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FLORA OF TROPICAL AFRICA.



FLORA



OF



TROPICAL AFEICA.



EDITED BY



SIR W. T. THISELTON-DYER, K.C.M.G., CLE.,

LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S.

HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD ; LATE DTRECTOR, ROYAL

BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW ; AND LATE BOTANICAL ADVISER TO

THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES.



VOL. VL— SECTION 1.
NYCTAGINEJi TO EUPHORBIAG E JE.



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE
FOR THE COLONIES.




L. REEVE & CO. LTD.

THE OAST HOUSE, BROOK, ASHFORD, KENT,

ENGLAND.

1913.



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF THE SEVERAL PARTS
OF THIS VOLUME.



Part I. pp. 1-192 was published March 1909.
II. „ 193-384 „ December 1910.



„ III.
„IV.
„ V.
., VI.



385-676
577-768
769-960
961 to end

Reprinted 1963



October 1911.
March 1912.
October 1912.
AprU 1913.



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY HEADLEY BROTHERS LTD
109 KINGSWAY LONDON WC2 AND ASHFORD KENT



PREFACE



This is the last section of the " Flora of Tropical Africa " which will
be issued under my editorship. The control and supervision necessary
in an undertaking of the kind cannot be properly exercised except at
the headquarters of its preparation. Some degree of uniformity must
at least be aimed at in the work of different contributors. Questions
will consequently arise on which the editor must give a decision:
difficulties which are readily solved by personal discussion are not
disposed of so easily by correspondence.

The preparation of this section has been protracted. When I retired
from the Directorship of Kew in 1905 much of the material available
had been worked up by my indefatigable contributor, Mr. J. G.
Baker, F.R.S. The continuous access of fresh collections had in the
meantime largely added to it. In fact the general position with regard
to the Flora resembles the " Curve of 'Pursuit," in which the pursuer
has to change his direction constantly in the attempt to overtake his
elusive quarry. In the case of the smaller orders Mr. Baker's advanced
years made it necessary to entrust the necessary additions to other
hands. The Eiqyhorhiacece were not so easily disposed of. This vast
family will probably prove to supply the dominant constituent of tropical
forests. In view of the large access of fresh material and of what had
been worked out by Continental botanists it was necessary to recast
entirely what had been prepared. This task was generously undertaken
by my successor Lt.-Col. Sir David Prain, F.R.S., and though my
name stands on the title-page of the volume, its accomplishment and the
merit which attaches to it must for the most part be attributed to his
indefatigable energy and critical insight. Mr. J. Hutchinson collabo-
rated with him, and Mr. N. E. Brown, A.L.S., who finds a peculiar
fascination in the study of succulent plants, the difficulties of which
most botanists find deterrent, undertook the genus Euphorbia.

The present section thus disposes of all that was in view when I
retired from Kew. The " Flora of Tropical Africa " differs from other



VI PREFACE.

works in the series of which it is a part in having an official and not a
personal character. In the preface to the seventh volume I have given
an account of the circumstances of its initiation and of those under
which at the instance of the Government its preparation was resumed.

In view of what I have said, I can have no doubt that I am adopting
the course which is most expedient in the interest of the work in
resigning the task of its completion to the present Director of Kew.

It has been the practice in the more recent works that have been
prepared at Kew to conform to the classification and sequence of orders
adopted in Bentham and Hooker's "Genera Plantarum." This was
accordingly done by Professor Oliver, F.R.S., in the first and second
volumes. In the third he appears to have preferred the continuous
numbering of the cohorts given by Sir Joseph Hooker in his translation
of "A General ' System of Botany" by Le Maout and Decaisne.
Bentham and Hooker, however, in the " Genera Plantarum " commence
a new numbering of the cohorts for Gamopetalce. This I have followed
in Vol. lY. The numerical sequence does not therefore follow on from
that of Professor Oliver, but as the actual sequence adopted by him is
that of the " Genera Plantarum " anyone who cares to do so can readily
correct Professor Oliver's numbers. Unfortunately, in Vol. V. a further
correction is necessary. By one of those clerical oversights which can
only be accounted for by the frailty of human nature, the numbering of
the cohorts does not conform to either work. Personales should be ix.
instead oF xxiv. and Lamiales x. instead of xxv.

Although the Old World has always had before it the problem of
unknown Africa, it is singular how tardy has been its exploration
compared with that of the New. Yet it has been for no lack of curiosity.
In the fourth century B.C., and possibly earlier, the Greeks had a
proverb preserved by Aristotle, aii cpepd n M^vr) Kaivov. At the
commencement of our era Pliny, if with a whimsical explanation, recalls
the " vulgare GrsecisB dictum semper aliquid novi Africam adferre."
In our twentieth century the novelty descends on the bewildered
botanist in a continuous flood, and more than one generation will come
and go without seeing it exhausted.

A quarter of a century separates the three volumes of the " Flora
of Tropical Africa " issued by Professor Oliver from the fourth edited
by myself. Nothing more was claimed for the former than that they
were a " repertory" of what was known of the vegetation of the time,
imperfect as that knowledge was. Dr. Stapf in a memorandum in
the "Kew Bulletin" for 1900 (pp. 239, 240) has brought out in a



PREFACE.



striking way the immense progress it has made in the interval. "For
every three species then known, five species have since been added."
There is therefore ah^eady room for a supplement to the first three
volumes of more than equal bulk. It would not be becoming for me to
lay the burden on Kew. But it may be hoped that if, as may be con-
fidently expected, it is able to complete the *' Flora of Tropical Africa " on
the lines already laid down, substantial encouragement will not be
wanting from H.M. Government to enable the Kew stafi' to add further
to our knowledge of the vegetable resources of a portion of the earth's
surface in which as a nation we have so large a stake.

For the amended definition of the regions into which the area of the
Flora is divided, reference may be made to the preface to the seventh
volume.

The further collections made use of in the present volume and not
previously acknowledged are as follows :

I. Upper Guinea. — Aug. Chevalier, French Guinea ; C. E. Lane-
Poole and C. W. Smythe, Sierra Leone ; Aug, Chevalier, Ivory Coast ;
J. Anderson, R. W. Brent, T. F. Chipp, A. E. Evans, A. C. Miles,
and H. N. Thompson, Gold Coast; K. E. Dennett, H. Dodd, G. C.
Dudgeon, J. H. J. Farquhar, Dr. Lamborn, J. C. Leslie, T. D. Mait-
land, ]Mr. and Mrs. P. A.' Talbot, N. W. Thomas, A. H. Unwin, and
J. L. Williams, Southern Nigeria ; Dr, J. M. Dalziel, Col. E. J .
Lugard, Dr. A. C. Pardons, B. E. B. Shaw, and C. C. Yates, Northern
Nigeria.

II. North Central. — Aug. Chevalier, Chari Ilegion, Darbanda,
French Congo, &c.

III. Nile Land. — Dr. R. E. Drake-Brockman and 11. J. Stordy,
Southern Abyssinia ; A. F. Broun, Sudan ; M. S. Evans. II. Fyffe, and

C. B. Ussher, Uganda ; E. Battiscombe, M. S. Evans, E. E. Galpin,

D. E. Hutchins, H. Powell, and \V. S. Iloutledge, British East Africa.
lY. Lower Guinea. — J. Gossweiler and Dr. F. G. Wellman, Angola ;

E. E. Galpin, German South-West Africa.

Y. South Central. — Ilev. F. A. llogcrs and F. Thonner, Belgian
Congo.

YI. Mozambique Distr.— J. T. Last, Zanzibar ; M. T. Dawe, \V. H.
Johnson, and J. Stocks, Portuguese East Africa ; J. M. Purves, Nyasa-
land; Mrs. 0. Colville, E. E. Galpin, Miss L. S. Gibbs, Rev. Dr. F. 0.
Kolbe, H. G. Mundy, and Rev. F. A. Rogers, Rhodesia.

The most cordial acknowledgments are due to Professor I. B. Balfour,
Monsieur G. Beauverd, Professor A. Borzi, Dr. J. Briquet, Monsieur



VI 11 PREFACE.

H. Courtet, Dr. A. Engler, Dr. J. W. C. Goethart, Dr. J. A. Henriques,
Professor H. Lecomte, Dr. C. A. M. Lindman, Dr. C. H. Ostenfeld,
Professor R. Pirotta, Dr. A. B. Rendle, Professor Hans Schinz, Professor
E. Warming, Dr. R. Wettstein, Dr. E. De Wildeman, and Dr. A.
Zahlbruckner, for the generous loan of type specimens and other mate-
rial from the herbaria under their charge.

I must add my final acknowledgments of the aid given me by
Assistants in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens; to Mr.
0. H. Wright, A.L.S., in preparing the manuscript for the press and in
checking the proofs ; and to Mr. N. E. Brown, A.L.S., for working out
the geographical distribution.

For the detailed topography the third edition of the " Spezial-Karte
von Africa" (Gotha : Justus Perthes, 1893) has been chiefly used.

W. T. T-D.

WiTCOMBE ; Fehmanj 17, 1913.



I



CONTENTS



I'ttge

Conspectus op the Orders . . . . . . xi

Order CIV. Nyctagineae 1

CV. Illecebraceaj 9

CVI. Amarantaceae 14

CVII. Chenopodiaceae 76

CVIIT. Phytolaccaceae 94

CIX. Polygonaceae . . . . . 98

ex. Podostemaceae 120

CXI. Cytinaceae 130

CXII. Aristolochiaceas 134

CXIII. Piperaceae 143

CXIV. Myristicaceas 156

CXV. Monimiaceae 167

CXVI. Laurineae 171

CXVIA. Hernandiaceae 189

CXVII. Proteacese 193

CXVIII. Thymeleeacese 212

CXIX. Loranthaceae 255

CXX. Santalaceae 411

CXXI. Balanophoreae 434

CXXH. Euphorbiaceae 441

Addenda 1021



CONSPECTUS OF THE ORDERS CONTAINED IN
THE SIXTH VOLUME.— SECTION 1.



CLASS L— DICOTYLEDONES.

SUBCLASS III.— MONOCHLAMYDE^.

Series Z. — Curvembryeee. Seed with usually floury albumen; embryo
curved, lateral or peripheral, more rarely nearly straight^ subcentral. Ovule
usually solitary and erect, rarely several. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual
or polygamous. Petals usually absent. Stamens as many as the periaath'Segments
or fewer, rarely more. Leaves usually entire.

CIV. Nyotaghnejs. Base of the perianth persistent, enclosing and often
adhering to the fruit. Stamens hypogynous. Carpel solitary ; style simple. Seed
with inferior radicle. Herbs, shrubs or trees.

CV. Illecebeace^. Perianth persistent, herbaceous or with scarious margins.
Stamens perigynous. Ovary 1-celled; style-arms 2-3 or styles 2-3. Herbs, rarely
small shrubs. Leaves usually opposite ; stipules scarious,

CVI. Amarantaceje. Perianth dry, not herbaceous, subtended by a bract and
2 braeteoles. Stamens hypogynous or perigynous ; filaments united at the base and
often with alternating teeth. Ovary 1-celled; style simple or 2-3-fid. Fruit a
membranous utricle (rarely a berry), breaking irregularly or circumscissile. Herbs
or undershrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, exstipulate.

CVIL Chenopodiace^. Perianth membranous or herbaceous. Stamens
hypogynous or perigynous ; filaments usually free. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled ; style
simple or 2-3-lobed, or styles 2-5, distinct. Utricle included in the persistent
perianth, indehiscent, sometimes subbaccate. Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate,
exstipulate.

CVIIL PHYTOLACCACEiE. Perianth herbaceous or coriaceous, rarely membranous,
persistent or deciduous. Stamens hypogynous; filaments sometimes connate at tho

zi



xii CONSPECTUS OF THE ORDERS

base. Carpels solitary, or many, free or connate; styles as many as the carpel*, free.
Shrubs or herbs, rarely trees. Leaves alternate ; stipules none or small.

CIX. PoLYGONACEvE. Perianth herbaceous or membranous, sometimes coloured
4-6-merous, rarely adherent to the base of the ovary. Stamens perigynous, usually
6-9 (in Symmeria 20-30) ; filaments free or connate at tlie base. Ovary 1-celled,
1-ovuled; styles or style-arms 2-3. Seeds with superior radicle. Herbs or shrubs.
Leaves alternate, dilated at the base into a membranous sheath ; stipules usually
ochreate.

Series ZZ. — Multlovulatae Aquaticae. Submerged herbs. Ovary syn-
carpous 1-3-celled, superior; ovules numerous in each cell or on each placenta.

ex. PoDOSTEMACE^. Herbs of various habit, often resembling mosses, foliaceous
or frondose hepaticse and algae. Perianth minute or absent. Stamens 1 to many.
Ovary with 2-3 cells or placentas. Seeds exalbuminous.

Series ZZZ. — Multlovulatae Terrestres. Terrestrial herbs or shrubs.
Ovary syncarpous, inferior ; ovules numerous in each cell or on each placenta.

CXI. Cytinace-E. Fleshy root- or branch-parasites, leafless or with the leaves
reduced to scales. Seed albuminous; embryo small.

CXII. Aristolochiace^. Erect or climbing leafy herbs or shrubs. Seed with
fleshy albumen; embryo small.

Series ZV. — Mlcrembryeee. Ovary syncarpous, monocarpous or apocarpous ;
ovules solitary (rarely 2 or few) in each carpel. Seed with copious fleshy or floury
' albumen ; embryo minute or small.

CXIIL PlPEBACE^. Stamens 2-6, free. Ovary syncarpous, l-celled and
1-ovuled in the Tropical African genera. Herbs or shrubs, erect or climbing.
Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate. Flowers minute, spicate.

CXIV. Myristicace^. Stamens 2-30, monadelphous. Carpel solitary; ovule
1, subbasal. Radicle inferior. Trees. Leaves alternate, often with pellucid dots.
Flowers small, variously arranged.

CXV. Monimiace^. Stamens numerous ; anthers frequently subsessile. Carj^els
many, distinct, or in Xymalos and Plagiostyles solitary; ovule erect or pendulous.
Radicle inferior or superior. Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate.
Flowers in axillary fascicles, cymes or racemes.

Series V. — Bapbnales. Carpel solitary, very rarely several united ; ovules
solitary or 2 collateral, very rarely i?» superposed pairs. Perianth usually calycine,
sometimes coloured ; lobes 1-2-seriate. Stamens as many ar twice as many as the
perianth-lobes, or in Hernandiacece fewer. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs.



CONSPECTUS OF THE ORDERS. xiii

CXVI. Laukinej:. Perianth -lobes 6 or 8, 2-seiiate, imbricate. Stamens
typically in 4 whorls, one whorl often reduced to staminodes j anthers dehiscing by
valves from below upwards. Ovary superior, 1 -celled, sometimes enclosed in the
receptacle; ovule solitary, pendulous. Radicle superior. Trees or shrubs, very
rarely {Cassytha) twining parasitic herbs. Leaves alternate, in Cassytha reduced to
small scales.

CXVIa. Hernandiace^. Perianth-lobes 4-10, 2-seriate, valvate or imbricate.
Stamens 3-7; anthers dehiscing by valves; staminodes usually present. Ovary
inferior, 1 -celled; ovule solitary, pendulous. Radicle superior. Trees or shrubs,
sometimes climbing. Leaves alternate.

CXVII. Proteace^. Perianth-lobes 4, 1-seriate, valvate. Stamens as many
as the perianth-lobes and opposite them; anthers dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary
sujuerior, 1-celled; ovule solitary and laterally attached in the Tropical African
genera. Radicle lateral. Shrubs or tree?, rarely perennial herbs. Leaves alternate,
raiely opposite or verticillate.

CXVIII. TiiymeljeacEjE. Perianth-lobes 4-5, 2-seriate, imbricate. Stamens
perigynous, as many or twice as many as the perianth-lobes; anthers dehiscing
longitudinally. Ovary superior, 1-4 -celled ; ovule solitary in each cell, pendulous.
Radicle superior. Trees or shrubs, rarely slender annual herbs, with tough fibrous
bark, often heath-like. Leaves opposite or alternate.

Series VX. — Achlamydosporeae. Ovary usually inferioTy 1-celled ; ovules
1-3, usually not evident hef ore flowering. Seeds.xoithout a testUy sometimes adhering
to the pericarp. Perianth sometimes coloured,

CXIX. Loraiithace^. Green shrubs, more rarely herbs, parasitic. Ovule
solitary, erect.

CXX. Santalaceje. Herbs, shrubs or trees, often parasitic. Ovules 2-4,
pendulous from a free-central placenta.

CXXI. Balanophore^. Fleshy herbs parasitic on roots, without chlorophyll
but usually brightly coloured. Leaves reduced to scales.

Series VZZ. — Unlsexnales. Flowers unisexual. Ovary syncarpous or
monocarpous ; styles as many as the carpels, often bipartite ; ovules solitary or 2
collateral. Seed albuminous or exalbuminous. Herbs, shrubs or trees. Perianth
calycine, small or none ; petals present in some Euphorbiaceoe.

CXXII. EuPHORBiACE^. Inflorescence, perianth and stamens very variable.
Ovary 2-3- (rarely many-) celled, rarely of 1 carpel. Fruit usually breaking into
2-valved cocci (winged in Hymenocardia), sometimes drupaceous or nut-like.
Albumen U'^nally copious and fleshy, sometimes thin or none ; radicle superior. Herbs
shrubs or uces, often with milky juice, sometimes cactus-like.



FLORA OF THOPICAL AFRICA.



Order CIV. NYCTAGINE^. (By J. G. Baker, with
additions by C. H. Wright.)

Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, regular. Perianth inferior,
small, herbaceous or petaloid, persistent and usually accrescent ; tube
from short to very long, sometimes circumscissile above the base ; limb
truncate or 3-5-toothed or -lobed. Stamens l-oo , hypogynous ;
filaments free or connate into a cup at the base, involute-circinnate in.
bud ; anthers dorsifixed, 2-celled, dehiscence longitudinal. Ovary sessile
or stalked, 1-celled ; style short or long, slender ; stigma small, capitel-
late, peltate or fimbriate ; ovule solitary, erect, campylotropous, on a
short f anicle. Fruit {cmthocarp) enclosed in the persistent base of the
perianth, costate, sulcate or winged, sometimes glandular. Seed erect ;
endosperm scanty or copious ; embryo straight or curved. — Herbs, rarely
shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite and alternate, sessile or stalked,
simple, entire, exstipulate. Flowers in terminal or axillary cymes,
panicles or corymbs; bracts often forming a brightly coloured in-
volucre.

Species about 150, chiefly American, from the United States to Chili ; a few in
India, tlie Mascarene and Pacific Isles.

BongainviUea spectahilis, Willd., is naturalised at Banana, on the Lower Congo,
according to Dunind and Schinz, Etudes FI. Cungo, i. 231.

Bracts large, connate 1. Mieabilis.

Bracts minute, free

Herbs; flowers hermaphrodite . . . .2. Boeuhaavia.

Shrubs ; flowei's polygamo-dioecious

Flowers and leaves not fascicled . . . .3. Pisoxia.

Flowers and leaves fascicled .... 4. Ph.eoptilum.

1. MIRABILIS, Linn. ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. iii. 3.

Involucre calyx-like, 5-lobed, marcescent, 1-cc -flowered. Perianth-
tube long, constricted above the ovary ; limb rather flattened, 5-lobed,



2 CIV. NYCTAGINE.E (baker AND wright). [MirabUts.

plicate, deciduous. Stamens 5-6, unequal, exserted ; filaments capil-
lary, incurved at the apex, united into a short cup at the base ; anther-
cells subglobose. Ovary ellipsoid or ovoid ; style filiform, exserted ;
stigma capitellate, bearing stalked papillae. Fruit enclosed in the
hardened base of the perianth and surrounded at the base by the
persistent staminal cup. Seeds adhering to the pericarp; embryo
curved ; cotyledons surrounding the scanty farinaceous endosperm. —
Di- or tri-chotomously branched herbs, glabrous or glandular- pubescent ;
roote elongated or tuberous. Leaves opposite, the lower petioled, upper
sessile. Involucres cymosely arranged. Flowers rather large, fragrant
or inodorous, white, red or variously coloured.
Species about 10, in the hotter parts of America.

1. M. Jalapa, Linn. Sp. PL ed. i. 177. An erect perennial herb
about 2 ft. high. Koot napiform. Stem glabrous or shortly pubescent.
Leaves thin, ovate or ovate-cordate, acuminate, glabrous or pulverulent
above, often ciliate on tlie margin and bearing cystoliths below, 3 in.
long, 1^^ in. wide; petiole slender, ^ in. long. Involucre ^ in. long;
lobes ovate. Flowers 3-6 in each cyme. Perianth purple, red, yellow
or white ; tube l^ in. long, cylindrical below, funnel-shaped at the top ;
limb spreading, 1 in. or rather more in diam. — Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. l,i.
234 ; Bot. Mag. t. 371 ; Plenck, Ic. PI. ii. 37, t. 137 ; Choisy in DC.
Prodr. xiii. ii. 427; Schmidt in Mart. Fl. Bras. xiv. ii. 349, t. 81;
Hiern in Cat. Afr. PI. Welw. i. 881 ; Cummins in Kew Bulletin, 1898,
77. M. dichotoma, Linn. Syst. ed. 10, ii. 931, and Sp. PI. ed. 2, 252;
Welw. Apont. 547. Nyctago Jalapce, DC. Fl. Fran^. iii. 426. Jalapa
officinalis^ Crantz, Inst. ii. 266.

Upper Guinea. Ashanti, Cummins! Lagos, Punchy 19! Rowland! Sierra
Leone, Winwood Reade !

irile band. Gallabat : region of Matamina, 5cAtrei/i/ur<A, 2444!

IdOwer Oalnea. Island of St. Thomas, Moller. Aneola: Cazengo and
Oolungo Alto ; in forests on the banks of the River Luinhn, Welwitsch, 5376, 5377 ;
Icolo e Bengo ; at the convent of San Antonio, Welwitsch, 5377b ; Pungo Andongo ;
abundant along the banks of streams, Welwitsch.

Mozamb. Blst. German East Africa : Usambara ; Amboni, Hoist, 2799 •'
Portuguese East Africa : Mozambique, Peters. Sbamo, near the mouth of the
River Shire, iTirX: / Nyasaland : Manganja Hills; at N'Garls Village, 3000 ft.,
Meller ! Waller ! Zanzibar, Lyne !

A native of Peru, now established in many parts of the Old World.

2. BOERHAAVIA, Yaill. ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. iii. 5.

Bracts minute, rarely forming an involucre. Perianth-tube cylin-
drical, the lower part persistent and becoming hardened to enclose the
fruit, the upper part petaloid and deciduous; limb shortly 5-lobed.
Stamens 1-5, more or less exserted ; filaments capillary, connate at the
base ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary stipiLate ; style capillary ; stigma
peltate. Persistent base of the perianth clavate, hard, 5-ribbed, often



J^oerhaavia.] civ. nyctagine.e (baker and wrigut). 3

glandular, enclosing the fruit. Seed adherent to the pericarp ; em-
bryo uncinate ; cotyledons thin, broad, encircling the thin endosperm ;
radicle long. — Much-branched herbs. Leaves opposite, entire or slightly
repand. Flowers small, usually umbellate ; pedicels articulated at the
apex.

Species about 20, throughout the tropics and warm temperate regions.
Perianth not more than 2^ lin. long.

Flowers usually solitary, rarely 2-3-nate.

Leaves glabrous . . . . . . . 1. J9. elegans.

Leaves pubescent 2,. B. hereroensis.

Flowers all in terminal umbels.

Fruit-perianth 1^ lin. long . . . . . 3. JB. adscendens.

Fruit-perianth 2 lin. long . . . . . 4. .B. repens.

Fruit-perianth 3 lin. long . . . . h. B. Schinzii.

Flowers both in terminal umbels and lateral whorls.

Upper part of perianth 1 lin. long . . . Q. B. verticillafa.

Upper part of perianth 2^ lin. long . . . 7. B. fallacissima.

Perianth at least 3 lin. long.

Pedicels short. Fruit with large globose glands near

the apex , . 8. 5. plumhaginea. .

Pedicels long.

Kibs of fruit-perianth obscure . . . . 9. JB. pentandra.

Ribs of fruit-perianth distinct .... 10. B. squarrosa.

1. B. elegans, ChoisTj in DC. Prodr. xiii. ii. 453. Stems tall,
branched, woody at the base, glabrous. Leaves distinctly petioled,
broadly ovate, 1^ in. long and broad, glabrous, whitish beneath.
Flowers solitary, rarely in pairs, arranged in a lax ample panicle above
the leaves; ultimate panicle-branches very slender; bracts minute;
pedicels very short. Upper portion of the perianth very small, cam-
panulate; accrescent base clavate, \-^ in. long, pentagonal, viscid or
glabrate. Stamens 2. — B. repens^ var. elegans, Aschers. & Schweinf. in
Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 1G9. B. rubicunda, Steud. Nomencl.
ed. 2, i. 213. B. Marlothii, Heimerl in Engl. Jahrb. x. 10.

srile Dtand. Coast of Nubia, ex Boissier. Uganda : Unyoro, Speke Sf Grants
540 ! British East Africa : Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefield I

Xiower Guinea. Angola : in open places near the sea at IJanana, Monteiro!
(German Sonth-West Africa : Hereroland ; in stony i)laces at Otyimbingue, 2900 ft.,
Marloth, 1342.

Mozamb. Blst. German East Africa : liovuma River, Kirk ! Britisli
Central Africa: Nyasaland ; Zomba and vicinity, 2500-3500 ft., Whyte!
Also in Arabia and Eastwards to Beluchistan.
The roots are eaten by the natives in Unyoi'o, according to Speke and Grant.

2. B. hereroensis, Heimerl in Engl. Jahrh. x. 9. Very much
branched, dittuse, very viscid herb ; slender stems densely pubescent.
Leaves thick, pubescent, the lower and middle cuneately narrowed into
a petiole as long as the blade, oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 times longer than
broad, obtuse, the upper suddenly smaller, subacute, shortly petioled.



Online LibraryDaniel OliverFlora of tropical Africa (Volume 06, no 1) → online text (page 1 of 140)