotherly accord with the pastors of neighboring
churches. At the close of the War of the Rebellion all
distinctions were obliterated. The next minister
called by the church — Rev. James P. Lane — was duly
installed, after the Congregational custom, by a
council composed of pastors and delegates from
neighboring churches, and this practice has continued
to the present time.
Rev. James P. Lane was pastor from April 4, 1866,
to March 27, 1870.
Rev. Edwin S. Williams from November 29, 1870,
to April 24, 1872.
Rev. G. Frederick Wright from May 27, 1872, to
September 4, 1881.
The present pastor, Rev. F. Barrows Makepeace,
was installed January 12, 1882.
Mr. Lane has since . been settled in Bristol, R. I.,
and in Norton, where he now resides. Mr. Williams
has been engaged in ministerial work at the West, in
various capacities, and has now the charge of city
missionary work in Minneapolis, Minn.
Mr. Wright, on leaving his pastorate here, became
professor of New Testament Greek, in the Theologi-
cal Department of Oberlin College, where he received
his education. He is still there. Mr. Wright has
been much interested in scientific studies, especially
those pertaining to ■ geology and biology. He has
published numerous papers on these and kindred
subjects, which have attracted the attention of schol-
ars. Since the publication of the Bibliotheca has
been removed to Oberlin, he has been its principal
editor. He has also published a small treatise enti-
tled "The Logic of Christian Evidences," especially
designed for the use of the higher schools of learn-
ing. He has received the degree of Doctor of Divin-
The church, from a membership in 1846 of forty-
four, has increased to three hundred and sixty-nine,
and now has the largest membership of any Protestant
church in town, and also the largest Sabbath-school.
Its house of worship has been refitted, improved, and
made more attractive. With its large financial ability,
its increasing and active membership, and lull con-
gregation, it has the " promise and potency " of future
growth and usefulness, surpassing those of the past.
Union Church, Ballard Vale.— After some un-
successful eflbrts to establish an Episcopal Church in
the Vale, and to unite all denominations in one reli-
gious enterprise, a church was organized in 1850,
called the " Union Congregational Church.'' The
Rev. Henry S. Greene was its minister from its or-
ganization in 1850 to the day of his death, June 11,
1880. Mr. Greene was born in 1807; graduated at
Amherst College, 1834; at Andover Theological
Seminary, 1837 ; was thirteen years settled in Lynn-
field, before coming to Ballard Vale. He left no
children — his only child, a son educated at Amherat
College, having died before him. Through his efforts
a comfortable place of worship has been erected for
the society which he so long served. He also left to
the church for a parsonage his residence at the Vale.
The society has always been weak, depending upon
the Home Missionary Society for aid. Rev. Samuel
Bowker is the present pastor.
St. Augustine (Catholic) Church. — This church
was gathered by the Augustine Fathers of Lawrence
in 1852. The first pastor was Rev. James O'Donnell.
He was followed in 1862, by Rev. Edward Mullen,
O.S.A., and in 1863 by Michael F. Gallagher, O.S.A.,
by Rev. Ambrose A. Mullen, O.S.A., in 1869, by Rev.
Maurice J. Murphy, O.S.A., in the fall of 1876, and
by Rev. J. J. Ryan in the fall of 1887. This society
worshipped in a house built on Central Street, now
unoccupied. With the increasing number of worship-
pers it became necessary to provide a larger house for
their accommodation, and the present edifice was
erected, and consecrated September 2, 1883. The Sab-
bath audience here averages not far from six hundred,
with a Sabbath-school of one hundred and seventy.
There is a branch society at Ballard Vale, served by
Rev. J. J. Ryan, the pastor of the Augustine Church,
which has a neat little chapel for its religious
purposes. The members of this large society are al-
most exclusively of Irish nativity or descent, showing
what a marked change has taken place in the nativity
and religion of the people during the last half-century.
The charitable and beneficent organizations sus-
tained by it are " the Young Ladies' Sodality," " the
Married Ladies' Sodality," and " the Children of
Mercy." It has furnished the church with two
priests, — Rev. Daniel D. Regan, pastor of St. John's
Church, Mechanicsville, N. Y., and Rev. Timothy H.
Regan, assistant pastor at Johnsonville, N. Y. These
priests are both sons of John Regan, of Andover, and
were educated at the Punchard Free School and
Villanova College, Pennsylvania.
Ministers. — The following persons, who were
either born in Andover South Parish, or resided here
HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.
with their parents when children, have become min-
isters. The list is taken largely from that made by Dr.
Mooar for the " South Church Manual."
John Blunt, eon of William graduiitcd 1727
James Cliandler, sou of Tliomns graduated 1728
.Samuel Chandler, son of Josiah graduated 1735
Abiel Abbot, son of Deacon John graduated 1737
John Cliandler, son of Thomas. gmduated 1743
Nathan Holt, son of Nicholas graduated 1757
Abiel Foster,' son of Captain Asa graduated 1756
David Osgood, D.D., son of Captain Isaac graduated 1771
John Abbot,2 son of Captain John graduated 1784
Kobert Gray, son of liobcrt graduated 1786
Peter Holt, son of Deacon Joshua graduated 1790
Abiel Abbot, D.D., son of Captain John graduated 1792
Jonathan French, D.D, son of Kev. Jonathan graduated 17<J8
Thoa. Abbot Merrill, D.D., son of Deacon Thomaa.graduated 1801
John Lovejoy Abbot,3son of Jolin Lovejoy graduated 1805
Joshua Chandler, son of Major Abiel graduated 1807
Jacob Holt, son of Dane graduated 1813
Samuel Phillips Newman, son of Deacon Mark ...graduated 1810
John K. Adams, son of John* graduated 1821
Amos Blanchard, D.D.,' son of Deacon Amos graduated 1826
\Vm. Adams, D.D.,6 son of Principal J. Adams .. graduated 1827
Leonard Woods,' son of Prof. Leonard Woods graduated 1827
Joshua Emery, son of Joshua graduated 18:U
Sereno Timothy Abbott, son of Asa graduated 1833
Samuel Hopkins Emery, son of Joshua graduated 1834
Wilson lugalls, sou of Ezra graduated 1836
Daniel Bates Woods, son of Prof. Leonard graduated 1837
Daniel Kmei^on, son of Prof. Emerson graduated 1839
Jonathan Edwards, son ofDr. Justin graduated 1840
Thomas E. Foster, son of Captain Thomas graduated 1840
Joseph Emerson, 8 son of Prof. Emersou graduated 1841
Charles A. Aiken, D.D.,0 son of Hon. John graduated 1846
Sannu'I Emerson, son of Prof. Emerson graduated 1848
Pi-ter Smith Byers, son of Jas. (not ordained) graduated 1851
George Mooar,'" son of Benjamin (West Pari8h)..graduated 1851
Osgood Johnson, son of Principal Osgood graduated 1862
Simon S. Fuller, son of Dr. Fuller (Episcopal).... graduated 1858
John F. Aiken, son of Hon. John graduated 1858
William Edwards Park, son of Prof. E. A. Park...graduated 1861
Allen C. Barrows, son of Prof. Barrows graduated 1801
John Phelps Taylor," son of Prof. John L graduated 1862
James S. Merrill, D.D., son of Rev. James H.
(West Parish) graduated 1863
John H. Manning,'2son of Thomas graduated 1864
David S. Morgan, Andover Theological Seminary..graduated 1866
E. Winchester Donald, D.D., son of William
(Free Church) graduated 1869
Daniel D. Regan, son of John (Catholic) graduated 1870
Moses Stuart Phelp3,i3 6on of Prof. A.Phelps graduated 1869
1 Representative in the General Court, New Hampshire, president of
the State Senate, Chief Justice of Court Common Pleas, Rockingham
County, Hepresentative in the Continental Congz-ess, and for ten years
in the Congress under the present Constitution.
2 Instructor in Phillips Academy, merchant in Portland, professor of
the Greek and Latin languages in Bowdoiu College, treasurer of the
3 Librarian of Harvard College, minister of the First Church, Boston.
* Principal of Phillips Academy.
' Pastor of First Church and Kirk Street Church, Lowell, from 1829
to 1870, till death, forty-one years.
'Pastor of Madison Square Presbyterian Church, N. Y., president of
Union Theological Seminary, N. Y.
' Professor in Bangor Theological Seminary, and president of Bowdoin
8 Professor of ancient languages, Beloit College.
» Professor in Dartmouth College, in New Jersey College, president
of UnionCollegp, professor in Princeton Theological Seminary.
10 Professor in Pacific Theological Seminary, California.
11 Professor in Andover Theological Seminary.
12 Andover Theological Seminary.
18 ProfcMor in Smith College, Northampton.
Charles H. Abbntt,n son of Henry graduated 1875
George 11. Gutterson,!' Bon of George graduated 1878
Lawrence Phelps, son of Prof. Austin Phelps.
J. D. Stone, son of Nalium (Baptist).
ANDO VER— ( Continued).
The first settlers of the town were for the most
part poorly educated. The men could, as a rule, read,
write and perform such mathematical calculations as
were required in their ordinary business. There were
only a few whose education took a much wider range.
A large proportion of the women had even less learn-
ing than the men. Many of them, in good social
standing, could neither read nor write. When there
was occasion for their signatures, they made their
marks. But there was no lack of desire for a better
education on the part of these thus deficient. There
is evidence that, irom the first settlement, there was a
purpose on the part of the settlers to create schools.
They early provided for the education of their chil-
dren, so far at least as to have them taught to " Read,
Rite and Cypher." The ministers were, to a certain
extent, teachers; they fitted lads for Harvard College.
Dames' schools were also early established I'or the
instruction of young children. These were taught
by women who had more education and leisure than
their female neighbors, and were u.^ually kept at the
homes of the teachers.
The residence of Gov. Bradstreet and his family in
the town for a number of years, doubtless, gave an
impulse to all these efforts for a better education. The
sons of the Governor, fitted at the parsonage for col-
lege, and graduated at Harvard, mingling with the
people, helped them the better to realize the value of
learning. The educated man was the oracle of the
town. As men prospered and acquired the means,
they sent their sons to college. As early as 1678 the
town sent to Harvard a contribution of twelve bushels
of corn as "a compliment for y' new building of y"
College," showing that the college was an object of
interest, and held out aspirations for their children.
In the year 1647, by an act of the Colonial Legis-
lature, every township of fifty families was required
to support a school in which children should be
taught to read and write ; and every town of a hun-
dred families was required to maintain a grammar
school, in which boys could be fitted for Harvard
College. In 1683 the Legislature further enacted that
a township of five hundred families should support
two such grammar 3chools. The instruction in these
schools was required to be of such a grade that the
pupils fitting for college could "read any classical
author into English, and readily speak and make true
Latin, and write it in verse as well as prose, and per-
fectly decline the paradigms of nouns and verbs in
the Greek tongue."
These laws laid a heavy tax upon the people strug-
gling to get a living and establish liomes, but they
seem to have been for the most part cheerfully borne.
It is impossible to say when Andover, by its growth,
came under these laws. But it is a matter of record
that not till 1701 did the town take measures to com-
ply with tlie law requiring a grammar school. In
February 3, 1700-1, it was " voted that a conveniant
school-house be erected at j" parting of y" ways, by
Joseph Wilson's, to be twenty foot long and sixteen
foot wide." And further, the selectmen were ordered
to employ for the school a suitable master from year
to year. This latter order was more easily voted than
executed. Suitable masters were scarce. The college
graduates were in demand for the ministry. The
compensation of teachers was small. But Andover
at that time was more fortunate than her neighbors
in having a son of her own, a recent graduate of Har-
vard, who was fitted for the place and willing to take
it. Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, son of Gov. Bradstreet,
in 1704 became master of the first grammar school
in town. He was followed in this office, in quick
succession, by forty-one others, whose united services
covered eighty-seven years. In this line of gram-
mar school masters we find some notable names,
among whom are Wm. Symmes, Jr., Samuel Phillips
and Eliphalet Pearson. The amount of money appro-
priated yearly for the support of the school varied
from thirty-tive to forty -five pounds, not certainly
affording a luxurious living to an ambitious graduate
When the town was divided by act of the General
Court, in 1708, into "two distinct precincts," the
grammar school was not divided, but, under the
same master, was held alternately in each precinct.
In 1718 a school-house was erected in the South
Precinct " upon the Hill, on the Southwest of the
Meeting-House." This being done, an agreement
was entered into, between the selectmen and Mr-
James Bailey, January 12, 1719, according to which
he was " to keep a gramer school for one year follow-
ing, for forty-four pounds, and he is to teach children
to Read and elder persons to wright and Sifer as far
as they are capable for the Time being, according to
the Regular methods of such a school, and to keep
the School in each precinct for the s'' Term of Time,
and to begin the schoole about three-quarters of an
hour after seven a'clock, and to keep it according to
the accustomed manner in the Sheer Towne."
As the population increased in the " outskirts " of
the town, there arose a demand for school accommo-
dation nearer their places of residence. This led to
sending the master, for a time, into different localities
to attend upon his scholars. We have the following
account of one Philemon Robbins, who was master in
1729, as narrated by Miss Bailey :
" Philemon Robbins came first to keep a school in
Andover, and began his school in y' south end of y'
Town, and continued there 3 months, and then went
behind the pond in y" first day of December, and
continued there until the 25th day of said December,
and then Returned to the middle of the Town and