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3 1833 01790 8994

5'jHaYy5 C\v.rc\.




History and Antiqu




24, Paternoster Row.


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In publishing this " History of Horsham," acknow-
ledgments are due, first to Major Rawlinson, for
the valuable gift of an original manuscript, con-
taining much useful information, and including the
notes of AY. Dendy, Esq., and a letter transcribed
by him from the British Museum.

To the Rev. G. G. MacLean, for the architectural
description of the Parish Church.

To the Rev. J. A. Scott for the paper on St.
Mark's Church and Public Buildings.

To Mr. G. B. Holmes for his assistance in the
geological and botanical papers, and for the kindly
aid rendered by several other friends, especially
that of the Rev. G. M. Cooper.


The original essay on the geology of the neighbour-
hood was written expressly for this work by the late
Rev. Charles Compton Aldridge.

Considerable extracts have been made from the
"Sussex Archseological Collections," and from "Cart-
wright's History of the Rape of Brambcr ; " and a
few, including some verses on St. Leonard's Forest,
from one of the numbers of " Once a Week."

Some of the biographical notices have been taken
from the "Worthies of Sussex," by Mr. M. A.

"Horsfield's History of Sussex," and other works
of a similar nature, have also been consulted.

The illustrations in Anastatic Etching, have been
kindly executed by several amateur artists from
original sketches.




Early History.

Of tlie Origin of the Name of Horsham, p. 1. — The Lordship
of Horsham, p. 2. — Dispute respecting tlie Boundary of the
Parish, p. 3. — Ai'ms of the Borough, p. 4. — Early Eepresentatiou
in ParUameut, p. 4. — Merchants' Guild, p. 5. — Endowment of
the Clnu'ch, p. 5. — Ordinations, p. 6. — Visitations, p. 7. — Royal
Visits, pp. 7, 8. — Transfers of Land, pp. 8, 9. — Jurors in 1288,
p. 9. — Manufactiu'e of Arrows, p. 10. — Parish Register, p. 11.
— Rise in Prices, p. 12. — Conduct of the Piuitans, and Letter
fi.-om Horsham, pp. 12 — 17. — Jolm MicheU of Stammerham,
p. 19. — Visit of Officer from Arimdel, p. 20. — Su- Thomas
Eversfield, p. 21. — Quarrel at Nuthurst, p. 22. — Thomas
Middleton of Hills Place, p. 23.— The Rev. Giles Moore,
p. 24. — The Pseudo Duke of Monmouth, p. 25. — Candle-hght
Funerals, p. 2G. — Bull Baiting and Old Customs, pp. 26, 27.


Local Information.

Situation of the Parish, Niunber of Acres, Latitude and
Longitude, Boimdaries, Population, River Arim, pp. 28, 29. —
Names of Streets, pp. 29. 30.— Lighting, Paving, Wells, pp.


32, 33. — Priest's House, p. 33. — Markets, Fairs, pp. 34, 35. —
Assizes, Sessions, p. 36. — Manors, p. 36. — Roads, Coaches,
and Railways, pp. 37, 38.


Parish Church.

Dedication of, p. 39. — Early Norman Period, pp. 89, 40. —
Dimensions, p. 40. — Description of the Early Church, pp.
41, 42.— Chapel of the Holy Trinity, pp. 43, 44.— Boteler's
Chantry, p. 45. — Oratory of the Brotherhood, p. 46. — Altera-
tion in Style, pp.40 — 48. — Font, p. 48. — Old Door and Ancient
Lock, p. 49. — Progress of Decay and Disfigurement, pp. 50 — 52.
— Jack o' th' Clock, Chained Bible, pp. 51, 52. — Restoration
of the Chiu'ch, pp. 53 — 57. — Decoration of Walls, and Stained
Glass Windows, pp. 58— 60. — Opening Services, pp. 61, 62.

History of the de Braose Family, pp. 63 — 66. — Of the Hoc
Family, pp.67 — 75. — Wife of Su- Henry Delves, p. 76. — Brass
Figure, Stones, Tablets, and Mural Monmnents, p. 77. — Docu-
ments connected with the Chm'ch, Endowment of Horsham
Vicarage, Retm-n of Henry VIII. 's Commissioners respecting
Trinity Chantry, Boteler's Chantry, and the Brotherhood,
pp. 83 — 86. — Charities and Benefactions, pp. 88, 89. — Accoimt
of Organ, p. 90.— BeUs, p. 92.


St. Mark's Church, and Public Buildings.

Date of, Cost, Laying the First Stone, Improvements and
Decorations, pp. 94 — 96. — List of Ministers, p. 96. — Organ,
p. 96. — Roman Cathohc Chapel, and other Nonconformist
Places of Worsliip. p. 96, 97.— The Cemetery, p. 98.— The


Vicarage, p. 100. — List of Vicars, p. 102. — Collyer's Free
Grammar School, Will of Founder, and List of Masters,
pp. 103— 107.— National and Biitisli Schools, pp. 107, 108.—
St. Maiy's Hospital, p. 109.— Towti Hall. p. 110.— Gaols,
p. 112. — Com Exchange, Union Workhouse, p. 115.


Private Residences and Vicinity.

Chesworth, p. 116. — Visit of King Edward I. and King
Edward II., p. 118. — Death of Thomas de Braose. — The de
Mowbray and Howard Family, p. 119. — Earl of Surrey
beheaded, j). 122. — Inventory of Fiuiiitiu-e, p. 123. — Ii'on
Foundries, p. 127. — Duke of Norfolk in the Tower, p. 129. —
Thomas, Fourth Duke, beheaded, p. 130. — Estates Forfeited
to the Crown, p. 181. — ^Description of Chapel, p. 132. —
Superstitions, p. 134.

Description of Denne, p. 135. — Hills Place, p. 137. — North
Chapel, J). 139. — Hewell's Manor House, Causeway House,
Chantry House, Horsham Park, pp. 140, 141. — Springfield,
Holbrook, p. 142. — Moated House, Hawkesbome, p. 143. —
Coolhurst, p. 144. — Roughey Place, p. 145. — Barrackfields,
Tower Hill, Stammerham, p. 147. — Southwater, p. 151. — The
Forest (description of), p. 155. — Chapel in Forest, p. 156. —
Ironworks, p. 157. — Celts Discovered, p. 159. — Rivers Rise,
p. 160. — Legends, p. 161. — Rusper, p. 168. — Rusper Priory,
p. 170. — Relics, p. 173. — Sedgewick Castle, p. 175. — Nuthui'st
Lodge, p. 17 «.



Hemy Howard, Earl of Siu'rey, p. 180. — The Rev. Hugh
James Rose, p. 186. — Percy Bysshe Shelley, p. 189. — Rev.


H. Michell, the Rev. Thomas Hutcliiiison, p. 195. — Bernard
Lintot, p. 196.— Matthew Caffyu, p. 197. — Nicholas de Hor-
tresham, p. 198.


Parliamentary History.

Burgage Tenants, p. 199. — Contests before the Reform Bill,
p. 200. — Population, and Value of Property, p. 204. — Contests
after the Reform Bill, p. 205. — Representatives, from the reign
of Edward I., p. 209.


Geology and Botany.

Essay by the late Rev. Charles C. Aldridge, p. 210. — Note
on the Organic Remains, by Mr. G. B. Holmes. — Extract
from Cart^vright's History of the Rape of Bramber; Stam-
nierham Quarry, p. 227. — Weald Clay of the Neighbourhood,
p. 229. — An Alphabetical Catalogue of Various Plants, Ferns,
etc., pp. 233—244.


Discovery of Ancient Pottery.

Tokens issued by Horsham Tradespeople.


In :^reface, line 2, /or Major Rawlinson read Major Rawlison.
Page 51. line 23, /or have been improved irad preserved.


H MicheU, the Rev. Thomas Hutchinson, p. 195.-Bernard
Lintot, p. 196.-Matthew Cafifyn, p. 197.-Nicholas de Hor-
tresham, p. 198.


Parliamentary History.
-r-, rr™^v-+^ ^ loo non+pets heforfi the Reform Bill,


Discovery of Ancient Pottery.

Tokens issued by Horsham Tradespeople.



H MicheU, the Rev. Thomas Hutchinson, p. 195.-Bemard
Ltot, p. l96.-Matthew Caffyn, p. 197 -Nicholas de Hor-
tresham, p. 198.


Parliamentary History.
.^ . rr. J.., ^ ion _n^v,+oa+a hftforft the Reform Bill,


Discovery of Ancient Pottery.

Tokens issued hy Horsham Tradespeople.





€rxIu §intox}).

(HAT the town of Horsham is of considerable
antiquity, may be inferred from the fact that
no certain derivation of its name can be
alleged. In Coxe's " Compleat History of Sussex,"
published in 1730, the author attempts to explain the
origin of the names of most towns and villages in the
country, but Horsham is not among the number. Very
many are of Saxon derivation, a few are named after
the great barons on whom they were dependent, while
local circumstances have fixed the names of others. It
has been the generally received opinion, that Horsa,
the brother of Hengist, was the founder of this town,
and that from him it derived its name.


Others indeed have claimed a less noble source for
the name of Horsham. The great forest of Andre-
deswald, according to Camden, extended over the
greatest part of Sussex, "taking up a hundred and
twentie miles in length and thirtie in breadth," within
the limits of which Horsham was included. Hence,
as the Saxon word "Hurst" signifies a wood, and
" Ham," or according to Verstigan, " Heyne," denotes
a home or settled residence, this it has been thought
might give rise to the name of Horsham, the " Forest
Home." But besides the objection that this name
would have been just as applicable to any other town
situated within the boundaries of this vast woodland
tract, the circumstance that in the oldest deeds extant,
the name is always spelt Horsham, and never Hurst-
ham, or Hursham, inclines us to prefer the former of i
these two derivations. |

Of the early history of Horsham but scanty records ;
remain. It appears that the lordship of Horsham, j
with 41 manors in Sussex, was given by the Con- :
queror to WiUiam de Braose; and continued in that i
noble family till Ohvia, coheiress of William de Braose, j
seventh in descent from his ancestor of the same name,
carried it by marriage in 1298 to John de Mowbray,
lord of Axholme, — whose descendant, Thomas, was
created Duke of Norfolk in 1391. His grand-
daughter Margaret marrying Sir Robert Howard,


Knt., and becoming coheiress to the de Mowbray
property, their son John Howard, K.G., was in
1483 created Duke of Norfolk by Richard III.,
and from him (with the interruption of several at-
tainders afterwards reversed) the estates, including
the lordship of Horsham, have lineally descended to
the present head of that illustrious house.

In the reign of Henry III. a dispute appears to
have arisen respecting the boundary between Hor-
sham and Shipley parishes. Previously to this the
patronage and emoluments of Horsham Church had
been bestowed by John, Lord de Braose, on the
Prioress and Nuns of Rusper : in 1247 an amicable
agreement was made on the Vigil of St. Michael,
between Robert de Samford, Master of the Temple in
England, and the Brothers of the Temple at Shipeley, on
the one part; and Alivia de Bissepeston, then Prioress
of Rusper, and her fellow- Nuns on the other part ; in
the presence of Brother John de Hamedon, then Pre-
centor of Shipeley ; and Brother William the Chaplain ;
Philip, Dean of Storketon ; Robert, Vicar of Horsham ;
Reginald de Hegton ; Godfrey de Horsham ; and many
others. From the north of the hedge dividing the
lands and tenements of the Temple, and the wood of
William de Breuse of Crockurste, as far as the lands
of William of Essington, called Twiuham, was to
remain to Horsham, and all south to Shipeley. Sealed


by Sir Robert, Vicar of Horsham ; Sir Robert, Priest-
Vicar of Wonham ; Stephen de Fishebourne ; and
others. (Sussex Arch. Col. Vol. IX.)

The arms of the borough of Horsham are probably
derived from the Lords de Braose, which were azure
crucially of crosslets, a lion rampant crowned all or :
in the case of the Borough, the crosslets are omitted,
and the lion is in argent, supporting his dext€r paw
on an antique H.

Horsham has enjoyed the privilege of sending
members to Parliament since 1295, and is therefore
one of the oldest representative boroughs in England.
In that year Edward first summoned the deputies from
the boroughs ; for although thirty years earlier, after
the mise which followed the battle of Lewes (where
Henry III. was taken prisoner), the famous Simon de
Montford, Earl of Leicester, had assembled deputies
from the borough towns, yet as no writs appear to
have been recorded until Edward's reign, we are led to
suppose that this first germ of a House of Commons
never expanded into an established form. Documents
exist which shew that Walter Burgeys, and Walter
Randolf, were the first two members elected for
Horsham ; their names also appear in the list of jurors
for the borough in that year. This early representa-
tion by two deputies seems to indicate that Horsham
in those ancient days, mu^t have been a large and


influential place, since in 1295 the whole number of
boroughs which received writs of summons was only
130 ; and though something may reasonably be at-
tributed to the fact that the lordship belonged to a
powerful baron, yet the population must have been
sufficient to enable it to support its two members
during the session of Parliament, as was customary
in those days.

In the return made to the commissioners in 1340,
when the taxes granted to Edward III. were levied,
it is mentioned that there were then no merchants in
Horsham, ("Nonarum Inquisitiones," published by the
Eecord Com.) Nevertheless, it appears that at some
early period there was a merchants' guild in this town,
founded on the same principles as that in Chichester,
for the name of Horsham is in one of the ancient lists,
i still extant in that city, of those places which had guilds
in connection with it. These guilds were a kind of
brotherhood associations, for the purposes of mutually
protecting each other's interests as merchants, and also
for union in works of charity, and in the practice of
devotion ; (see Arch. Col. Vol. XV.) but all traces of
this guild aj^pear to have been lost.

The size of the fine old parish church proves that
the number of inhabitants was considerable ; and this
inference is confirmed by an endowment made by
Ralph, Bishop of Chichester, bearing date 1231. It


is there provided that, on account of the size of the
parish and the number of its inhabitants, the vicar,
who shall officiate in the church from time to time,
shall have one chaplain as his assistant, and two sub-
ordinate ministers, viz., a deacon and sub-deacon, to
officiate with him in the said church. This was in
conformity with a constitution promulgated by Arch-
bishop Langton, 1222, whereby it was decreed that in
every church which had a large parish, there should
be two or three priests, according to the largeness of
the parish, and state of the church. In the days
when pews were unknown, the unencumbered area of
Horsham Church was capable of accommodating a
very large congregation.

On the 15th of September, 1404, and again on the
4th of April, 1405, ordinations were held in this
church by Bishop Rede ; on the first occasion eleven
deacons and eight priests were ordained, and on the
second three deacons and six priests, besides acolites
and sub-deacons. (Bishop Rede's Register.)

We have no record of any similar service taking
place in Horsham church till the year 1862, when,
on March 16, the present venerable Bishop of
Chichester, Dr. Gilbert, conferred holy orders on two

On January 15th, 1441, Bishop Praty held a visita-
tion in this church. This Bishop appears to have been


an indefatigable traveller in the performance of his
episcojDal duties, and this in the depth of %Yinter, in
spite of the state of Sussex roads four hundred years
ago. He started on his progress on the 11th of
January, and reached the cathedral city again on
February 5th, having visited every part of his
diocese, and seldom slept two nights in the same
place, excepting on Sunday. The following is an
extract from his Register (page 79) : —

" Satm-day, January 13. He will dine at Pulboroiigh, and
sleej) at Horsham.

" Sunday, January 14. He will remain at Horsham.

" Monday, January 15. He vnll visit early in the church of
Horsham that part of the deanery of Stonington wliich is in le
Welde, and will sleepe at Crawle ; the same day he wiU. visit
by his coimnissary the Priory of Rouspar.

"Tuesday, January 16. He will visit in the church of

The town at this time was important enough to be
honoured by the occasional presence of royalty, the royal
residence being, no doubt, Chesworth, the castle of the
lordly de Braose. The patent rolls inform us that it
was visited in 1299, by Edward L, when that king
was making excursions through the southern counties
before his second marriage, which took place at
Canterbury on the 10th of September in that year.
He was on his way from Canterbury to Winchester ;
and arriving on the evening of Monday, June 29th,


remained the whole of the following day. He paid
a second visit on his return on the 2nd and 3rd of

Edward II. was at Chesworth, Sept. 4th, 1324.
(P. A. C.)

At an earlier period King John, as we learn from
the same authorities, paid frequent visits to Knepp,
in this neighbourhood ; but we do not find that he
ever stopped at Horsham. This castle seems to have
been a favourite hunting-seat of that monarch ; and
it is proved from the Patent and Close Rolls of his reign,
that he was there in 1206, 1209, 1211, and 1215. His
queen Isabella also resided there for eleven days in
1214-15. It was seized into the king's hands upon the
forfeiture of William de Braose. About four months
before his death, John ordered the castle to be burned,
lest it should fall into his enemies' hands ; and it has
never been restored. The present Knepp Castle was
built upon a difierent site by the late Sir C. M.
Burrell, Bart. ; and the remains of the ancient strong-
hold serve only for a picturesque object from the
windows of the modern edifice.

In the reign of Henry III. some ancient transfers
of land are recorded. Hugh de Combe sold to Godfrey
Shore one virgate of land, 1234. In 1237 a fine was
levied, Robert Tasker and Matilda his wife being
plaintifis, and Richard de Langehurst deforcient, re-


specting the third part of one virgate of arable land
in Horsham, and one third of a furlong of land at
Roughpar, which were claimed by Robert and Matilda
as the dower of Matilda, being widow of William
Exterigg, her former husband : they quit-claimed to
the said Richard for two marks of silver. In the
following reign William de Wantone and Emma his
wife brougbt an action against Robert de Yeel for the
recovery of one messuage and eighty-six acres of land
in Horsham and Stammcrham, 1287 (Assize Rolls,
Ed. I.). Many other transfers may be seen in Cart-
wright's " History," and among them that William
Atte Denne sold, in 1315, one messuage and ten acres of
land to one Simon Terry : this is one of the very few
occasions in which the name Denne appears in any of
the published ancient records.

The following persons were appointed to serve on
juries for the borough of Horsham in the 16th of
Edward I. (1288) :—

Walter Randolp, Richard le Marescal,
Ralph de Stannestrete, Richard de la Grace,

Robert le Clerk, Richard le Tiu-ner,

Ralph de Laffield, Richard Charteral,

Gilbert de la Bure. Godfrey Haiithemer,

Walter Burgeys, John de HameUiurst.
Robert le Faiincey was appointed cliief baLLiff.

In this year the^ borough was amerced, on the oath
of twelve jurors, for a murder committed within its


limits: the murderer not being forthcoming, the
borough had to pay the fine. The following are
other instances of fines so levied : — For the chattels of
Nicholas Turbell, an outlaw, 4s. ; Robert le Marchaunt
and William Bakere, 40d. ; Ralph Randolf, for selling
bread contrary to the assize, half a mark ; the vill. of
Horsham, for William, an outlaw, 105s. ; the vicinage
of the same, for the chattels of the aforesaid William,
5s. Thus the rogues ran away, and the town and
neighbourhood suffered. There were also fines at
various times for false weights and measures ; but it
is unnecessary to multiply such details.

One branch of trade exercised in the place in 1338
was the manufacture of arrows, or " quarrels,''^ used
for crossbows. In this year the Sheriff of Sussex was
allowed, for the purchase of 6000 such arrows (being
240 sheaves at 14d., each sheaf to contain 25 arrows
of good dry wood, with heads well sharpened, called
"dogebil''), and for a cask to put them in, and for the
carriage from Horsham to the Tower of London,
£14 10s. 4d. The fabrication of horse-shoes was also
practised near Horsham for the public service, the price
being £4 3s. 4d. for 1000 shoes. To give some idea
of the relative value of these sums with our money, it
may be mentioned that, in " Madox's History of the
Antiquities of the Exchequer," we find that about
that time " 33 cows and 2 bulls cost but £8 7s. ; 500



" sheep, £22 10s., or about lOfd. a sheep; 22 hogs,
" £1 2s."

The Parish Register informs us that the Plague
visited the town in 1560, and again in 1574 ; but
there does not appear to have been any very remark-
able increase in the number of deaths at the time of
this visitation. In the following extract from the
Register of the Parish Church the two Plague years
are marked with an asterisk : —

the yeai

1559 died 91 persons.

., ,,


, 111

,, ,,

1561 ,

, 68

,, ,,

1562 ,

, 45

„ „

1570 ,

, 49

,, ,,

*1574 ,

, 62

,, ,,

1575 ,

, 27

„ „

1576 ,

, 80

The marriages for this period average 22 in the year.
Any diminution of numbers arising from the Plague,
whether from death or dispersion, might be in some
degree counterbalanced by the settlement of several
families of French Protestants, flying from the perse-
cutions of Francis 11. and Charles IX. The Register
above referred to contains evidence of the baptisms
and burials in the families of several of these refugees.
Camden, in 1590, calls Horsham an "indifferant
" mercat," meaning we suppose thereby that it was a
small market town. This way of speaking gives us


no splendid idea of the town at this period, when the
houses are said to have been built of timber cast
over with thick clay to keep out the wind, without
glass in the windows ; and only the large-sized houses
had the luxury of a chimney. They took their meals
early, and their diet was plain, but provisions were
still cheap. An author, in 1581, complains indeed
that prices had in several instances risen 50 per cent,
within his own recollection; — "Cannot you, neighbour,
"remember," says he, "that within 80 years I could in
" this town buy the best pig or goose I could lay my
" hands on for four pence, which now costeth twelve
" pence ; a chicken for a penny, a hen for two pence?"
(from a " Compendious examination of the complaints
" of our countrymen"). This was certainly a rapid
increase in value ; yet to us even these prices seem
very moderate.

We now come to a very eventful period of English
history, when the political feelings of our townsmen
were stirred to their very depths. The civil war
between Charles I. and his ParHament was on the eve
of breaking out. Laud, who at the death of Arch-
bishop Abbot succeeded to the primacy, introduced
many ceremonies and observances into the Church at
variance with the spirit of the age. This was highly
distasteful to the House of Commons, which was daily
growing bolder in its opposition to the ecclesiastical, as


well as to the royal, authority; and had ah-eady, in
1641, impeached twelve of the bishops.

The vicarage of Horsham was then, as now, in the
patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury ; so that
it is not surprising to find the inhabitants of the town
impKcated in the quarrel between the Commons and
Laud. It appears that they were dissatisfied with the
vicar whom the Archbishop had appointed in 1642 :
they had imbibed the Puritanical sentiments then so
extensively prevalent, and presented their remonstrance
against this appointment in the form of a petition to

The Lords were that at time very much under the

control of the Commons ; and from the Journal of the

former, under date of 19th Dec, 1642, the following

extract is taken : —

" Upon a Petition of the Inhabitants of the Borough of
Horsham, shewing that one Mr. Conyers hath been presented
to tliat parish of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is a
disserving [i.e., mischievous] man, and unfit for that place :
Hereupon it was ordered that the Archbishop of Canterbury

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