the real estate by the law of England, and that they had no power to proceed otherwise than by the law,
the will [of the Governor] being deficient to convey real estate.
Order to pay Thos. Hutchinson i>86o
T. and Elisha, as Executors 1 5
(Hutchinson, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 421.)
LlEUT.-CoLONEL CONNOLLY (page 67)
John Connolly, b. 1743 (?), published in 1783 in London a sketch of his career (Pennsylvania Magazine,
of Hist, and Biog., xii. 310-24, 407-20, and xiii. 61-70, 153-67, and 281-91), of which good use has been
made in a Paper written by Mr. Driffenderfer (Lancaster County, Pa., Hist. Soc. Papers, vol. vii, No. 6).
Mr. Driffenderfer writes in a very different style from that to which we are accustomed in the younger
school of American historians ; but epithets such as land grabber , subservient political intriguer ,
culled from Bancroft, do not obscure our vision of an active, capable man, who may have been quite
honest up to his own lights. Bred for medicine, Connolly preferred the life of a soldier and served as
volunteer first in the Martinique expedition and then on the Western Virginian frontier, when he
explored our newly-acquired territory, visited the various tribes of native Americans, studied their
different manners and customs, undertook the most toilsome marches with them through the extensive
wilds of Canada, and depended upon the precarious chase for very subsistence for months successively .
Meeting Lord Dunmore at Pittsburg, he became his active ally first in his attempt to secure for Virginia
what was recognized as belonging to Pennsylvania, and afterwards in the attempt to organize from the
West an attack upon Eastern Virginia. Indignant protests against Connolly s behaviour at Pittsburg
from Governor Penn of Pennsylvania will be found in Penns. Archives, 4th ser., vol. iii, pp. 454, 464,
478, and 480. He seizes upon the property of the people without reason and treats the persons of the
magistrates with the utmost insolence and disrespect, and with menaces not only of imprisoning them but
even of pulling down their houses ; and it is said he has sent out or is to send out parties against the
Indians with orders to destroy all they meet with, whether friend or foe.
In the course of his efforts he was several times arrested but succeeded in escaping. In November
1775 he started for Detroit armed with a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel, with full power to raise
a battalion of men and as many independent companies as he could. Being, however, recognized by
an old acquaintance, he was on November 19 arrested on the Virginian frontier. He remained a prisoner
till October 1780. He complained bitterly of his treatment ; the contention of Congress being that,
( 79 )
inasmuch as he had not been taken in actual warfare, he could not of right claim to be treated as a prisoner
of war ; but was amenable to martial law as a spy and emissary from the British army.
After his release he was placed in command of the Virginia and North Carolina Loyalists for opera
tions on the peninsula formed by the James River and Chesapeake Bay. Once more taken prisoner, he was
suffered to live on parole in the back country, where he remained till the capture of Yorktown. He
was in London in February 1783, and on March I of that year was found soliciting the government of
Niagara or Detroit (Hist. MSS. Comm., Am. MSS. in R. Inst., vol. iii, p. 380).
There are letters from Connolly in Am. Archives, 4th ser., vol. iv, p. 617.
When Lord Dunmore left Virginia, he carried the Queen s Loyal Virginia Regiment to New York,
where it was incorporated with the Queen s Rangers, then raising there (P. R. O., Audit Office, Amer.
Loyalists, vol. liv).
JACOB ELLEGOOD (page 70)
After the Peace Ellegood settled first at Fredericton (New Brunswick) and then at Dumfries. A corre
spondent in January 1793 comments on the smallness of Ellegood s house and the largeness of his family
(Raymond, Winslow Papers, p. 398). In 1795 he was elected a member of the House of Assembly. He
was an active magistrate and took a leading part in local government. The Rev. Canon Ellegood of
Montreal is his grandson (ibid., p. 397, note).
In Hist. MSS. Comm., Am. MSS. in R. Inst., vol. iii, p. 95, is a warrant dated August 27, 1782, New
York, to pay to Lieutenant-Colonel Ellegood of the Virginian Loyalists the sum of 300 to enable him
to go to England for the purpose of soliciting money, &c.
Carleton wrote on September 13 to the Secretary of State (ibid., p. 116) that Ellegood had informed
him that he had received a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of Provincials in 1776, was taken prisoner
soon after, and on arriving at New York he requested his pay ; but this was not granted as Clinton was
undecided in the matter. 300 was paid him in consideration of his distresses and the question of his
claims left for decision in England. His property was only confiscated for life and his family was still
in possession of it.
Determin d the Memorial of Owen Richards 1
2i st of feby 1784.. r\ r>- -L j ,.1. 01 9 th of Feb^ 1784.
Owen Richards the Claimant sworn.
He was born in Wales & went to America in 1744. He was bred a Seaman.
In 1774 He was a Custom House Officer settled at Boston as a Tidesman. Pro-
Cust. Ho. Officer duces the Appointment & Deputation dated 8 th of April 1768. His Salary was
Salary 25 a Y r . 25 a Y r & is. 6d. a Day when upon Duty. This is. 6d. amounted to about
20 a Y r . He was sent from Boston to Marblehead when the Port was shut up.
A Loyalist & Did He was unable to do any Duty from the time of the Battle of Bunker s Hill. He
his Duty as an always acted as a Loyal Subject & did his Duty & therefore they pointed at him
& treated him more severely. Staid at Marblehead near a Year. He left Boston
at the Evacuation & from thence he went to Halifax & came to Eng d in Aug 1
Did not bear Arms. 1777. When he came to Eng d he applied to the Treasury & obtain d .30 a Y r
from the Treasury which was confirmed by M r Wilmot & M r Coke & he still
receives it. He has never rec d any Salary since he left America.
William Murray sworn.
He has known Owen Richards since 1773. He lived in Boston at that time
& was a Tidewaiter. He lived at the North End of the Town & he believes
in his own House. When the troubles broke out He took part with the British
& was one of the Associators for the Defence of the Town. The Witness is
likewise a Tidewaiter. The place was worth 45 a Year. They were both paid
off at Halifax in May 1776 & the Witness has never rec d any pay since. He did
his Duty as a good Subject And he was so obnoxious to the Rebels that he
believes he was tarr d & feather d before the Year 1773. Speaks to the House
he lived in. It was a good House. It was an old House & he had done some
little repairs to it. Being asked how much he had laid out He says he heard
him say about .60. It was well furnished. But he does not know how to
Owen Richards called in again.
He was tarr d & feather d in 1770 on Ace* of a Seizure which he had made.
Being asked whether he did not tell M r Murray that he had laid out 60 He says
that Murray was either present when he paid the last Bill or heard him speak of
it but he never told him that he had laid out only .60 And he is positive that
he has laid out .140.
Determin d y Memorial of Hugh Warden
20 th of Feby 1784. io th Feby 1784.
Hugh Warden the Claimant sworn.
He went to America in June 1775. He had been in America before from
1763 to 1770. He went to Virginia to recover his Debts which were about
1 Owen Richards is described as coxswain in the list of the inhabitants of Boston who removed in
March 1776 to Halifax with the army. In the Banishment Act he is described as tide waiter.
( 8i )
.2000 S. He recover d only ^200. No Man was more active in Conversation
than he was. He was in several Engagements as a Volunteer & rec d no Pay.
He was at Kemps Landing. He did Duty in the Lines at Norfolk & Great An Active Loyalist
Bridge. He then went on board a Ship & remain d there 4 Months & then went & bore Arms.
to Boston & the Troops having left it He went on to Halifax where he arrived
the 15 th of April 1776. He took Goods with him on Speculation to sell Rums
Sugars Wines &c. He arrived in Eng d in Nov r 1776. He went from London
to New York in 1777. He went with a Cargo of Merchandize. He had no landed Debts 737 as. ad.
property & makes no Claim for any nor for any personal property excepting
what was lost by the fire at New York. Believes all the Money due to him in
Virginia was due to him from responsible people. He lost Merchandize by the
fire in New York to the amount of ^3500 S. He says he thinks it was set on fire
by Design & that the Committee who sat to enquire into the Cause of it were Bounty
of that Opinion. He saved 2000. He had better than ^5000 in his Store. former Bounty
He formerly rec d 80 a Y r from the Treasury but was reduced by M r Wilmot 8 a Y ^
& M r Coke to 50 a Year which he now continues to receive. /^Y*
Memorial of John Watson Determin d y e
T u ITT . u - io th of Feby 1784. zoth of Feby 1784.
John Watson the Claimant sworn.
He went from Scotland in 1767 & settled as a Surgeon at Newcastle on the
Delaware. In 1777 He took an active part with the British Gov*. He was
then settled at Newcastle. He remain d quiet & unmolested till that time.
Says he had publickly express d his Sentiments in favor of the British Gov fc upon A zealous & active
which in 1777 He was insulted as a Tory. When Sir W m Howe landed at the Loyalist.
head of Elk He was obliged to go out as Surgeon to a Provincial Reg 1 . This
he was obliged to do or go to prison. When he went out he told a friend of Did not bear Arms.
his that he hated the Rebels & meant to make his Escape to the British. He
accordingly did escape & join d the British Army at the head of Elk the 24 th of
Aug 1 1777. He remain d with the British during the remainder of the War.
He never rec d pay from the Rebel Army nor from the British till he was obliged
to do it. He was made Mate of the Hospital & had $s. a Day. He conducted
Major Ferguson into the Enemy s Country in two Expeditions. In Conjunction
with another Gent" He fitted out a Galley to harrass the Rebels & he lost her
by Capt n Laird but he was paid for her by Capt n Laird & Sir Henry Clinton.
In the Year 1780 He was promoted to be Apothecary to the Hospital & receiv d
los. a Day as Pay. This Appointment was made at New York. He has rec d
this ioj. a Day up to the 24 th of Dec r last. He does not know whether he is to
receive any more pay or not. He has no Certificates but he says he can procure
Memorial of Lieut 1 Col 1 James Chalmers 1 Determind y e
T- f /-> 11 T i , u th Feby 1784.. 2i st of Feby 1784.
Lieut 1 Col 1 James Chalmers the Claimant sworn.
He was born in Scotland & went to the West Indies about 13 Y rs of Age
& after having staid some time in the West Indies he went to America in 1759 An active & zealous
or 1760 And he took with him about .10000. He soon afterwards married Loyalist,
1 See Additional Notes, p. 142.
( 82 )
Did bear Arms. Miss Jekyll by whom he got 3 fourths of the Lands enumerated in his Schedule.
He settled first in Pensylvania & then went to Maryland. He states some
Circumstances which prove that he was possess d in fee of his Lands. In the
beginning of the troubles He was offer d a Reg t to command in the service of the
Rebels in Pensylvania. He did everything in his power to keep his Neighbours
to their Allegiance. He was frequently summon d to attend their Committees
& armed his family to repel force by force. He lived then on his own Plantation
within 4 Miles of Chester. He was first molested in the Summer of 1776. He
was insulted & much bruis d by the populace. This was in consequence of his
Loyalty. He was never imprison d by the Rebels. He pass d his time at home
till 1777 when he join d the Royal Army at New York. He says he might have
staid at home when he went to New York but he conceiv d that he might be
of use to Sir W m Howe. After he got to New York he attended Sir W m Howe
to the Chesapeak. He had given intelligence on paper to the British Army of
the weakness of the Enemy. He went with the fleet & went to Philadelphia.
When he came there Sir W m Howe on ace 4 of his Services appointed Col 1 Chalmers
to raise a provincial Corps without his Solicitation. He did raise the Corps
in consequence of this. He was Lieut 4 Col 1 Commandant & had Lieut* Colonel s
Pay. He rais d nearly 400 Men. In the retreat thro the Jerseys with Sir Henry
Clinton His Reg 4 flanked the Army & in Florida a detachment of his Reg 4 behaved
with great spirit & suffer d greatly but he was not present. He was sent to Rhode
Island & afterwards was embarked for Pensacola but he was detain d at Jamaica
in consequence of which several of his Reg 4 died of the small Pox. He was at
the taking of Charlestown & returned with Sir Henry Clinton to New York
where he remain d till the Provincial Reg ts were disbanded. He arrived in Eng d
in October last. He has rec d full pay up to the 24 th of Oct r last from which time
he expects to receive half pay.
Determin d 5 th of Memorial of Joseph Galloway * Esq.
June 1784. v o 11 17 a. 01 12 th Feby 1784.
Joseph Galloway Lsq the Claimant sworn.
Is a Native of America. In the Year 1774 He was Speaker of the Assembly
of Pensylvania. He had given up the profession of the Law three Years before
1774. He had been Speaker of that Assembly 13 or 14 Years. The Congress
met in Oct r 1774 early in which Year he was solicited to accept a Delegation to
the Congress. 2 So early as the Stamp Act M r Galloway saw a Disposition to
resist the Gov 4 of Great Britain in the Americans & wrote a Pamphlet 3 ag 4 it
which he produces. To shew his good disposition to the power of the Crown
He join d in a petition to the Gov 4 of this Country to take the Gov 4 of this
1 b. 1731, d. 1803. There is a biography of him by E. H. Baldwin, reprinted from the Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography, 1902. He died in England.
2 The Pennsylvania Assembly resolved n. d. e. on July 22, 1774, that there is an absolute necessity
that a Congress of Deputies from the several colonies be held . . . for establishing that union and harmony
between Great Britain and the colonies which is indispensably necessary to the welfare and happiness
of both (Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-89, vol. i, p. 20).
3 The pamphlet on the Stamp Act was published in 1765 under the signature of Americanus .
This is omitted in Mr. Baldwin s list of Galloway s more important publications (op. cit., pp. 104-9).
Province of Pensylvania into their hands * on ace 1 of the weakness of the Pro- . a J g .
prietary Gov 1 making a Compensation to the Proprietors but after being consider d *
here for some time it was adjourned sine die & no Answer was given. He was ~ ^ ^ -p g Js v
the Mover of this proposition assisted by D r Franklyn. He was always a friend 3 o " 4J B ^ n
to Monarchy. He agreed to go into a Congress appointed by the lawful g jj J g jjj ^
Assemblies at the solicitation of the province of Pensylvania. 2 It was thought *^ s g <% 1
better to appoint a Congress from the General Assemblies than to permit it to J* S | .3 - -| ^
be done by the Convention which they saw would be the Case. The Assembly Urt <jgo S~
agreed to send Delegates to this Congress. He expected to have met Delegates -Su^ * 3 ***^^
of this description. The Gov r took no part in this business. Most of the Gov rs 3 " ^ ^ * c l .1 .|
objected but some suffer d their Assemblies to appoint. The Province of New HJi.Ja&oSc ^u
Jersey Pensylvania & some other Provinces did send Delegates but the Majority "gSfj g.Ss":?
of the Delegates were sent by Conventions in the particular Provinces. He is -3 Hi eb^ g I 41
clearly of Opinion that if the Assemblies had appointed Delegates there would dj Jj <j -3 |3
have been no rebellion. The Province of Pensylvania appointed him & four 3
others to go to the Congress. He agreed to it upon Condition that he might Bounty 500 a Y r .
draw his own Instructions. He has not a Copy of these Instructions but they
are published in a Pamphlet out of which they are extracted & make a part of
his printed Case. The Instructions were very short. They then wished to be
represented in the British Par*. He regulated his Conduct entirely by his
instructions to the best of his Judgment. He sign d the Association for a Non
importation Agreement in the first Congress notwithstanding he endeavor d to
prevent it when the Matter was debated in Congress. He was supported by
the Delegates for New York & some others. He was told by his friends out of
Doors that it would not be safe to refuse to sign it. He proposed himself in
the Congress a Plan for an Union between Great Britain & her Colonies 4 a Copy
of which is contain d in the Pamphlet alluded to. M r Galloway afterwards laid
this Plan before the House of Commons in 1779. This Plan was enter d into
the Minutes of the Congress & carried for further Consideration by one Vote.
The Congress afterwards set it aside & order d it to be erased from their Minutes.
Upon this he protested ag l it & he offer d his protest in writing but they refused
to receive it. A Letter from Gov r Colden 5 to Lord Dartmouth dated 7 Dec r
1774 produced & read in which he mentions the Plan alluded to in the Pamphlet
written by himself intitled a candid Examination into the American Claims
written by M r Galloway. Upon all occasions he opposed every violent measure
proposed by the Congress. He frequently communicated his opinions at the
1 Galloway s speech in favour of the Crown taking over the government, delivered in the Assembly
May 24, 1764, was published as a pamphlet. Mr. Root (The Relations of Pennsylvania with the British
Government, /6^6-iy6j, p. 375) has pointed out that in seeking a change of government the members
of the Assembly, under the leadership of Franklin and J. Galloway, were not actuated by motives of zeal
for the royal prerogative or imperial interests, but by the hope that royal government would free them
from the evils of proprietary rule.
2 See note 2, p. 82.
3 There were jive others : S. Rhoades, T. Mifflin, C. Humphreys, J. Morton, and L. Biddle.
4 On Galloway s plan, and speech introducing it, see ibid., pp. 44-51 andjiote on p. 51. J. Duane
seconded his proposal. See also J. Adams, Works, vol. ii, p. 387.
5 ^Colden s letter is in New York Colonial Documents, vol. viii, p. 513.
( 84 )
time to Gov r Franklyn & several persons out of Doors. Letter from Gov r
Franklyn 1 produced & read & likewise one from M r Galloway to Gov r Franklyn
dated the 9 th of Dec r 1774. He sat in the first Congress during the whole time
that they sat. He did not concur in the first petition 2 sent by the Congress
but there was no Division upon it. He wished it to be more full & disliked many
things in it. However he believes he sign d it because it was signed by all the
other Delegates. This petition contain d many grievances which in his Opinion
did not exist. When he returned to the Assembly he communicated what was
done in the Congress. He was unanimously elected Speaker after his return
from the Congress but he declined it thinking he could be of more use upon
the floor. He was in hopes that he could have prevailed on the Assembly to
reject the measures of Congress & for that purpose he made several Motions.
He carried two of them & lost a third by a report which was then circulated
from Eng d that the King had been insulted Lord North s House pulled down
&c. Immediately after he published the Pamphlet 3 alluded to early in 1775.
This book charges the Congress with a direct view to Independence. Upon his
being supposed to be the Author of this Pamphlet He rec d a Box with an halter
in it & persons open d a Policy of insurance to insure his Life for ten Days. In
the Box were these words " they desired him to hang himself or they would do
it for him ". This had no effect upon his Conduct. A Letter from Gov r
Franklyn dated 12 th March 1775 to M r Galloway produced & read. He always
deliver d his Sentiments in the Congress in favor of the Supremacy of Par fc And
he wrote that Par 1 from his Notes taken in the Congress. Several other Letters
from persons of distinction in America produced & read. An Answer was written
by M r Dickenson to M r Galloway s Pamphlet to which he made a reply which
is subjoin d to the original Pamphlet. Immediately after this in April 1775 He
was obliged to quit the Town of Philadelphia & retire to his Country Seat.
He did not resign his Seat in the Assembly but continued a Member till Oct r
1775. Before he quitted the Assembly in his Absence they appointed him
a Delegate to the 2 d Congress but he requested in the Assembly that they would
erase his name & he absolutely refused to go. They appointed after some time
another person in his room. He continued at his own House from April 1775
to Dec r 1776 when Sir W m Howe came to Philadelphia. He consider d himself
in great danger & was to a Degree imprison d in his own House. Two or three
Mobs came to his House with a view to tarr & feather him but were diverted
by his friends. And the last mob consisted of 13 Dutchmen who becoming
1 There is some interesting correspondence between Galloway and Governor Franklin in New Jersey
Archives, ist sen, vol. x. Franklin writes in 1775 (p. 578)^ The more I have thought on the subject,
the more I am convinced that the most eligible Scheme . . . will j?e the sending members to the British
Parliament ; I know this is likewise your [Galloway s] opinion. Galloway wrote on March 26 (p. 584) :
I intimated before that I had met with insults during my stay in the city. ... A box was left at my
lodgings nailed and directed to me. Upon opening it next morning I found in it a halter with a threaten
ing letter. I read the letter and nailed up the box. . . . From the clue so far as I have traced it, it
comes from two members of Association, a discarded Association officer and a head of the White Oaks.
2 The petition to the King is set forth in Journals of the Continental Congress, I7J4, pp. 115-21.
9 A Candid, Examination of the Mutual Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies, with a Plan of
Accommodation on Constitutional Principles, 1775.
On Galloway s literary output see Tyler, The Literary History of the Am. Rev., vol. i, pp. 369-83.
intoxicated quarrel d whether they should tarr & feather him or hang him & the
Innkeeper gave him Notice of it. This Mob was instigated by M r Adams. Having
advice of this Plot he left his House that night & did not sleep at home. He
could not join the British before Sir W m Howe came to Philadelphia. In Dec r
1776 He join d the Army at New Brunswick. When Sir W m Howe came to
Philadelphia the executive Gov fc issued an order to apprehend him but he eluded
it. He came in with 5 or 6 friends all people of Consequence. He immediately
gave all the Information he could to Gen 1 Vaughan. He continued with the
Army till they left the Jerseys & went to New York before the Army. He staid
at New York till he accompanied the Gen 1 to the Chesapeak in June 1777. He
was not then in any military Capacity. When the Army came into Pensylvania
He was employ d to procure Horses for the Army & Charts of the roads. He
sent out upwards of 80 Spies. He informed them of 1500 Horses but his Plan
was imperfectly executed & they got only between 3 & 400 Horses. He accom
panied Lord Cornwallis to Philadelphia. He was soon after of great use in erecting
the Batteries ag fc Mud Island & finish d the business in six Days. During the
whole of his residence at Philadelphia he was confidentially employ d in procuring
intelligence of the movements of the Enemy &c all of which he communicated to
the Gen 1 or his Aid du Camps. From his knowledge of the Country He made
whilst he was at Philadelphia a general Chart of all the roads which he was
enabled to do from his general knowledge of the Country. He was likewise
employ d in numbering the Inhabitants & distinguishing the Loyal from the
disaffected. He likewise was desired to fix the price of forage & wood by which