Daniel Defoe.

A Journal of the Plague Year, written by a citizen who continued all the while in London online

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A JOURNAL OF THE PLAGUE YEAR

By Daniel Defoe



being observations or memorials of the most remarkable occurrences, as
well public as private, which happened in London during the last great
visitation in 1665. Written by a Citizen who continued all the while in
London. Never made public before


It was about the beginning of September, 1664, that I, among the rest of
my neighbours, heard in ordinary discourse that the plague was returned
again in Holland; for it had been very violent there, and particularly
at Amsterdam and Rotterdam, in the year 1663, whither, they say, it was
brought, some said from Italy, others from the Levant, among some goods
which were brought home by their Turkey fleet; others said it was
brought from Candia; others from Cyprus. It mattered not from whence it
came; but all agreed it was come into Holland again.

We had no such thing as printed newspapers in those days to spread
rumours and reports of things, and to improve them by the invention of
men, as I have lived to see practised since. But such things as these
were gathered from the letters of merchants and others who corresponded
abroad, and from them was handed about by word of mouth only; so that
things did not spread instantly over the whole nation, as they do now.
But it seems that the Government had a true account of it, and several
councils were held about ways to prevent its coming over; but all was
kept very private. Hence it was that this rumour died off again, and
people began to forget it as a thing we were very little concerned in,
and that we hoped was not true; till the latter end of November or the
beginning of December 1664 when two men, said to be Frenchmen, died of
the plague in Long Acre, or rather at the upper end of Drury Lane. The
family they were in endeavoured to conceal it as much as possible, but
as it had gotten some vent in the discourse of the neighbourhood, the
Secretaries of State got knowledge of it; and concerning themselves to
inquire about it, in order to be certain of the truth, two physicians
and a surgeon were ordered to go to the house and make inspection. This
they did; and finding evident tokens of the sickness upon both the
bodies that were dead, they gave their opinions publicly that they died
of the plague. Whereupon it was given in to the parish clerk, and he
also returned them to the Hall; and it was printed in the weekly bill of
mortality in the usual manner, thus -


Plague, 2. Parishes infected, 1.

The people showed a great concern at this, and began to be alarmed all
over the town, and the more, because in the last week in December 1664
another man died in the same house, and of the same distemper. And then
we were easy again for about six weeks, when none having died with any
marks of infection, it was said the distemper was gone; but after that,
I think it was about the 12th of February, another died in another
house, but in the same parish and in the same manner.

This turned the people's eyes pretty much towards that end of the town,
and the weekly bills showing an increase of burials in St Giles's parish
more than usual, it began to be suspected that the plague was among the
people at that end of the town, and that many had died of it, though
they had taken care to keep it as much from the knowledge of the public
as possible. This possessed the heads of the people very much, and few
cared to go through Drury Lane, or the other streets suspected, unless
they had extraordinary business that obliged them to it

This increase of the bills stood thus: the usual number of burials in a
week, in the parishes of St Giles-in-the-Fields and St Andrew's,
Holborn, were from twelve to seventeen or nineteen each, few more or
less; but from the time that the plague first began in St Giles's
parish, it was observed that the ordinary burials increased in number
considerably. For example: -


From December 27 to January 3 { St Giles's 16
" { St Andrew's 17

" January 3 " " 10 { St Giles's 12
" { St Andrew's 25

" January 10 " " 17 { St Giles's 18
" { St Andrew's 28

" January 17 " " 24 { St Giles's 23
" { St Andrew's 16

" January 24 " " 31 { St Giles's 24
" { St Andrew's 15

" January 30 " February 7 { St Giles's 21
" { St Andrew's 23

" February 7 " " 14 { St Giles's 24

The like increase of the bills was observed in the parishes of St
Bride's, adjoining on one side of Holborn parish, and in the parish of
St James, Clerkenwell, adjoining on the other side of Holborn; in both
which parishes the usual numbers that died weekly were from four to six
or eight, whereas at that time they were increased as follows: -


From December 20 to December 27 { St Bride's 0
" { St James's 8

" December 27 to January 3 { St Bride's 6
" { St James's 9

" January 3 " " 10 { St Bride's 11
" { St James's 7

" January 10 " " 17 { St Bride's 12
" { St James's 9

" January 17 " " 24 { St Bride's 9
" { St James's 15

" January 24 " " 31 { St Bride's 8
" { St James's 12

" January 31 " February 7 { St Bride's 13
" { St James's 5

" February 7 " " 14 { St Bride's 12
" { St James's 6

Besides this, it was observed with great uneasiness by the people that
the weekly bills in general increased very much during these weeks,
although it was at a time of the year when usually the bills are very
moderate.

The usual number of burials within the bills of mortality for a week was
from about 240 or thereabouts to 300. The last was esteemed a pretty
high bill; but after this we found the bills successively increasing as
follows: -


Buried. Increased.
December the 20th to the 27th 291 ...
" " 27th " 3rd January 349 58
January the 3rd " 10th " 394 45
" " 10th " 17th " 415 21
" " 17th " 24th " 474 59

This last bill was really frightful, being a higher number than had been
known to have been buried in one week since the preceding visitation of
1656.

However, all this went off again, and the weather proving cold, and the
frost, which began in December, still continuing very severe even till
near the end of February, attended with sharp though moderate winds, the
bills decreased again, and the city grew healthy, and everybody began to
look upon the danger as good as over; only that still the burials in St
Giles's continued high. From the beginning of April especially they
stood at twenty-five each week, till the week from the 18th to the 25th,
when there was buried in St Giles's parish thirty, whereof two of the
plague and eight of the spotted-fever, which was looked upon as the same
thing; likewise the number that died of the spotted-fever in the whole
increased, being eight the week before, and twelve the week above-named.

This alarmed us all again, and terrible apprehensions were among the
people, especially the weather being now changed and growing warm, and
the summer being at hand. However, the next week there seemed to be some
hopes again; the bills were low, the number of the dead in all was but
388, there was none of the plague, and but four of the spotted-fever.

But the following week it returned again, and the distemper was spread
into two or three other parishes, viz., St Andrew's, Holborn; St Clement
Danes; and, to the great affliction of the city, one died within the
walls, in the parish of St Mary Woolchurch, that is to say, in
Bearbinder Lane, near Stocks Market; in all there were nine of the
plague and six of the spotted-fever. It was, however, upon inquiry found
that this Frenchman who died in Bearbinder Lane was one who, having
lived in Long Acre, near the infected houses, had removed for fear of
the distemper, not knowing that he was already infected.

This was the beginning of May, yet the weather was temperate, variable,
and cool enough, and people had still some hopes. That which encouraged
them was that the city was healthy: the whole ninety-seven parishes
buried but fifty-four, and we began to hope that, as it was chiefly
among the people at that end of the town, it might go no farther; and
the rather, because the next week, which was from the 9th of May to the
16th, there died but three, of which not one within the whole city or
liberties; and St Andrew's buried but fifteen, which was very low. 'Tis
true St Giles's buried two-and-thirty, but still, as there was but one
of the plague, people began to be easy. The whole bill also was very
low, for the week before the bill was but 347, and the week above
mentioned but 343. We continued in these hopes for a few days, but it
was but for a few, for the people were no more to be deceived thus; they
searched the houses and found that the plague was really spread every
way, and that many died of it every day. So that now all our
extenuations abated, and it was no more to be concealed; nay, it quickly
appeared that the infection had spread itself beyond all hopes of
abatement. That in the parish of St Giles it was gotten into several
streets, and several families lay all sick together; and, accordingly,
in the weekly bill for the next week the thing began to show itself.
There was indeed but fourteen set down of the plague, but this was all
knavery and collusion, for in St Giles's parish they buried forty in
all, whereof it was certain most of them died of the plague, though they
were set down of other distempers; and though the number of all the
burials were not increased above thirty-two, and the whole bill being
but 385, yet there was fourteen of the spotted-fever, as well as
fourteen of the plague; and we took it for granted upon the whole that
there were fifty died that week of the plague.

The next bill was from the 23rd of May to the 30th, when the number of
the plague was seventeen. But the burials in St Giles's were fifty-
three - a frightful number! - of whom they set down but nine of the
plague; but on an examination more strictly by the justices of peace,
and at the Lord Mayor's request, it was found there were twenty more who
were really dead of the plague in that parish, but had been set down of
the spotted-fever or other distempers, besides others concealed.

But those were trifling things to what followed immediately after; for
now the weather set in hot, and from the first week in June the
infection spread in a dreadful manner, and the bills rose high; the
articles of the fever, spotted-fever, and teeth began to swell; for all
that could conceal their distempers did it, to prevent their neighbours
shunning and refusing to converse with them, and also to prevent
authority shutting up their houses; which, though it was not yet
practised, yet was threatened, and people were extremely terrified at
the thoughts of it.

The second week in June, the parish of St Giles, where still the weight
of the infection lay, buried 120, whereof though the bills said but
sixty-eight of the plague, everybody said there had been 100 at least,
calculating it from the usual number of funerals in that parish, as
above.

Till this week the city continued free, there having never any died,
except that one Frenchman whom I mentioned before, within the whole
ninety-seven parishes. Now there died four within the city, one in Wood
Street, one in Fenchurch Street, and two in Crooked Lane. Southwark was
entirely free, having not one yet died on that side of the water.

I lived without Aldgate, about midway between Aldgate Church and
Whitechappel Bars, on the left hand or north side of the street; and as
the distemper had not reached to that side of the city, our
neighbourhood continued very easy. But at the other end of the town
their consternation was very great: and the richer sort of people,
especially the nobility and gentry from the west part of the city,
thronged out of town with their families and servants in an unusual
manner; and this was more particularly seen in Whitechappel; that is to
say, the Broad Street where I lived; indeed, nothing was to be seen but
waggons and carts, with goods, women, servants, children, &c.; coaches
filled with people of the better sort and horsemen attending them, and
all hurrying away; then empty waggons and carts appeared, and spare
horses with servants, who, it was apparent, were returning or sent from
the countries to fetch more people; besides innumerable numbers of men
on horseback, some alone, others with servants, and, generally speaking,
all loaded with baggage and fitted out for travelling, as anyone might
perceive by their appearance.

This was a very terrible and melancholy thing to see, and as it was a
sight which I could not but look on from morning to night (for indeed
there was nothing else of moment to be seen), it filled me with very
serious thoughts of the misery that was coming upon the city, and the
unhappy condition of those that would be left in it.

This hurry of the people was such for some weeks that there was no
getting at the Lord Mayor's door without exceeding difficulty; there
were such pressing and crowding there to get passes and certificates of
health for such as travelled abroad, for without these there was no
being admitted to pass through the towns upon the road, or to lodge in
any inn. Now, as there had none died in the city for all this time, my
Lord Mayor gave certificates of health without any difficulty to all
those who lived in the ninety-seven parishes, and to those within the
liberties too for a while.

This hurry, I say, continued some weeks, that is to say, all the month
of May and June, and the more because it was rumoured that an order of
the Government was to be issued out to place turnpikes and barriers on
the road to prevent people travelling, and that the towns on the road
would not suffer people from London to pass for fear of bringing the
infection along with them, though neither of these rumours had any
foundation but in the imagination, especially at-first.

I now began to consider seriously with myself concerning my own case,
and how I should dispose of myself; that is to say, whether I should
resolve to stay in London or shut up my house and flee, as many of my
neighbours did. I have set this particular down so fully, because I know
not but it may be of moment to those who come after me, if they come to
be brought to the same distress, and to the same manner of making their
choice; and therefore I desire this account may pass with them rather
for a direction to themselves to act by than a history of my actings,
seeing it may not be of one farthing value to them to note what became
of me.

I had two important things before me: the one was the carrying on my
business and shop, which was considerable, and in which was embarked all
my effects in the world; and the other was the preservation of my life
in so dismal a calamity as I saw apparently was coming upon the whole
city, and which, however great it was, my fears perhaps, as well as
other people's, represented to be much greater than it could be.

The first consideration was of great moment to me; my trade was a
saddler, and as my dealings were chiefly not by a shop or chance trade,
but among the merchants trading to the English colonies in America, so
my effects lay very much in the hands of such. I was a single man, 'tis
true, but I had a family of servants whom I kept at my business; had a
house, shop, and warehouses filled with goods; and, in short, to leave
them all as things in such a case must be left (that is to say, without
any overseer or person fit to be trusted with them), had been to hazard
the loss not only of my trade, but of my goods, and indeed of all I had
in the world.

I had an elder brother at the same time in London, and not many years
before come over from Portugal: and advising with him, his answer was in
three words, the same that was given in another case quite different,
viz., 'Master, save thyself.' In a word, he was for my retiring into the
country, as he resolved to do himself with his family; telling me what
he had, it seems, heard abroad, that the best preparation for the plague
was to run away from it. As to my argument of losing my trade, my goods,
or debts, he quite confuted me. He told me the same thing which I argued
for my staying, viz., that I would trust God with my safety and health,
was the strongest repulse to my pretensions of losing my trade and my
goods; 'for', says he, 'is it not as reasonable that you should trust
God with the chance or risk of losing your trade, as that you should
stay in so eminent a point of danger, and trust Him with your life?'

I could not argue that I was in any strait as to a place where to go,
having several friends and relations in Northamptonshire, whence our
family first came from; and particularly, I had an only sister in
Lincolnshire, very willing to receive and entertain me.

My brother, who had already sent his wife and two children into
Bedfordshire, and resolved to follow them, pressed my going very
earnestly; and I had once resolved to comply with his desires, but at
that time could get no horse; for though it is true all the people did
not go out of the city of London, yet I may venture to say that in a
manner all the horses did; for there was hardly a horse to be bought or
hired in the whole city for some weeks. Once I resolved to travel on
foot with one servant, and, as many did, lie at no inn, but carry a
soldier's tent with us, and so lie in the fields, the weather being very
warm, and no danger from taking cold. I say, as many did, because
several did so at last, especially those who had been in the armies in
the war which had not been many years past; and I must needs say that,
speaking of second causes, had most of the people that travelled done
so, the plague had not been carried into so many country towns and
houses as it was, to the great damage, and indeed to the ruin, of
abundance of people.

But then my servant, whom I had intended to take down with me, deceived
me; and being frighted at the increase of the distemper, and not knowing
when I should go, he took other measures, and left me, so I was put off
for that time; and, one way or other, I always found that to appoint to
go away was always crossed by some accident or other, so as to
disappoint and put it off again; and this brings in a story which
otherwise might be thought a needless digression, viz., about these
disappointments being from Heaven.

I mention this story also as the best method I can advise any person to
take in such a case, especially if he be one that makes conscience of
his duty, and would be directed what to do in it, namely, that he should
keep his eye upon the particular providences which occur at that time,
and look upon them complexly, as they regard one another, and as all
together regard the question before him: and then, I think, he may
safely take them for intimations from Heaven of what is his unquestioned
duty to do in such a case; I mean as to going away from or staying in
the place where we dwell, when visited with an infectious distemper.

It came very warmly into my mind one morning, as I was musing on this
particular thing, that as nothing attended us without the direction or
permission of Divine Power, so these disappointments must have something
in them extraordinary; and I ought to consider whether it did not
evidently point out, or intimate to me, that it was the will of Heaven I
should not go. It immediately followed in my thoughts, that if it really
was from God that I should stay, He was able effectually to preserve me
in the midst of all the death and danger that would surround me; and
that if I attempted to secure myself by fleeing from my habitation, and
acted contrary to these intimations, which I believe to be Divine, it
was a kind of flying from God, and that He could cause His justice to
overtake me when and where He thought fit.

These thoughts quite turned my resolutions again, and when I came to
discourse with my brother again I told him that I inclined to stay and
take my lot in that station in which God had placed me, and that it
seemed to be made more especially my duty, on the account of what I have
said.

My brother, though a very religious man himself, laughed at all I had
suggested about its being an intimation from Heaven, and told me several
stories of such foolhardy people, as he called them, as I was; that I
ought indeed to submit to it as a work of Heaven if I had been any way
disabled by distempers or diseases, and that then not being able to go,
I ought to acquiesce in the direction of Him, who, having been my Maker,
had an undisputed right of sovereignty in disposing of me, and that then
there had been no difficulty to determine which was the call of His
providence and which was not; but that I should take it as an intimation
from Heaven that I should not go out of town, only because I could not
hire a horse to go, or my fellow was run away that was to attend me, was
ridiculous, since at the time I had my health and limbs, and other
servants, and might with ease travel a day or two on foot, and having a
good certificate of being in perfect health, might either hire a horse
or take post on the road, as I thought fit.

Then he proceeded to tell me of the mischievous consequences which
attended the presumption of the Turks and Mahometans in Asia and in
other places where he had been (for my brother, being a merchant, was a
few years before, as I have already observed, returned from abroad,
coming last from Lisbon), and how, presuming upon their professed
predestinating notions, and of every man's end being predetermined and
unalterably beforehand decreed, they would go unconcerned into infected
places and converse with infected persons, by which means they died at
the rate of ten or fifteen thousand a week, whereas the Europeans or
Christian merchants, who kept themselves retired and reserved, generally
escaped the contagion.

Upon these arguments my brother changed my resolutions again, and I
began to resolve to go, and accordingly made all things ready; for, in
short, the infection increased round me, and the bills were risen to
almost seven hundred a week, and my brother told me he would venture to
stay no longer. I desired him to let me consider of it but till the next
day, and I would resolve: and as I had already prepared everything as
well as I could as to MY business, and whom to entrust my affairs with,
I had little to do but to resolve.

I went home that evening greatly oppressed in my mind, irresolute, and
not knowing what to do. I had set the evening wholly - apart to consider
seriously about it, and was all alone; for already people had, as it
were by a general consent, taken up the custom of not going out of doors
after sunset; the reasons I shall have occasion to say more of by-and-
by.

In the retirement of this evening I endeavoured to resolve, first, what
was my duty to do, and I stated the arguments with which my brother had
pressed me to go into the country, and I set, against them the strong
impressions which I had on my mind for staying; the visible call I
seemed to have from the particular circumstance of my calling, and the
care due from me for the preservation of my effects, which were, as I
might say, my estate; also the intimations which I thought I had from
Heaven, that to me signified a kind of direction to venture; and it
occurred to me that if I had what I might call a direction to stay, I
ought to suppose it contained a promise of being preserved if I obeyed.

This lay close to me, and my mind seemed more and more encouraged to
stay than ever, and supported with a secret satisfaction that I should
be kept. Add to this, that, turning over the Bible which lay before me,


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Online LibraryDaniel DefoeA Journal of the Plague Year, written by a citizen who continued all the while in London → online text (page 1 of 22)