UNIVERSITY OF. CALIFORNIA.
WEST, NORTH, AND SOUTH,
BY OPENING THE SOURCES OF OPINION AND
APPROPRIATING THE CHANNELS OF
WEALTH AND POWER.
" Voire vieille JEurope m^ennuit." — Napoleon.
TRUBNER & CO., 12, PATERNOSTER ROW.
TUCKEE, I'EIXTEE, PEEET'S PLACE, OXTOB-D STREET.
Time destroys Opinion and confirms Judg-
ment : the occasion here would seem to suggest
that in this matter the two are becoming recon-
Preface to the Third Edition . . r . . . iii
Preface to Second Edition " vii
The Crossing of the Prtith atid the Passing of the Dardanelles xii
Objects of the Work liv
Part I.— SPAIN.
I. How circumstanced for the Developnicnt of Opinion r 1
II. Eeview of past History ...... lii
III. Formation of Faction. Constitution of 1812 . . 27
IV. Revolt of the Isld dB Leon 61
V. Position of France in 1822. — Invasion of Piedmont and
^■VI. Congress of Verona ..,.,.. 40
VII. Invasion of 1823 53
VIII. Quadruple Treaty G2
IX. Future Marriages 72
Part IT.— HUNGARY.
I. Political Value of Hungary . . . . . ,75
II. Events in Hungary 81
III. Diplomatic Review ....... 94
IV. Turkish Neutrality .114
V. Extradition of Rofttgees .123
Part I.— SCANDINAVIA.
I. Internal Constitution .,..,,, 145
II. External Relations • • • o . . ,, 158
Part II.— THE DANISH SUCCESSION.
I. TheEupture ........ 182
II. Interposition of Prussia 203
III. The War . ' .213
IV. Treaty of the 8th of May, 1852 232
V. The Diet of Copenhagen and the Danish Constitution . 268
VI. The position of Austria in the North and in the South
as effected by the Treaty of the 8th of May . . 275
VII. The Baltic and the Euxine— The Sound Dues c ,- 280
Pakt I.— THE DANUBE AND EUXINEt
I. The Commerce of Europe and Asia . . , . 291
II. Eussian Quarantine on the Danube, and the Coast of
Circassia . . , . . . . . . 30^
III. Treaty with Austria for the Free I^'avigation of the
Danube . . . » . . . • ■. • 345
IV. Apology for Eussia 347
V. Canal of the Danube 350
VI. The Evacuation of the Principalities in 1851 . . . 353
Part II.— THE LEVANT AND THE BED SEA.
I. Commercial Eesources and Legislation of Turkey . . 373
II. Negotiations with Turkey . . ... . . 382
III. Commercial Treaty with Tiu'key of 1848 . . .386
IV. The Eed Sea— Egypt . . ... . . .411
V. The Canal of Suez 421
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
"Cdf dclire ne pent pas durer.'' *
I PROFIT by the occasion afforded me by the demand
for another edition to bring up the history to the last
moment. I have indeed little to say as to events.
I, for what I have said, the Emperor Nicholas for
what he has done, have both been called madmen.
It remains, therefore, for me but to express my
acknowledgments to His Imperial Majesty for having
redeemed my character for sanity, for I suppose the
success of the present work is an evidence that it is
redeemed, I take advantage of that expectation to
offer some further considerations, suggested by the
contemporary discussion of the subject.
The Turkish Government is the only independent
one in Europe. The present negotiations spring
solely out of that independence.
The Turkish Empire is fuU of Military vigour ; the
dangers to which it is at present exposed result not
from its weakness but from its strength.
At the period of the last war the Turks were averse
to that war, and had to be driven to it by their
Government. At the present moment Army and
Nation, Mussulmans and Christians, demand the war,
and are restrained by their Government. At the first
period Russia forced the war, — at present she will
* Unpublished Eussian Despatch,
iv PKEFAOE TO THE
Her advance to the Danube now sanctioned hj the
Powers of Europe endangers Austria more than
Turkey ; it has compromised the one into cooperation
while it has only alarmed the other for its indepen-
The Turks as a nation refused to fight for the
Principalities twenty-five years ago : five years ago
they were indifferent to their occupation ; four years
ago, a Treaty was signed without comment for their
occupation by Russia up to the year 1856.
The Christian populations of Turkey have hitherto
accepted with joy the proffered protection of Russia.
The people of Europe have hitherto viewed with
indifference the occupation of the Provinces : they
have never blamed theil' governments for co-operating
with that of Russia, but on the contrary on all such
occasions believed that they were opposing them.
The Govermnents of Europe obtained support at
home from their co-operation with Russia, and suffered
no inconvenience from pursuing that course.
The Crowns of Europe were unconscious of any
degradation in consequence of the policy of their
Governments, and their position of dependence was
veiled or disguised as partial and temporary.
The old Ivor Id was alone concerned, and Russia had
to consider only the Porte, the Turks, the Christians
of Turkey, the people, the Cabinets and the Crowns
of Europe. Now to the altered position of the Old
World, has to be added the interposition of the New.
Here is the only new event, and the consequences
of it are incalculable : the United States cannot now
remain neuter, there is no alternative between their
being enveloped by Russia in the diplomatic measures
of the Old World, and their breaking through the
vicious circle in which we are bound.
The United States stand free from all diplomatic
entanglements ; they have neither bound themselves
not to send their men-of-war into the Euxine or to
nay toll for their merchantmen passing the Sound;
THIRD EDITION". v
they have not come under the Turkish Treaty of
commerce : though they actually do pay, at the
rate of other nations in Turkey, and at the Sound
there is no reason that they should do so, and it is
not to be supposed that the citizens of America, if
their attention be once directed to the subject will
suffer their Government to endure an imposition in
the one case no less than piracy, and in the other
than an extortion. Resistance to the Sound Dues
is comparatively an unimportant matter except in its
moral effects, but resistance to the prohibitory duties
on Turkish exports reopens the whole of that im-
mense question upon which hinges the future fate of
Europe, and indeed of America itself.
The rapid increase of population in Europe, and the
growing demand for grain places her in dependence
upon Russia, Turkey, and the United States for sup-
plies. The Russian exports were disappearing before
the competition of two Turkish provinces, where
Austria had prevented the imposition of the English
Treaty of Commerce; in consequence of the enor-
mous wealth pouring into them the Porte was about
to emancipate the trade of the remainder of the
Empire, — an event which must have closed the
chapter of Russian history. Her advance on the
Danube has averted the blow, stopped exportation and
production there, and equally stopped the proposed
abrogation of the export duty throughout the other
provinces. The competition is now singly between
Russia and the United States, and the mind and
resources of Russia will henceforward be applied to
the disorganization of the United States. To protect
themselves, they must not only guard against the
tempter who will seek to use their self-love in putting
them forward, but also they must profit by their
actual opportunities to take their stand by the side of
Europe while it can be supported.
It is now two years since I m.ade an appeal to the
United Stales in this sense in a pamphlet on the
vi PEEFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
Danube^"^ and I have the satisfaction of knowing that
my words on that occasion have not been without effect
on the results up to this hour obtained. It will not be
at present presumptuous for me to say that my judg-
ments have been confirmed by those of the Russian
Cabinet. The Cabinet of Washington must have the
means of testing the grounds of this judgment. If
no propositions such as these I have indicated have
been made it may disregard my past and present
warnings: if they have, it must be traitorous not. to
act^ and imbecile if it acts imprudently.
One word as to Denmark. The abdication of the
king is preparing ; so also of his uncle. The next
prudent step will be the abdication of a few of the
* " From the aberrations of the hour, the appeal lies to posterity,
because unaffected by the passions that obscure our sight, and the
fallacies that pervert our judgment. Severed by an ocean, you are
to us a future age; as such I appeal from my countrymen to you,
not for judgment only, but for remedy. We have a common
interest, you may retrieve what the infatuation of England has
sacrificed ; but to judge, you must know — read, and you will
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
Settlement with Bussia.
"An immediate rise of the public securities^' is
this morning proclaimed as the result of the welcome
announcement of the acceptance by the Emperor of
Russia of the proposal of the Powers, terminating a
crisis which has so long held in suspense the political
relations and commercial interests of the world. The
British public and the British government are re-
assured and delighted by the union of the great
European States. It is no longer England, or England
and France, interposing for the protection of Turkey.
All principles, all interests, are united, and whatever
bears the name of a European, is opposed to the Czar.
But in all this there is nothing new — it is an old and
sickening story; what it is worth I shall presently
show : in the meantime let me direct my reader^s
attention to an event both startling and new, which
has tliis morning been equally announced to the
inhabitants of these Isles.
Last night, in the House of Lords, it was asked,
SETTLEMENT WITH RUSSIA.
"What has the Government of this Country
DONE ?'^ This question Was followed by " cheers."
Lord Clanricarde further asserted, that all Treaties
between Russia and Turkey — why did he not add
between Russia and England — were abolished by
this act, and he therefore expected to hear that the
English Squadron was inside of the Dardanelles.
There is something even more wonderful still than
this. The Minister for Foreign Affairs " agreed in.
everything that had fallen from his noble friend,"
and " considered the entire evacuation of the Princi-
palities as a sine qua non of any agreement whatever."
On the same night Lord John Russell stated, in
the Commons, his belief in the favourable acceptance
of the proposals of the Powers by Russia. Putting
the two propositions together, and dropping the im-
material question of a first and a second proposal, we
have now the Government nailed to the complete and
immediate evacuation of the Principalities, because
"any arrangement whatever" must imply instance
in point of time. It is to be inferred, from the cheers
of the two Assemblies, that England would be con-
tent with such a settlement. But what shall happen
if Russia does not accede ? Is your Ambassador then
to be withdrawn? No. You will either not obtain
the evacuation, or you will obtain it on terms,
"First let us consider the question of occupation,
in the war of 1828 three corps d^armees were sent
across the Pruth ^ at present four corps d^armees have
been sent across the Pruth. In the last war thirty
gun-boats were sent into the Danube, at present one
SETTLEMENT WITH EUSSLi. ix
hundred and fifty gun-boats have been sent into the
Danube, ("a few gun-boats/^ Clarendon.) In the
last war the pontoons had to be made on the spot
and failed ; at present they are all ready. The opera-
tions therefore are on a larger scale than in 1828_,
without there being an Ismail to take, which delayed
a third of the forces during a third of the campaign.
In 1828 those countries produced only the grain
requisite for their own consumption, now 1,500,000
quarters are ready for exportation to England. That
grain is now available for the troops of Russia, and
may be set down in round numbers at ^.2,000,000.
You will have to go to Russia for that grain ; it will
cost you there a much higher sum, and the Russian
treasury will receive from 10 to 15 per cent, in duties
before it is exported. Russia therefore by the opera-
tion profits from £5,000,000 to £6,000,000. That
profit will equally be secured, whether she evacuates
or not. The Provinces thus present to her resources
for future operations infinitely greater than in 1828.
In that year she had developed no comprehensive
scheme ; there was no combination with Europe to
give to her the succession to the crown of Denmark ;
she was not pretending to occupy a province south of
the Caspian in Persia; there was no revolution in
China ; she had revealed no projects on Little Thibet ;
and had not announced her intention of establishing
herself on the Upper Himalaya.* There were then
no Russian Princesses on a visit to Eng-land,
* An offer was made to the Emperor of Qiina to support him
against tlie insurgents, on condition of liis ceding Little Tliibet,
wliich is only twenty days' march froui Calcutta.
X SETTFLEMEN'I^ WiM-MUB^^-
After tlie declaration of Eord' ' Clarendon and the ^ *
mthdrawal of tlie Ehglisli agent- &oni Bucliarest^ bne^
niigiit have belietfed iii^-^tie' WaJciiatM-^ 'cotirge?^
Enssia \fill'Siitoit'to= aifytiiiiig-to w^^ 'the ^English-
Minister lias made Tip- liis miyid-^if Eord Clartrndon
were a Grand Tizier : -Bnt he is" only a member of a
Cabinet^ and in that feabirfiety'alas!- there are Lord^-'
Aberdeen,, John Unssell/ ami' Palmer stQn-; the latter
is bnsy in- representing 'LotdStfetfordde Redcliffe as
acting under the influen^^e of piqne. I do hot there-
fore say that there will be no evacuation^ but this
I say^ that Russia^ if she evacnateSj Ynil lose nothing
by it_, for it will be "with an arrangement to establish
a common interference of the Poioers with the subjects
A lie has been placed on the lips of Europe in the
word RussO'Greek Church. The one is a form of
Revealed Religion^ the other is the worship of a
man. In the official Church of Russia the Czar is
'^ vicegerent of God upon earth/^ and as such is the
object of *^^ FAITH ^^ and "worship." The disease
that preys on the vitals of the Russian Empire is
religious dissent originating in this sacrilege. The
Nonconformists maintain the original faith^ such as
it was when the Russian Church was in communion
with that of Constantinople. The only name they
give to themselves is that of " Old Believers/^ in
Russian Starovirtze ; they are therefore identified
with the 12,000,000 or 13,000,000 of Cluristian sub-
jects of the Porte in Em'ope ; they are the objects of
the most bitter persecutions on the part of the
.SETTLEMENT WITH RUSSIA. xl
Bussian Government, and the familiar term tliey
fipply to the Emperor is *' Antichrist.'' The recent
movements towards independence of the Malo-
Bussians, amounting to about 10,000,000, is prin-
cipally attributable to this schism and persecution.
Were there no Mussulmans in Europe, and Russia
free to extend her dominion to the Ionian Sea, we
should find her, if she attempted it, at once engaged
in the most furious of religious wars, with populations,
old subjects and new, amounting to 2.0,000,000.
This change in Russia Proper has required five cen-
turies and a quarter, for it began in the year 1330.
Eifteen generations of Muscovites have gone to their
graves in the course of its completion. They were
.induced to submit, in the hope that the concentra-
ction of all power in the hands of the Czar would
•^facilitate the subjugation of others. The Christian
subjects Qf ,Turkey, born and bred under tlie habits
of Mussulman toleration, filled with the most extra-
. vagaut ambition by Muscovite art, will not resign in
a single hour every political right and every con-
scientious conviction, and that too in the hour of
triumph and for the subjugation of themselves. The
Tui'ks, if they had never strayed beyond their pas-
turages of Broussa, would, on such a contingency,
• be called in by the Christians for the protection of
their Church and Faith. Such an event no doubt
would be surprising, but it would not be new; the
ablest polemical writer amongst the Greeks of the
present age, has explained, in the very words I have
• used, the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
xii SETTLEMENT WITH RUSSIA.
Since the year 1846^ the Sultan has become the
immediate protector of the Starovirtze, by having
secured for them the Apostolic succession of their
priestliood after that priesthood was seized by Eussia,
formed into regiments, and sent to die of ague in
Lankeran, on the Caspian; he would stand in the
same relation of Protector to his actual Greek sub-
jects from the moment that he was driven into Asia
by Russian arms. Such being the position of Russia
with regard to the Christians of Turkey,, her object
in a joint intervention of the Powers is evident; she
could never have moved them to propose such an
intervention, but (as in 1826, when the Greeks
declared they would rather perish than allow of her
interference) she terrifies the Powers by a threat to
act alone, and then they rush forward to yield to
her their support, on the pretext of clogging her
action ! Then she can use the Sultan to establish
her supremacy over the Oriental Church, whilst she
uses it to break down the authority of the Sultan,
Prom the moment that a common interference is
established, any quarrel in the streets can bring
down her squadron to Constantinople. The only
danger is from Russian interference ; the only course
for Europe to take is to prevent it. The course which
Europe always does take is to sanction it, by co-operat-
ing in it, giving to her their power for effecting it.
To prepare for her possession, she has to raise
a religious persecution between Mussulmans and
Christians, bringing in England and France to attack
Turkey ; she must engage Austria in a war of exter-
SETTLEMENT WITH EUSSIA. xili
niination with tlie neighbouring populations; by these
means, or a union of the llonian and Russian
Churches, she must break the confederacy of Greeks
and Latins, which is sure to be formed against her.
Besides these local operations, she has to work out
a war between England and France, and a European
revolution. Such are the preliminary steps to the
elevation of the Christian subjects of Turkey to tho
rank of serfs, and to the pa3ans of Christendom for
the long promised mass in St. Sophia.
Another illusion is, that the Christians of Turkey
are Greeks, and consequently that they are united
against the Mussulman rule. They amount to about
13,000,000, the Greeks not exceeding 1,000,000,
and the half of them not a located population, but
stranyei's, dispersed throughout the different cities.
Unfortunately the Turks like them, and confide iu
them (one of them is actually Ambassador in London),
but every other race hates and despises them. The
Wallachians and Moldavians amount to 4,500,000 -,
the Bulgarians, the descendants of the Tartars of the
Volga, to 4,500,000, some of these are Mussulmans ;
the Bosnians, including the Serbians and Illyrians
to 3,000,000, of these 1,000,000 are Mussulmans,
and about 500,000 Roman Catholics ; the Albanians
to 1,500,000, half of them Christians of the Eastern
Church, half of them Mussulmans. It will thus be
seen that the Greeks have no standing at all in
European Turkey, save that which they derive from
the Turks. One-third of the Mussulmans are allied
in blood to the Russians, and three-fourths of the
Chi'istians, south of the Danube, to the Turks. All
XIV , SETTLEMENT WITH EUSSTA.
these populations have accepted the Turks as masters ;
not one of them would endure for a moment the
supremacy of any of the others. If you had not the
Turks^ you would require to invent them^ unless
you wish to see European Turkey a chaos of bloodshed,
not for the "svretched inhabitants alone, but for Europe,
and when so exhausted to be annexed to Russia,
transferring to her a position which, in her hands,
must command the globe.
What I have here said regarding the Greek and
Russian Churches has been recently to the letter
borne out by the statements in the Greek press,
which reach us from the Levant. Their Smyrna
organ wanas Russia not to "indulge in illusions."
The EXrig, the organ of- Hellenism, explains the
object of the Czar in extorting the protectorate of
the Oriental Church to be to convert it into an " in-
strument of his Panslavic schemes," and denies
'^that the protection (!) of the Powers afforded to the
Sultan is, as the journals of Russia pretend, the pro-
tection of Mahometanism against Christianity, but
the defence of the political inheritance of the Hellenes
(Greeks) against Russian incorporation, in which
every Hellenic spirit must wjsh them success."
The correspondence of the Vienna papers is in the
same sense. " There is no nation," says the Oest
Deutsch Post, 'Mess inclined to be absorbed by Russia
than the Greeks. When struggling for political
existence, they looked on her as the victorious power
that was to come to their assistance, but they rejected
, the proffered hand so soon as they perceived that it
'was more inchned to imnose than to remove fetters."
SETTLEiAIENT AVITH KUSSIA.: xv
I cannot onut. noticing a grouml of confidence
which hasarecentiy) for the hundreth' lime,; presented
itself as a liovGltf; it is, "The Emperof has no
money." The same thing was said in 1847, when
he came fdnrard to support the Bank of England,
as he had! already supported the Bank, of France,
^6,000,000; wer6 Tested in English and French
securities, £32,000,000. of bullion were then held in
deposit. She receives nearly £5,000,000, yearly from
her mines, and actually her stock is quoted at 16 per
cent, above par. She offers to remit a claim of
80,000,000 roubles for a province, being between
the Caspian and Little Thibet, and to pay the differ-
ence ; yet, according to * diplomatic report, " The
guards, the crack corps at Zarskoi Zelo, are destitute
of clothes and everything." Well then they can be
clothed as well as fed in the Principalities — Napoleon
believed Europe to be in danger from the poverty of
Russia — she preserves the appetites of poverty, while
knowing how to employ the seductions of wealth.
It is her gold you have to fear, and not her steel.
She makes a little go a long way, and she takes it
^'The evacuation of the Principalities is," says Lord
Clarendon, " a sine qua non preliminary to a settle-
ment." But will an evacuation of the Provinces be a
settlement? Not xmless it be unconditional, as. far as
Russia is concerned,' and provision be made against
present injury and future aggression. Fir^st, then,
the evacuation must take place without any eisgage-
ment entered into by Tm^key. Secondly, an in-
demnity to Turkey for pecuniary loss, and to the
xvi SETTLEMENT WITH EUSSIA.
trade of all nations on account of the accidents at the
mouth of the Danube^ resulting from her neglect.
Thirdly, the abrogation of all existing Treaties be-
tween Russia and Turkey, and consequently of any
pretence of interference with the subjects of the latter
country. Fourthly, the abrogation of the Treaties of
1840 and 1841, equally violated by her act, and the
consequent admission of men-of-war of all nations to
the Black Sea. Fifthly, the modification of the
English Treaty of Commerce of 1838, so as to obtain
the free exportation of Turkish grain. Sixthly, the
renunciation of all claims upon Persia, whether
pecuniary or territorial. Seventhly, the abrogation of
the Treaty of the 8th of May, 1852, and the conse-
quent restoration of the succession and constitution
This is the only settlement. This, if you are in
egirnest, is what you will obtain ; there is no more
difficulty in obtaining all, than in obtaining one. If
you do not you are, in the words of Lord Clanricarde,
''^ parties to the present act of piracy, as you are to
all the previous steps that led to it," Of the seven
points which I have indicated, the essential are the