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ANTHONY B. ,NBROCK M.D.



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

MEDICAL CENTER LIBRARY

SAN FRANCISCO







Gift of
A. P. Diepenbrock, M.D.



MANUAL OF ANATOMY



'UliLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF HENKY FROWDE AND HODDER & STOUGHTON
AT THE OXFORD PRESS WAREHOUSE, 17 WARWICK SQUARE, LONDON, E.C-4



^CUNNINGHAM'S MANUAL

OF

PRACTICAL ANATOMY



REVISED AND EDITED BY

ARTHUR ROBINSON

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH



SEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME FIRST
SUPERIOR EXTREMITY; INFERIOR EXTREMITY

WITH 203 ILLUSTRATIONS, MANY OF WHICH ARE COLOURED



NEW YORK
WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY

EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, AND LONDON

HENRY FROWDE AND HODDER & STOUGHTON

1921



Printed in Great Britain by R. & R. CLARK. LIMITED, Edinburgh.



\st Edition, 1896.

-2nd Edition, 1903.

yd Edition, 1906.

\th Edition, 1907.

<jth Edition, 1912.

6th Edition, 1914.
6th Edition, 2nd Impression, 1917.
6th Edition, yd Impression, 1918.

jth Edition, 1920.
ith Edition, vnd Impression, 1921



All rights reserved.



7



PREFACE TO
THE SEVENTH EDITION



IN this edition the general text has been revised, many new
figures, representing dissections, sections and radiographs,
have been introduced. The instructions for dissection have
been printed in a distinctive indented type ; in many cases
they have been rewritten and in some cases amplified.

The latter changes, together with the additional figures,
have caused so much increase of size that it has been deemed
advisable to publish the book in three volumes. Vol. I. :
Superior Extremity and Inferior Extremity ; Vol. II. : Thorax
and Abdomen ; Vol. III. : Head and Neck.

As was the case in previous editions, I am indebted to
Dr. E. B. Jamieson for many suggestions, for his invaluable
help in the revision of the text and for the preparation of
the Index.

My thanks are due to Dr. Robert Knox, to Major A. W.
Pirie and to Major T. Rankin for the use of radiographs,
which they very kindly prepared for me, and to Mr. J. T.
Murray for the new drawings of sections and dissections.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.
Oct. u, 1919.



92.793



CONTENTS



THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY.

PAGE

AXILLA, ...... i

DISSECTION OF THE BACK, ..... 47

SHOULDER SCAPULAR REGION, 75

THE FRONT OF THE ARM, 93

DORSUM OF THE ARM, . . . . .112

SHOULDER-JOINT, ..... .119

FOREARM AND HAND, . . . . . .127

VOLAR SURFACE AND MEDIAL BORDER OF THE FOREARM, . 129
WRIST AND PALM, . . . . . .148

DORSUM AND LATERAL BORDER OF THE FOREARM, . .172

DORSAL ASPECT OF THE WRIST AND HAND, . . .189

ARTICULATIONS, ....... 195



THE INFERIOR EXTREMITY.

INTRODUCTION, . . . . . . .213

THE THIGH, ....... 218

THE ANTERIOR FEMORAL AND MEDIAL FEMORAL REGIONS

AND THE ANTERIOR REGION OF THE KNEE, . . 221

DEEP DISSECTION OF THE ANTERIOR AND MEDIAL PARTS OF

THE THIGH, ....... 236

MEDIAL SIDE OF THE THIGH, ..... 266

GLUTEAL REGION, ....... 279

POPLITEAL SPACE, ....... 304

BACK OF THE THIGH, . . . . . .318

vii



viii CONTENTS



i'AGE



THE LEG, ...... 332

ANTERIOR CRURAL REGION AND DORSUM OF FOOT, . . 334

LATERAL CRURAL OR PERONEAL REGION, . . . 354

MEDIAL CRURAL REGION, . 357

POSTERIOR CRURAL REGION, . . . . -357

SOLE OF THE FOOT, . . . . . .381

ARTICULATIONS, . . . . . . .401

INDEX, 44i



A GLOSSARY



OF THE



INTERNATIONAL (B.N.A.)
ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY



Distalis



Sagittalis



Frontalis



GENERAL TERMS.
TERMS INDICATING SITUATION AND DIRECTION.



Referring to the long axis of the body.
Referring to the position of the long

axis of the body in the erect posture.
Referring to the front and back of the

body or of the limbs.
Referring to the anterior and posterior

aspects, respectively, of the body,

and to the flexor and extensor

aspects of the limbs, respectively.
Referring to position nearer the head

or the tail end of the long axis.

Used only in reference to parts of

the head, neck, or trunk.
Used in reference to the head, neck,

and trunk. Equivalent to cranial

and caudal respectively.
Used only in reference to the limbs.

Proximal nearer the attached end.

Distal nearer the free end.
Used in reference to planes parallel
| with the sagittal suture of the
I skull, i.e. vertical antero-posterior
I planes.

{Used in reference to planes parallel
with the coronal suture of the skull,
i.e. transverse vertical planes.

ix



Longitudinalis


Longitudinal




Verticalis


Vertical


|


Anterior


Anterior "i


:


Posterior


Posterior J


{


Ventral


Ventral -\


/


Dorsal


Dorsal J


1


Cranial


Cranial ^


(




1


{


Caudal


Caudal J




Superior


Superior \


|


Inferior


Inferior J




Proximalis


Proximal \


r



Distal



Sagittal



Frontal



; t



GLOSSARY



Horizontalis



Horizontal



Medianus


Median


Medialis
Lateralis


Medial \
Lateral J


Intermedius


Intermediate


Superficialis
Profundus
Externus

Internus


Superficial^
Deep J
Externah

Internal J


Ulnaris


Ulnar \

1


Radialis
Tibial


Radial/
Tibial \


Fibular


Fibular J



r Used in reference to planes at right
I angles to vertical planes,
f Referring to the median vertical
I antero-posterior plane of the body.
('Referring to structures relatively
nearer to or further away from the
{ median plane.

( Referring to structures situated be-
-I tween more medial and more
t lateral structures,
f Referring to structures nearer to and
\ further away from the surface.

{Referring, with few exceptions, to the
walls of cavities and hollow organs.
Not to be used as synonymous with
medial and lateral.

Used in reference to the medial and
lateral borders of the forearm,
respectively.

Used in reference to the medial and
lateral borders of the leg, re-
spectively.



THE BONES.



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Vertebrae

Fovea costalis superior

Fovea costalis inferior

Fovea costalis transversalis
Radix arcus vertebras

Atlas

Fovea dentis

Epistroplieus
Dens

Sternum

Corpus sterni
Processus xiphoideus
Incisura jugularis
Planum sternale

Ossa Cranii.
Os frontale

Spina frontalis
Processus zygomaticus
Facies cerebialis
Fades frontalis
Pars orbitalis



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Vertebras

Incomplete facet for head of rib,

upper
Incomplete facet for head of rib,

lower

Facet for tubercle of the rib
Pedicle

Atlas

Facet for odontoid process

Axis

Odontoid process

Sternum

Gladiolus
Ensiform process
Supra-sternal notch
Anterior surface

Bones of Skull.
Frontal

Nasal spine

External angular process
Internal surface
Frontal surface
Orbital plate



GLOSSARY



xi



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Os parietale

Linese temporales
Sulcus transversus
Sulcus sagittalis

Os occipitale

Canalis hypoglossi
Foramen occipitale magnum
Canalis condyloideus
Sulcus transversus
Sulcus sagittalis
Clivus

Linea nuchse suprema
Linea nuchge superior
Linea nuchse inferior

Os sphenoidale

Crista infratemporalis

Sulcus chiasmatis

Crista sphenoidalis

Spina angularis

Lamina medialis processus ptery-

goidei
Lamina lateralis processus ptery-

goidei

Canalis pterygoideus [Vidii]
Fossa hypophyseos
Sulcus caroticus
Conchse sphenoidales
Hamulus pterygoideus
Canalis pharyngeus
Tuberculum sellae
Fissura orbitalis superior

Os temporale

Canalis facialis [Fallopii]
Hiatus canalis facialis
Vagina processus styloidei
Incisura mastoidea
Impressio trigemini
Eminentia arcuata

Sulcus sigmoideus
Fissura petrotympanica
Fossa mandibularis
Semicanalis tubse auditivae

Os ethmoidale

Labyrinthus ethmoidalis
Lamina papyracea
Processus uncinatus



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Parietal

Temporal ridges
Groove for lateral sinus
Groove for sup. long, sinus

Occipital

Anterior condyloid foramen
Foramen magnum
Posterior condyloid foramen
Groove for lateral sinus
Groove for sup. long, sinus
Median part of upper surface of

basi-occipital
Highest curved line
Superior curved line
Inferior curved line

Sphenoid

Pterygoid ridge
Optic groove
Ethmoidal crest
Spinous process
Internal pterygoid plate

External pterygoid plate

Vidian canal
Pituitary fossa
Cavernous groove
Sphenoidal turbinal bones
Hamular process
Pterygo-palatine canal
Olivary eminence
Sphenoidal fissure

Temporal Bone

Aqueduct of Fallopius

Hiatus Fallopii

Vaginal process of tympanic bone

Digastric fossa

Impression for Gasserian ganglion

Eminence for sup. semicircular

canal

Fossa sigmoidea
Glaserian fissure
Glenoid cavity
Eustachian tube

Ethmoid
Lateral mass
Os planum
Unciform process



Xll



GLOSSARY



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Os lacrimale

Hamulus lacrimalis
Crista lacrimalis posterior

Os nasale

Sulcus ethmoidalis

Maxilla

Fades anterior
Fades infra-temporalis
Sinus maxillaris
Processus frontalis
Processus zygomaticus
Canales alveolares
Canalis naso-lacrimalis
Os indsivum
Foramen incisivum

Os palatinum

Pars perpendicularis
Crista conchalis
Crista ethmoidalis
Pars horizontalis

Os zygomaticum

Processus temporalis
Processus fronto-sphenoidalis
Foramen zygomatico-orbitale
Foramen zygomatico-faciale

Mandibula

Spina mentalis
Linea obliqua
Linea mylohyoidea
Incisura mandibulae
Foramen mandibulare
Canalis mandibulae
Protuberantia mentalis



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Lachrymal Bone

Hamular process
Lachrymal crest

Nasal Bone

Groove for nasal nerve

Superior Maxillary Bone
Facial or external surface
Zygomatic surface
Antrum of Highmore
Nasal process
Malar process
Posterior dental canals
Lacrimal groove
Premaxilla
Anterior palatine foramen

Palate Bone
Vertical plate
Inferior turbinate crest
Superior turbinate crest
Horizontal plate

Malar Bone

Zygomatic process
Frontal process
Tempora-malar canal
Malar foramen

Inferior Maxillary Bone
Genial tubercle or spine
External oblique line
Internal oblique line
Sigmoid notch
Inferior dental foramen
Inferior dental canal
Mental process



The Skull as a Whole.



Ossa suturarum

Foveolse granular es (Pacchioni)

Fossa pterygo-palatina

Canalis pterygo-palatinus

Foramen lacerum

Choanse

Fissura orbitalis superior

Fissura orbitalis inferior



Wormian bones
Pacchionian depressions
Spheno-maxillary fossa
Posterior palatine canal
Foramen lacerum medium
Posterior nares
Sphenoidal fissure
Spheno-maxillary fissure



GLOSSARY



Xlll



Upper Extremity.

B. N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY.



Clavicula

Tuberositas coracoidea
Tuberositas costalis

Scapula

Incisura scapularis
Angulus lateralis
Angulus medialis

Humerus

Sulcus intertubercularis
Crista tuberculi majoris
Crista tuberculi minoris
Facies anterior medialis
Facies anterior lateralis
Margo medialis
Margo lateralis
Sulcus nervi radialis
Capitulum

Epicondylus medialis
Epicondylus lateralis

Ulna

Incisura semilunaris
Incisura radialis
Crista interossea
Facies dorsalis
Facies volaris
Facies medialis
Margo dorsalis
Margo volaris

Radius

Tuberositas radii
Incisura ulnaris
Crista interossea
Facies dorsalis
Facies volaris
Facies lateralis
Margo dorsalis
Margo volaris

Carpus

Os naviculare
Os lunatum
Os triquetrum
Os multangulum majus
Os multangulum minus
Os capitatum
Os hamatum



Clavicle

Impression for conoid ligament
Impression for rhomboid ligament

Scapula

Supra-scapular notch
Anterior or lateral angle
Superior angle

Humerus

Bicipital groove

External lip

Internal lip
Internal surface
External surface
Internal border
External border
Musculo-spiral groove
Capitellum
Internal condyle
External condyle

Ulna

Greater sigmoid cavity
Lesser sigmoid cavity
External or intei osseous border
Posterior surface
Anterior surface
Internal surface
Posterior border
Anterior border

Radius

Bicipital tuberosity

Sigmoid cavity

Internal or interosseous border

Posterior surface

Anterior surface

External surface

Posterior border

Anterior border

Carpus
Scaphoid
Semilunar
Cuneiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Os magnum
Unciform



XIV



GLOSSARY



Lower

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
Os coxae

Linea glutsea anterior
Linea glutsea posterior
Linea terminalis
Spina ischiadica
Incisura ischiadica major
Incisura ischiadica minor
Tuberculum pubicum
Ramus inferior oss. pubis
Ramus superior oss. pubis
Ramus superior ossis ischii
Ramus inferior oss. ischii
Pecten ossis pubis
Facies symphyseos

Pelvis

Pelvis major

Pelvis minor

Apertura pelvis minoris superior

Apertura pelvis minoris inferior

Linea terminalis

Femur

Fossa trochanterica
Linea intertrochanterica
Crista intertrochanterica
Condylus medialis
Condylus lateralis
Epicondylus medialis
Epicondylus lateralis

Tibia

Condylus medialis
Condylus lateralis
Eminentia intercondyloidea
Tuberositas tibiae
Malleolus medialis

Fibula

Malleolus lateralis
Apex capituli fibulae



Extremity.

OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Innominate Bone
Middle curved line
Superior curved line
Margin of inlet of true pelvis
Spine of the ischium
Great sacro-sciatic notch
Lesser sacro-sciatic notch
Spine of pubis
Descending ramus of pubis
Ascending ramus of pubis
Body of ischium
Ramus of ischium
Pubic part of ilio-pectineal line
Symphysis pubis

Pelvis

False pelvis

True pelvis

Pelvic inlet

Pelvic outlet

Margin of inlet of true pelvis

Femur

Digital fossa

Spiral line

Post, intertrochanteric line

Inner condyle

Outer condyle

Inner tuberosity

Outer tuberosity

Tibia

Internal tuberosity
External tuberosity
Spine
Tubercle
Internal malleolus

Fibula

External malleolus
Styloid process



Bones of

Talus

Calcaneus

Tuber calcanei

Processus medialis tuberis calcanei

Processus lateralis tuberis calcanei

Os cuneiforme primum

Os cuneiforme secundum

Os cuneiforme tertium



the Foot.

Astragalus
Os calcis

Tuberosity of

Inner

Outer

Inner cuneiform
Middle cuneiform
Outer cuneiform.



GLOSSARY xv

THE LIGAMENTS.

Ligaments of the Spine.

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Lig. longitudinale anterius Anterior common ligament

Lig. longitudinale posterius Posterior common ligament

Lig. flava Ligamenta subflava

Membrana tectoria Posterior occipito-axial ligament

Articulatio atlanto-epistrophica Joint between the atlas and the axis

Lig. alaria Odontoid or check ligaments

Lig. apicis dentis Suspensory ligament

The Ribs.

Lig. capifculi costee radiatum Anterior costo-vertebral or stellate

ligament

Lig. sterno-costale interarticulare Interarticular chondro-sternal liga-

ment

Lig. sterno-costalia radiata Anterior and posterior chondro-

sternal ligament

Lig. costoxiphoidea Chondro-xiphoid ligaments

The Jaw.

Lig. temporo-mandibulare External lateral ligament of the jaw

Lig. spheno-mandibulare Internal lateral ligament of the jaw

Lig. stylo-mandibulare Stylo-maxillary ligament

Upper Extremity.

Lig. costo-claviculare Rhomboid ligament

Labrum glenoidale Glenoid ligament

Articulatio radio-ulnaris proximalis Superior radio-ulnar joint

Lig. collaterale ulnare Internal lateral ligament of elbow

joint

Lig. collaterale radiale External lateral ligament

Lig. annulare radii Orbicular ligament

Chorda obliqua Oblique ligament of ulna

Articulatio radio-ulnaris distalis Inferior radio-ulnar joint

Discus articularis Triangular fibre-cartilage

Recessus sacciformis Membrana sacciformis

Lig. radio-carpeum volare Anterior ligament of the radio-

carpal joint

Lig. radio-carpeum dorsale Posterior ligament of the radio-

carpal joint
Lig. collaterale carpi ulnare Internal lateral ligament of the

wrist joint
VOL. I b



XVI



GLOSSARY



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
Lig. collaterale carpi radiale

Arliculationes intercarpae
Lig. accessoria volaria

Lig. capitulorum (oss. metacar-

palium) transversa
Lig. collateralia



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
External lateral ligament of the

wrist joint
Carpal joints
Palmar ligaments of the metacarpo-

phalangeal joints
Transverse metacarpal ligament

Lateral phalangeal ligaments



The Lower Extremity.



Lig. arcuatum

Lig. sacro-tuberosum

Processus falciformis
Lig. sacro-spinosum
Labrum glenoidale
Zona orbicularis
Ligamentum iliofemorale
Lig. ischio-capsulare
Lig. pubo-capsulare
Lig. popliteum obliquum
Lig. collaterale fibulare
Lig. collaterale tibiale
Lig. popliteum arcuatum
Meniscus lateralis
Meniscus medialis
Plica synovialis patellaris
Plicse alares

Articulatio tibio-fibularis
Lig. capituli fibulae

Syndesmosis tibio-fibularis

Lig. deltoideum

Lig. talo-fibulare anterius

Lig. talo-fibulare posterius
Lig. calcaneo-fibulare
Lig. talo-calcaneum laterale
Lig. talo-calcaneum mediale

Lig. calcaneo-naviculare plantare

Lig. talo-naviculare

Pars calcaneo-navicularis^ lig.

J-bifur-
Pars calcaneo-cuboidea J catum



Subpubic ligament

Great sacro-sciatic ligament
Falciform process

Small sacro-sciatic ligament

Cotyloid ligament

Zonular band

Y-shaped ligament

Ischio-capsular band

Pubo-femoral ligament

Ligament of Winslow

Long external lateral ligament

Internal lateral ligament

Arcuate popliteal ligament

External semilunar cartilage

Internal semilunar cartilage

Lig. mucosum

Ligamenta alaria

Superior tibio-fibular articulation

Anterior and posterior superior
tibio-fibular ligaments

Inferior tibio-fibular articulation

Internal lateral ligament of ankle

Anterior fasciculus of external
lateral ligament

Posterior fasciculus of external
lateral ligament

Middle fasciculus of external lateral
ligament

External calcaneo-astragaloid liga-
ment

Internal calcaneo-astragaloid liga-
ment

Inferior calcaneo-navicular ligament

Astragalo-scaphoid ligament

Superior calcaneo- scaphoid liga-
ment

Internal calcaneo-cuboid ligament



GLOSSARY



xvn



THE MUSCLES.

Muscles of the Back.
Superficial.



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
Levator scapulae



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Levator anguli scapulae



Muscles of the Chest.

Serratus anterior Serratus magnus

Muscles of Upper Extremity.



Biceps brachii

Lacertus fibrosus
Brachialis
Triceps brachii

Caput mediale

Caput laterale
Pronator teres

Caput ulnare
Brachio-radialis
Supinator

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor indicis proprius
Extensor digiti quinti proprius
Abductor pollicis longus
Abductor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis longus
Lig. carpi transversum
Lig. carpi dorsale



Biceps

Bicipital fascia
Brachialis anticus
Triceps

Inner head

Outer head
Pronator radii teres

Coronoid head
Supinator longus
Supinator brevis
Extensor carpi radialis longior
Extensor carpi radialis brevior
Extensor indicis
Extensor minimi digiti
Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis
Abductor pollicis
Extensor primi internodii pollicis
Extensor secundi internodii pollicis
Anterior annular ligament
Posterior annular ligament



Muscles of Lower Extremity.



Tensor fasciae latae

Canalis adductorius (Hunteri)

Trigonum femorale (fossa Scarpoe

major)

Canalis femoralis
Annulus femoralis
M. quadriceps femoris

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis

Vastus intermedius

Vastus medialis

M. articularis genu
Tibialis anterior



Tensor fasciae femoris
Hunter's canal
Scarpa's triangle

Crural canal
Crural ring
Quadriceps

Rectus femoris

Vastus externus

Crureus

Vastus internus

Subcrureus
Tibialis anticus



xviii GLOSSARY

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Tendo calcaneus Tendo Achillis

Tibialis posterior Tibialis posticus

Quadratus plantse Accessorius

Lig. transversum cruris Upper anterior annular ligament

Lig. cruciatum cruris Lower anterior annular ligament

Lig. laciniatum Internal annular ligament

Retinaculum musculorum pero- "\

nseorum superius

T? f - i , > External annular ligament

Ketmaculum musculorum pero- I

naeorum inferius



Axial Muscles.
Muscles of the Back.

Serratus posterior superior Serratus posticus superior

Serratus posterior inferior Serratus posticus inferior

Splenius cervicis Splenius colli

Sacro-spinalis Erector spinse

Ilio-costalis Ilio-costalis

Lumborum Sacro-lumbalis

Dorsi Accessorius

Cervicis Cervicalis ascenclens

Longissimus Longissimus

Dorsi Dorsi

Cervicis Transversalis cervicis

Capitis Trachelo-mastoid

Spinalis Spinalis

Dorsi Dorsi

Cervicis Colli

Capitis Capitis

Semispinalis Semispinalis

Dorsi Dorsi

Cervicis Colli

Capitis Complexus

Multifidus Multifidus spinse



Muscles of Head and Neck.

Epicranius Occipito-frontalis

Galea aponeurotica Epicranial aponeurosis

Procerus Pyramidalis nasi

Pars transversa (nasalis) Compressor naris

Pars alaris (nasalis) Dilatores naris

Auricularis anterior Attrahens aurem

Auricularis posterior Retrahens aurem

Auricularis superior Attollens aurem

Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis palpebrarum
Pars lacrimalis Tensor tarsi



GLOSSARY xix

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Triangularis Depressor anguli oris
Quadratus labii superioris

Caput zygomaticum Zygomaticus minor

Caput infraorbitale Levator labii superioris

Caput angulare Levator labii superioris alteque nasi

Zygomaticus Zygomaticus major

Caninus Levator anguli oris

Quadratus labii inferioris Depressor labii inferioris

Mentalis Levator menti

Platysma Platysma myoides

Sterno-thyreoid Sterno-thyroid

Thyreo-hyoid Thyro-hyoid

Muscles and Fascia of the Orbit.

Fascia bulbi Capsule of Tenon

Septum orbitale Palpebral ligaments

Rectus lateralis Rectus externus

Rectus medialis Rectus internus

Muscles of the Tongue.

Genio-glossus Genio-hyo-glossus

Longitudinalis superior Superior lingualis

Longitudinalis inferior Inferior lingualis

Transversus linguae Transverse fibres

Verticalis linguae Vertical fibres

Muscles of the Pharynx.

Pharyngo-palatinus Palato-pharyngeus

M. uvulae Azygos uvulae

Levator veli palatini Levator palati

Tensor veli palatini Tensor palati

Glosso-palatinus Palato-glossus

Deep Lateral Muscles of Neck.

Scalenus anterior Scalenus anticus

Scalenus posterior Scalenus posticus

Longus capitis Rectus capitis anticus major

Rectus capitis anterior Rectus capitis anticus minor

Muscles of Thorax.

Transversus thoracis Triangularis sterni

Diaphragma Diaphragm

Crus mediate ^ Crura and ori ins from arcuate

Crus intermedium 1 ligaments

Crus laterale J

Arcus lumbo - costalis medialis Ligamentum arcuatum internum

(Halleri)

Arcus lumbo - costalis lateralis Ligamentum arcuatum externum
(Halleri)



XX



GLOSSARY



Muscles of the Abdomen.



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Ligamentum inguinale (Pouparti)
Ligamentum lacunare (Gimbernati)
Fibrse intercrurales
Ligamentum inguinale reflexum

(Collesi)
Annulus inguinalis subcutaneus

Crus superius

Crus inferius

Falx aponeurotica inguinalis
M. transversus abdominis
Linea semicircularis (Douglasi)
Annulus inguinalis abdominalis



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Poupart's ligament
Gimbernat's ligament
Intercolumnar fibres
Triangular fascia

External abdominal ring

Internal pillar

External pillar
Conjoined tendon
Transversalis muscle
Fold of Douglas
Internal abdominal ring



Perineum and Pelvis.



Transversus perinei superficialis
M. sphincter urethrse membranacese
Diaphragma urogenitale

Fascia diaphragmatis urogenitalis

superior
Fascia diaphragmatis urogenitalis

inferior

Arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis
Ligamenta puboprostatica

Fascia diaphragmatis pelvis superior
Fascia diaphragmatis pelvis inferior



Transversus perinei
Compressor urethrse
Deep transverse muscle and sphinc-
ter urethrse
Deep layer of triangular ligament

Superficial layer of the triangular

ligament

White line of pelvis
Anterior and lateral true ligaments

of bladder

Visceral layer of pelvic fascia
Anal fascia



THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.



Medulla Spinalis.

Fasciculus anterior proprius (Flech-

sig)

Fasciculus lateralis propiius
Nucleus dorsalis
Pars thoracalis
Sulcus intermedius posterior
Columnse anteriores, etc.
Fasciculus cerebro-spinalis anterior
Fasciculus cerebro-spinalis lateralis

(pyramidalis)

Fasciculus cerebello-spinalis
Fasciculus antero- lateralis super-
ficialis



Spinal Cord.

Anterior ground or basis bundle

Lateral ground bundle
Clarke's column
Dorsal part of spinal cord
Paramedian furrow
Anterior grey column
Direct pyramidal tract
Crossed pyramidal tract

Direct cerebellar tract
Gowers' tract



GLOSSARY



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Online LibraryD. J. (Daniel John) CunninghamCunningham's manual of practical anatomy (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 44)