The ministers who have been employed by this society, are Elders
Isaac Case, Joseph Cornell, Peter P. Roots, Lemuel Covel, John Tripp,
David Irish, Jesse Hartwell, Phinehas Pilsbury, Henry Hale, Barna-
bas Perkins, Samuel Rowly, Clark Kendrick, Samuel Ambrose, Ste-
phen Parsons, Hezekiah Pettet, Samuel Churchill, Samuel Nelson,
Simeon Coombs, John Chadburn, Henry Kendall, and others. Of
these missionaries, Messrs. Case and Roots have been almost constant-
ly in the employ of this society for six or eight years past. The first
has laboured mostly in the District of Maine, New-Brunswick, and
Nova- Scotia ; the other in the back settlements of New- York and in
Upper Cannada. This society, in 1811, had twenty missionaries in
its employ ; they laboured upon an average almost four months each,
and the sum total of their services was over six years ; their salaries
amounted to 1600 dollars, that is, 260 dollars a year, or five dollars a
week, for each missionary.
This society received at one time 600 dollars from the late Richard
Devens, Esq. a Congregationalist of Charlestown. Besides this, very-
considerable assistance was received at other times from that liberal
gentleman. A number of Female Mite Societies have been distin-
guished auxiliaries of this evangelical institution. The first society of
this kind was formed in Boston in 1809. This has contributed 500
dollars ; the Boston Cent Society about 400 ; and a society of little
children in the same town 85 dollars. The Providence Mite Society
has forwarded to this missionary board about 550 dollars ; the one in
Salem over 400 ; and another in Haverhill 394. Similar Societies
have been formed in Newton, Attleborough, Rehoboth or Seckonk,
Warien, Newport, and other places, by which sums of considerable
amount have been contributed. These Societies are formed of religious
women, and of those who are favourably disposed towards the propa-
gation of the gospel abroad j their rule is to give a cent a week, thar
Missionary Societies. 441
is, fifty-two cents a year : those who are disposed, give more. They
make their collections quarterly, and by their laudable exertions, by
this new and unprecedented economy of raising money in a way which
no one can feel, these societies have, together, within a very few years
past, contributed for missionary purposes between two and three thou-
The Baptists in New- York began to exert themselves in the mission'
ary cause, iu connexion with the Presbyterians in that city, about the
beginning of the present century. By their united efforts, sums of
considerable amount were raised, and missica.irics were sent out in
different directions. Mr. Holmes, of the Baptist order, was stationed
among the Six Nations, where he laboured a number of years to some
elFtct. But our brethren not finding matters to go on according to
their minds, in 1806 withdrew, formed a society by themselves, and
very good success has attended their exertion*. Since they began
their operations, die sum total of their receipts amounts to about
5500 doilars. They expect, in the spring of 1814, to receive a thou-
sand dollars, lately bequeathed the society. The missionaries they
have employed are Messrs. Charles Lahatt, Elkanah Holmes, Luke
Davis, William Pierce, Daniel Steers, Samuel West, James Harris,
Enoch Fen is, and Edmund J. Reis.
Since the late unhappy divisions in New- York, the First church in
that city has operated in missionary affairs in a distinct, individual ca-
pacity, and has collected between four and five hundred dollars.
The Philadelphia Association set en foot a missionary plan about
1800. Their receipts for some years at first were not large, but there
has been a promising increase of their means ; so that they have been
enabled to send the Gospel to many destitute places in the back parts
of Pennsylvania and in the north-east parts of Ohio. They have em-
ployed as missionaries Messrs. Thomas G. Jones, Thomas Smiley,
Henry George, William West, and others.
The New Jersey Association, at the time that it came cut of the
Philadelphia, established a Missionary Society within its bounds ; and
in the year 1812, its receipts from different sources amounted to about
200 doilars. What it has received this present year I have not learnt,
but it is hoped not a less sum.
The Virginia Baptists, with all their ample means, do not yet seem
to have interested themselves in missionary concerns.
In North -Carolina a few years since an institution was formed by
the name of the Philanthropic^ Baptist Missionary Society ; but it does
not appear that any thing considerable has yet been effected by it.
By the Charleston Association a Missionary Society was begun in
1803. It had for its principal object the sending of the gospel to the
Catawba Indians, who inhabit their State, of whom, and also of the
s uccess of the mission to them, some account is given in Vol. II. p.
,46, 147. In i S o, this society had collected by annual contributions
896 : 60 of which ^850 : 78 had been expended in paying the
salaries of their missionary and school-master, purchasing books, &c.*
It has probably received about 200 a year since, which would now
(1813) make the sun: total of its receipts, about 2500. It appears
* Furman's Hist, of the Charleston Asscdaii< n ; p. 52,
VOL, 2. ,56
by the Minutes of the Association for 181 2, that in that year 8122 : 5*
were received from the Wadmalaw and Edisto Female Mite Society, by
the hands of Mrs. Eliza A. Adams, and Mrs. Hepzibah Townsend.
When we go back from the seaport towns, we find a considerable
number of missionary establishments. The Shaftsbury Association,
early in fhe beginning of this century, began to make exertions to send
the Gos-pel to the destitute. Elders Blood, Warren, Covel, and others
of their most distinguished preachers, before that period, had made
m.my evangelical excursions into remote regions on thtir own expense.
In j So i, it appears by their Minutes, that Mr. Covel made "a propo-
sition for raising a funJ, by contribution, for sending missionaries to
preaeh the Gospel in destitute parts of the frontier settlements, and as
fir as they should have opportunity, among the natives of the wil-
derness." The next year some small sums were sent in ; the year
after, their contributions amounted to almost 80 dollars ; and from that
period they have made annual collections from churches, mite societies,
and individuals, from 90 to 1 80 dollars. The sum total of their contri-
butions, from 1802 to the present time, must amount to upwards
of 1500 dollars.
In the bounds of the Otsego, Madison, and Franklin Associa-
tions, has been formed an institution for missionary purposes, by'the
name of the Hamilton Missionary Society. It was begun in 1807,
and had, in i8n,sent out missionaries into different parts, to the
amount of almost seventy weeks. Auxiliary to this is a society of
religious and benevolent ladies, in the town of Hamilton, who, by ta-
king hold of the distaff, have furnished clothing for their missionary
brethren. In February 1812, they presented the missionary board
with twenty yards of fine woollen cloth of their own manufacture. In
the town of Carenovia a similar society has been formed, who have,
with their own hands, manufactured thirty yards of fine linen, and
about as much of woollen, for the clothing and the comfort of their
brethren, who expose themselves to the summer's heat and winter's
colj, to bear the glad tidings of peace to those who are perishing for
lack of knowledge. When these accounts were received, similar so-
cieties were forming in Fabius, Onondaga, Pompey, German, Ho-
On the west of this region an institution was formed some years
ago, cabled the Lake Missionary Society ; but of its origin and move-
ments I have obtained no accounts. There is also a missionary es-
tablishment in the District of Maine, called the Maine Missionary So-
ciety, which was formed in 1804. By the year r8io, they had col-
lected, in various ways, between five and six hundred dollars, which
they had appropriated to the design of their institution.
In addition to these societies, the several Associations of Sturbridge,
Leyden, Woodstock, Vermont, Saratoga, Cayuga, and Black- River,
in New-England and New- York, have some years past made annual
collections' of from about forty to considerably over a hundred dollars.
About eighty dollars a year are generally collected. These monies they
generally appropriate to their own ministers, who are disposed to itin-
erate, in places remote and destitute. All these institutions are call-
ed missionary, though most of them more properly deserve the name
'<' itinerant, Their effects have been peculiarly useful and promising,
Literary Institutions, bV. 4-4S
Many, who had previously a zeal for itinerating, have been enabled
to do it without injury to their families or embarrassment to them-
selves. Many new and destitute places in this wide-spread country
have been blessed with the dispensation of the precious word of life ;
many of the saints, who have removed far from their brethren, have
been refreshed ; many tinners have, by the labours of the missiona-
ries, been hopefully born into the kingdom of God, and by their
means a considerable number of churches have been planted.
As near as J can ascertain there has been collected by all the dif-
ferent Baptist Missionary Institutions since about i 803, that is, in the
ten last years, not far from thirty thousand dollars. In this sum I do
not include what the New- York brethren contributed while they were
in connexion with the Presbyterians, nor the monies, which have beeu
sent to India formerly, or have lately been raised towards supporting
Messrs. Judson and Rice in that region. More that one third of this
sum, we have seen, has been raised by the Massachusetts Baptist So-
ciety, and very few of our brethren comparatively have been concerned
in raising the remainder. What might we expect if they would unite
their efforts in this evangelical undertaking ?
Literary Institutions, and Education Funds.
BROWN UNIVERSITY is the most important literary establishment
among the Baptists in America. It was projected, according to Mor-
gan Edwards, in 1762, by the Philadelphia Association. The year
after, Mr. James Manning, who afterwards became its president, land-
ed at Newport on his way to Halifax, Nova-Scotia, " and made a
motion to several gentlemen of the Baptist denomination, (of whom
Col. Gardner, the Deputy-Governor was one,) relative to a seminary
of polite literature, subject to the government of the Baptists. The
motion was properly attended to, which brought together about fifteen
gentlemen of the same denomination at the Deputy's house, who re-
quested Mr. Manning to draw a sketch of the design against the day
following." The plan was formed according to desire, and the next
day Governor Lyndon and Col. Job Bennet were appointed to draw a
charter ; but they pleading unskilfulness in the business, solicited the aid
of Kev. Ezra, afterwards Dr. Styles, president of Yale College, New-
Haven. Before the business was matured, Mr. Manning was obliged
to go on board the vessel for Halifax. " The object for fixing on
Rhode-Island for a Baptist College was, that that Legislature was chief-
ly in the hands of their denomination, and was therefore the liktliest
place to have one established by Jaw." But so unsuspicious were the
Baptists, that they came very near being defeated in their design.
The charter was so artfully drawn by Dr. Styles, that the Presbyteri-
ans would have had the power of controlling the institution, had it re-
ceived the sanction of the Legislature in its original form. " When
Governor Lyndon inquired of the Doctor, why he had perverted the
design of the charter ? he answered, I gave you timely warning to take care
of yourselves, for that <we had done so with regard to our society ', observing af
the same time that be was not the rogue. 1 ' The history of this sectarian
intrigue is thus stated by Daniel Jenks, Esq. " While I attended the
business of the Assembly, (held August, 1763) Capt. William Rogers
-144? Literary Institutions)
came to the council-chamber and presented rne with a paper, with a
design I should sign it, adding, "that as it was a petition lor a Bap-
tist College he knew I would not refuse." Business not permitting
me to attend to him immediately, I requested he \\ould leave with me
the petition and charter. Meanwhile the serjeant made proclamation,
requesting the members to take their seats ; in my seat I began to
read the papers, but had not done, befose the petition and charter were
called for, which I gave to the serjeant, and he to the speaker at the
board. The petition being read, a motion was made to receive it and
grant the chatter. After some time I stood up to oppose proceeding
immedately on the petition,* giving my reason in words to this effect.
?( "J understood that the college in question was sought for by the Bap-
tists, and that it was to be under their government and direction, witli
admission only of a few of oth^r religious denominations, to share
with them therein, that they might appear as cathclick as could be,
consistent with their main design ; but on die contrary, I perceived, by
glancing over the charter while I sat in my place just now, that the
main po\ver of goverment and direction is vested in twelve fellows,
and that eight out of the twelve are to be Presbyterians, and that the
ethers may or may not be of the same denomination, but of necessity
none of them is to be a Baptist. If so, there is treachery somewhere,
and a design of grossly imposing on the honest people, who first moved
for the institution ; 1 therefore desire that the matter may lie by till
the afternoon." This was granted. In the afternoon the matter was
resumed, with a seeming resolution in some to push it through at all
events ; but I had influence enough to stop proceeding then also.
That evening and next morning I made it my business to see Gov-
ernor Lyndon and Col, Bennet, and to inform them of the construc-
tion of the charter. They cculd not believe me, for the confidence
they had in Dr. Styles's honour and integrity, until seeing convinced
them. What reflections followed may be better concealed than pub-
lished. However, we all agreed to postpone passing the charter into a
law, and did effect our purpose for that session, notwithstanding the
attempts of Mr. Ellery and others of the Presbyterians to the contrary.
Before the breaking up of the Assembly, the House, at my request,
directed the speaker to deliver the charter to me, after I had made a
promise it should be forth-coming at the next meeting of the Assembly.
I took the charter to J ; -, and showed it to many who came to
my hoUiC ; others bo. '.! \i to peruse at home. Meanwhile the
messengers,^ from the \rsociation arrived in Newport,
vhich occasioned the comrr/Ltee of Nevpmt to send to me for the
charter. I asked for it of Dr, Ephrahim Bov,-en, who had borrowed
it last. The Dr. said he lent it to Samuel Nightingale, Esq. Search
%vas made for it there, but it could not be found ; neither do I know
to this day what became of it. When the next General Assembly
just (last Wednesday in October, 1763,) ihe second charter was pre-
sented, which was much faulted and opposed by the gentry, who con-
cerned themselves so warmly about the other. And one in particular
demanded that the first charter, which had been entrusted with me,
* One of these r. - \vas Dr. Samuel Jor.es, v.ho, hearing of the difi>
:ulty his brethren wt-rc in, carac o;i to their assistance.
Literary Institutions, &c. 445
might be produced. Then I related (as above) that it was lost, and
the manner how it was lost ; but the party, instead of believing this,
very rudely suggested, that I had secreted the charter, and, in the face
(.f the court, charged me with a breach of trust, which brought on
very disagreeable altercations and bickerings, till at last I was necessi-
tated ro syy, " that if there had been any foul doings, it WHS among
them of tiv. ir own denomination at Providence." Their clamour* con-
tinued, and we gave way to them that session, for peace sake. Mean-
while, Dr. Bowen, who is a man of strict honour and integrity, used
all means to recover the former charter, posting an advertisement in
the most publick places of the town, and making diligent inquiry,
but to no purpose. At the next Assembly, which met in February,
1764, the new charter was again brought on the carpet, and tie
same clamour against it, and unjust reproaches against me, were re-
peated. It was said that die new charter was not like the old ; and
was constructed to deprive the Presbyterians of the benefit of the in-
stitution. To which it was replied, " That it was agreeable to the
design of the first undertakers ; and if calculated to deprive the Pres-
byterians of the power they wanted, it was no more than what they
themselves had attempted to do to the Baptists." After much and
warm debate, the question was put, and carried in favour of the new
charter, by a great majority."*
The charter is too lengthy to be transcribed, but the following is a
summary of its contents. The institution was named the "Trustees
and Fellows of the Coilege or University, in the English Colony of
Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations." The corporation consists
of two separate branches, with distinct, separate, and respective powers.
The number of Trustees is thirty- six, of whom twenty-two are Baptists,
five of Friends or Quakers, five Episcopalians, and four Congregation-
alists, frequently called Presbyterians. The same proportion of dif-
ferent denominations to continue in perpetuum. The number of Fellows,
(including the President, who is a Fellow, ex officio] is twelve, of whom
eight are Baptists, the others may be chosen indiscriminately from any
denomination. The concurrence of both branches by a majority of
each is necessary for the validity of an act, except the adjudging and
conferring degrees, which exclusively belongs to the Fellowship as a
learned faculty. The President must be a Baptist ; Professors and
other officers of instruction are not limited to any particular denomina-
tion. The annual commencement is on the first Wednesday of Sept.
when there is a general meeting of the Corporation.
For a few years after the charter was granted, the institution moved
on but slowly towards maturity. Mr. Manning was chosen President,
and in i 766, began with a small class at Warren, where it was at first
proposed the college should be located. The year after, Mr. Morgan
Edwards, of Philadelphia, set sail for England, to collect money to-
wards paying the salary of the President and his assistant, for as yet
they had no funds. Mr. Edwards met with very good success, "con-
sidering," as he says, " how angry the mother country then was with
the colonies for opposing the stamp-act."
Afterwards, the late Dr. He?,ekiah Smith and others collected sums
f considerable amount for the purpose of endowing the institution.
* Edwar&'s MS. History of Rhode-Island, p. 523 3:~
446 Literary Institutions, &c.
In 1769 proposals were made for building a college edifice ; but
serious difficulties arose respecting the place where it should he erected.
The four towns of Warren, Providence, Newport and East-Greenwich,
in tour different counties, were named as eligible situations. In this
posrure of affairs, it was proposed bj the Corporation, that the county,
which should raise the most money, should have the college. Provi-
dence bid the highest, and of course obtained it. Here an edifice was
begun in May, 1770, which was roofed in the autumn of that year.
It was bmii. under the superintendence of "the adventurous and resolute
Browns," of Providence, viz. Nicholas, Joseph, John, and Moses, who
were then united in trade under the firm of Nicholas Brown & Co.
They each subscribed two hundred pounds, L. M.* but in the end, the
building cost tnem much more.
The college edifice is of brick, four stories high, exclusive of the cel-
lar, which is partly above ground, 150 feet long, and 46 wide, with a
projection of ten feet on each side. It has an entry lengthwise, with
rooms on each side. There are 52 rooms for the accommodation of
students, and four larger ones for publick uses.
This elegant building, which was erected wholly by the generous
donations of individuals, mostly of the town of Providence, is situated
on a hill to the east of the town, has a pure salubrious air, and com-
mands a delightful prospect of the town of Providence, the Narragan-
set Bay and the islands, and of an extensive country around, variegated
with hills, dales, plaini, wood-lands, &c-f The college lot contains
about five acres, originally the property of Chad Brown. J one of
Roger Williams's associates and his successor in the care of the church
of which they were both constituent members. Near the college are
the President's house, a commodious brick building for a Grammar
School and the Medical Lectures, and out-buildings for the accommo-
dation of the President and steward.
The Library belonging to this University amounts now to near three
thousand volumes, many of which were collected by Morgan Edwards
in England, and many others have been presented by the Baptists in
that kingdom, and by benefactors of different denominations, both
there and in different parts of the United States. A valuable Law
Library, supposed to be worth about eight hundred dollars, is the gift
of Nicholas Brown, Esq. who has presented besides a great number
of books of different kinds. We ought furthermore to add that this
distinguished benefactor, a few years ago, agreed to give five hundred
dollars towards increasing the Library, if the corporation would appro-
priate as much more. This liberal proposition was accepted ; a part
of this thousand dollars has been expended, but a considerable sum
yet remains to be laid out.
* S 666 67.
f In full view of thr top of the College, is the Seekhonk plain, in Rehoboth,
where Roger Williams first pitched his t^nt among the Indians, when banished,
from Massachusetts, and from which he was warned by thetnen of Plymouth,
to remove across the Narraganset Bay, Sec.
$. This circumstance was first suggested to me by Friend Moses Brown ; I
have since found it noticed by Morgan Edwards, so that 1 think there can be
no noubt, but that Brown University stands on land originally owned by the
ancient Chad Brown, although it received tfes ificme from one ef his posterity
of the sixth generation".
Literary Institutions, SflV. 447
Fifteen or twenty volumes of Grammars and Translations of the
Scriptures in the Oriental languages, have lately been received from
the Baptist Missionaries in India.
The Philosophical Apparatus, though not so large as those of older
Universities, is yet respectable for its extent. It consists of an Orrery,
a Theodolite, a reflecting Telescope, solar and double Microscopes,
convex and concave Mirrors, Lemes, Globes, aa Air Pump, the gift
of the late Nicholas Brown, Esq. Machinery for Hydro- latick.;, Electri-
city, and Mechanicks, together with such other articles as are necessary
to a respectable course of experiments on modern philosophy. A
numbf r of these articles were purchased with a donation of five hun-
dred dollars from the late Samuel hlam, E q.
The officers of this University are as follow :
Hon. JABKZ BOWEN,LL. D. Chancellor. SOLOMON DROWX, M. D. Professor
Rev. ASA M h ss KR, S.T.D. LL.D. Prts. Matcriu JMtdica and Butany.
Hon. DAV.HOW KLL, LL.D. Prof. Luiu. JOHN BAILEY, A.M. Tutor and
Rev. CALVIN PAUK, A AI. J J rc.fi.^or Librarian.
Moral PhUosofihij and MetujhhyiAcka, IOSEPRUS WHF.ATOM, A.B. Tutor.
WILLIAM IN GALLS, M.D. Pr^/i&^r G..ORGE FISHER. A. B. Preceptor
sJnatomy and Surg* /;/. c/ the Grammar School.
William C. Bowen, M.D. former Professor of Chemistry, has lately
resigned.. It is expected a new Professor will soon be appointed.
The Medical Establishment was begun in 1810, and bids fair to be
an important acquisition to the Institution, A Professorship of the
Theory and Practice of Physick has been established, but a Professor
has not yet been appointed. A Botanical Garden is in contempla-
The number of students is over a hundred and twenty j in the sum-
mer of 1813, they were a hundred and thirty-five, of all denomina-
tions ; and the same religious freedom reigns in the College as in the
State. The students do not repair here to study divinity, but to ac-