cases in the first two months of its existence.
The Chamber maintains in Buenos Aires at 455 Calle Bartolome Mitre
luxuriously appointed quarters continuously open together with an adequate library
and information files, all in charge of a competent permanent manager furnished
with three permanent assistants, which staff will be increased as needs demand.
We are exceedingly anxious to extend our Associate Membership among
North American business men,- not on account of the financial return, as the dues
for such membership are purely nominal, but to widen our sphere of influence,
contact and helpfulness.
I shall be only too glad to speak privately with any here who would like
further information and can only close by saying that we are on the ground there,
and speak not only Spanish but Argentine, not only English, but American.
Our ideas are entirely unselfish, and our desires are to further the good name
and trade of each country in the other. Our services are yours to command in the
general interests of the cause. Can you ask more?
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: Now I want to ask the dean of all Con-
ferences, Mr. A. B. Farquhar, to say just a word before we close the afternoon
MR. A. B. FARQUHAR: I have a great advantage over you, of course, in
being older. I am over eighty years old and I am acquainted with more people, and
the more people I see the fonder I am of them, the more interested in them I
In regard to South American trade, you must make it your interest to deal
with them as you wish them to deal with you give them packages as they want
them, give them time to pay for their goods. My experience of sixty-three years
in business and fifty years dealing with the South Americans is that they are the
safest and the most satisfactory people to deal with of any in the whole world.
We have no trouble with them at all. We simply treat them rightly and fairly.
(Announcements by Director General Barrett.)
The Conference was called to order at 8.30 o'clock by the Director General,
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: Mr. Whitney, could we hear from you
for three minutes ?
MR. R. I. WHITNEY (Washington) : One of the things that has suggested
itself to me during this Conference has been the need of more information in North
America regarding people conditions and countries of South America. The peo-
ple of the United States are far more ignorant of their Latin American brothers
than the Latins are of us. It would be a good idea for every father in the United
States to see to it that his children study Spanish in the schools and to further
their knowledge of Spanish and of the Latin American countries by subscribing
to any one of the many excellent newspapers published in the .Latin American
countries and have them in their homes. Nothing aids the members of a family
so much in geography, history and the conditions of other countries as the
reading of the newspapers of those countries, and with a Latin American newspaper
in every home, the women and children would quickly become interested through
their efforts to read^the newspaper articles in those publications, and this would
further the study of* geography and history as well as of language.
58 SECOND PAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CONFERENCE
My five year old girl greets me every morning now with "Buenos dias !"
They will pick it up very quickly and readily if they begin young enough.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: We have here one of the most dis-
tinguished Argentinians, a great lawyer in New York City and in Buenos Aires,
Sefior Enrique Gil.
SENOR ENRIQUE GIL: In answer to the kind suggestion of the Director
General, I just want to deliver a message to you. About a year ago I was in
Argentina and I am very glad to be able to tell you tonight that Americans are
the best liked foreigners in my country today. This has been brought about due
to three factors:
In the first place, the speeches of President Wilson are read and commented
upon by everyone in Argentina. In the second place, the newspaper propaganda
down there, and in the third place the enormous development of the American
moving picture business in Argentina which has given to us a better, wider, and
even if the word may amuse you a more romantic idea of what the United States
really is. (Mr. Gil's paper appears on page 283.)
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: Mr. Alves de Lima, we are having just
a little open discussion here with two minute speeches. I request you, as the Con-
sul General at large of Brazil to say something to the Conference in regard to
SENHOR J. C. ALVES DE LIMA: All I can say about Brazil is this: So
far Brazil has been a great coffee district but there is something more important
than coffee. I am just now preparing an article that I am going to offer to you
about the Brazilian palm trees. Coffee of course is very important but this is
more important than coffee and I should be glad to have you read this article.
(See page 117.)
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: In just three or four words, tell us
what you consider the prospects for development of commerce between Brazil and
the United States?
MR. ALVES DE LIMA: The problem of developing commerce with any
country, especially with the United States, is to have reciprocity. I have been
writing about this matter for some time and I am satisfied that the Brazilian
Congress has authorized the entering into an alliance with any country that will be
willing to exchange our products. I hope that hereafter the business men will
realize that Brazil will produce what the United States cannot produce, and vice
versa, and I do not see why we cannot have free interchange. We produce what
you cannot produce, therefore there will be no conflict of interest. As I see it,
a free interchange between the United States and Brazil is a necessity. I under-
stand the United States receives more than four hundred million pounds of coffee
from Asia, when you might get it right from Brazil.
MR. R. C. DE WOLF: While listening to Mr. Gil it occurred to me that
American moving pictures have done so much to acquaint the South Ameri-
cans with our customs and mode of living and of our business, that it would
be a good idea to begin constructing motion pictures of South American life so
that we might get an equal idea of their customs. Of course we have pictures
of South American scenery such as we have here, but what we need is something
which will truthfully and at the same time dramatically represent social condi-
tions and the life of the people there.
One of the greatest instrumentalities for disseminating correct ideas and
mutual understanding between the two Continents that can possibly exist is the
motion picture. (Mr. De Wolf's paper is given on page 285.)
MR. GIL: I would like to explain, in answer to the question about the
lack of news, that La Nation of Buenos Aires, one of the leading newspapers in
Argentina, has initiated a cable news service from Buenos Aires and from all
South America with some Mexican newspapers and with La Prensa of New York
and with El Diario de la Marina of Havana, which has a day service of about
3,000 words a day.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: We will now proceed with the regular
program. The initial paper is by Honorable Otto Praeger, who has made a most
careful study of this important question of the parcel post. I have great pleasure
in introducing to you as the first speaker of the evening a man who has not only
WEDNESDAY EVENING SESSION 59
studied the parcel post from the standpoint of the United States but also from the
standpoint of Latin America Honorable Otto Praeger, Second Assistant Post-
master General of the United States.
THE SECOND ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL (after reading the
paper given on page 275) : Gentlemen, I have vaguely sketched our parcel post
regulations, our relations with South and Central America, in the hope that it may
suggest to you problems that are uppermost in your mind, questions that you would
desire clarified in our relations and I will be glad to be of any assistance and reply
to any questions that may suggest themselves to you.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: Following the address of the Second
Assistant Postmaster General, I want to ask if anyone here desired to propose a
question or make a suggestion?
MR. McHALE (New York) : I hear there has been some trouble in the parcel
post service between Chile and the United States, and I would like to know if it
has been settled.
MR. PRAEGER: All trouble has been eliminated. The treaty, after long
negotiations, was signed by the Postmaster General and the Ambassador of Chile
and has been sent to Chile for ratification. Chile has meanwhile authorized the
sending of parcel post to this country and we will do likewise.
MR. H. S. HORRISON (Philadelphia) : This morning there was a discussion
of the commercial and air transportation and while the question of the mail was
alluded to, I would like to ask what plans, if any, the Government has for the
use of the airplane for carrying foreign mail, including parcel post.
MR. PRAEGER: The air mail is just now my special . hobby. We are
going thoroughly and deeply into that problem. The air mail service has been
outlined to cover Cuba, the West Indies, with the southernmost point of the
Panama Canal Zone. It depends upon two things (1) the development and con-
struction of a suitable and powerful enough airplane to cross the large stretches
of water that will be encountered between the Isle of Pines and Panama, and (2)
the extent that Congress is willing to enter upon an aerial mail program, costing
approximately $3,000,000, to carry out the Post Office Department air mail program
which includes going to the West Indies and Panama.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: For the next speaker I am going to
call upon a man who has a national reputation because of his knowledge of trading
relations between a great firm in the United States and Latin America, and other
foreign countries Sefior Frutos Plaza, of Montgomery Ward and Company, of
SENOR FRUTOS PLAZA read the paper given on page 277.
MR. F. E. TITUS (Akron, O.) : The speaker differentiated between the
standards of packing for the interior and coast cities. Do you consider that the
purchaser in a foreign country should pay the difference in the packing for the
interior points as against the packing for the coast cities ? In price I assume that
both customers are identical and yet the tin lined or oil paper box, more expen-
sive on a small low-priced article would not be absorbed in the cost as against
the ordinary paper wrapping used for the coast city.
MR. PLAZA: In the first place, in ordinary paper we do not make any charge
to the customer at all. Then we make a very slight charge for tin lined boxes and
explain to our customers why we do it. We pass that charge on to the cost.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: If there are no other questions, I call
upon the next speaker. You are going to listen now to one of the younger genera-
tion coming on in Cuba, a man who has already made a reputation there which
places him among the foremost, who has been chosen because of his quality to
be the head of this great new International Trade Mark Bureau in Havana, a man
picked for his peal quality. I have great pleasure in introducing Dr. Mario
Diaz Yrizar, Director of the International Trade Mark Bureau of Havana.
DR. MARIO DIAZ YRIZAR read the paper which appears on page 281.
MR. C. VOGEL (Philadelphia): I should like to ask the speaker three ques-
tions. The first one is regarding the Berne trade mark convention. Certain coun-
tries are members of that convention. If a firm in Europe registers in this country,
FOREIGN* COMMERCE 191?
* 505,393, OOO.
WEDNESDAY EVENING SESSION 61
that trade mark will automatically be registered in South America where they have
a membership in this convention. If an American should register in the Latin
American countries, should there be interference with the Berne convention or
would it be automatically excluded if it has already been registered in the Berne
DR. YRIZAR: The Berne convention has nothing to do with the Buenos
Aires convention. The Berne convention applies to nations in Europe and some
of America, while that of Buenos Aires is for American nations only.
MR. VOGEL: A question regarding trade mark piracy, the stealing of
trade marks. Will any recommendation of a remedy be offered to American
firms who have clear right to priority .of a trade mark which is very evidently
appropriated unjustly by a firm in a South American country?
DR. YRIZAR: Well, I do not know about the South American countries. I
know that the Cuban laws prohibit piracy, and anyone who attempts it is put in
MR. VOGEL: If one should have registered your trade mark in Cuba before
you have done so, would you be able to recover your rights under this conven-
tion if you are the clear original owner of the trade mark?
DR. YRIZAR: Yes, there is a six months priority provided for by the con-
vention. If you apply for a trade mark six months before any merchant applies
for the same trade mark in any of the American countries, that rule applies.
MR. VOGEL: The third question refers to the time that is now lost by
registering previously in the United States Patent Office.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: I am sorry -that we have not a longer
period of time to listen to siich an eminent authority as the Hon. James T. Newton,
but he has kindly yielded out of his time to our distinguished visitor from Havana.
In the few minutes that are left, I am going to ask Mr. Newton, the distinguished
United States Commissioner of Patents to say a few words, very briefly, and
then if anyone wishes to ask him a question, I am sure he will be glad to answer.
THE UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS: Ladies and Gen-
tlemen. In 1910 a convention was adopted between the American Republics for
the protection of trade marks. When I say trade marks, most of you see visions
of something that you do not understand but a trade mark is nothing but a name
and the object of this convention was to protect these trade marks.
A man's reputation in his business is his principal asset. A trade mark is
nothing but the name of his reputation. If I should tell you the amount of money
that was spent on advertising and getting a reputation through trade marks, you
would not believe me. I know of issues of papers that charge fifty thousand dollars
for one advertisement of a trade mark.
Trade marks, therefore, become valuable because they are a manV reputa-
tion, they stand for him, they are the principal assets of a great many businesses.
It is for the protection of these trademarks that this convention was entered into
and after the convention was adopted by these Republics in 1910 it practically lay
dormant until a few years ago, two or three years ago, when Dr. Rowe, and Dr.
Magtiire began to agitate it, and they have succeeded in getting several of the
Latin American countries to join with the United States in ratifying this con-
The convention divided the Republics into two groups the northern group
consisting of the United States, Canada, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Hayti and several
others, fifteen in all, enough of them have adopted this convention to authorize
the establishment of a Bureau at Havana of which Dr. Yrizar, whom you have
just heard, is Director.
My object in coming here tonight was to appeal to my friends in the Latin
American Republics to enter into this convention. Four of the southern group of
countries have adopted the convention Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. We
need two more to adopt it in the southern group before we can establish a registra-
tion bureau in Rio de Janeiro and my only object in presenting this to you tonight
is to urge upon those delegates from the other states to join the convention. You
will benefit by it as well as we. Your countries have different trade mark rules
and regulations than ours, you have no trade mark until it is registered. We do
not require registration and it has required some effort on our part to reconcile
62 SECOND PAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CONFERENCE
these laws of ours with yours in order to have them make provision for the use
of these conventions.
I wish you could realize the importance of this matter from a practical
standpoint as I realize it. I have thousands of applications in the Patent Office
only waiting the ratification of this treaty and the establishment of these bureaus
for the South American republics before American business men will rush there
to register their trade marks. I had one firm last week file five thousand dollars
worth of applications for registration of their trade marks in South American
countries and we only ask that you ratify this convention and enter into it with
the spirit that we do to protect your honest dealers and the reputation of those
men who have spent fortunes in making their reputations, to establish them there,
and nothing that I know of will enhance the trade relations between the Republics
more than this step.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: Are there any questions?
I have great pleasure now in introducing to you one of those men who is
as much North American as he is South American, bearing a Latin American
name, who is known throughout this country as one of the best authorities on
Pan American commerce. Senor Vicente Gonzales, Foreign Trade Adviser of the
Mercantile National Bank of the Americas.
SEftOR VICENTE GONZALES: The subject on which I am requested to
speak to you tonight is not my choice. It has been wished on me, but you know
Mr. Barrett you have to do what he wants. He is so big, you know, and so
good, always doing all he can for the trade relations between the Americas- and
you feel like you have to please him. He has asked me to speak about a subject
which I dislike, because I have to knock it. If I annoy you, please blame him and
not me for it.
I am to speak to you about the consular and customs regulations with our
Latin American trade, which I call a regular nuisance. I do not want to criticize
and be personal with any country, but the variety, the continuous changes have
made them, as you will all agree with me, a real nuisance. The consular invoices
were intended to assist the Governments in compiling statistics and checking in
ports, but they have gradually become, little by little, an essential document with-
out which shipping documents are not complete. (Senor Gonzales then read the
paper given on page 287.)
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: I now have great pleasure in introducing
to you Mr. F. B. Purdie of R. G. Dun and Company, one of the best informed
men on Latin America.
MR. F. B. PURDIE read the paper given on page 256.
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: It gives me pleasure to introduce Dr.
F. R. Rutter, the Statistical Adviser of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com-
merce, and one of the best authorities on the tariffs and other regulations govern-
ing Pan American trade.
DR. F. R. RUTTER: Mr. Director General, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is
a very embarrassing position for a man with nearly a theoretical legal knowledge
of the tariff regulations of South American countries to speak after Mr. Gonzales
has discussed the subject in such a thorough way. Like him, and like one other
speaker, I fear that I must apologize for saying some unpleasant things. (Dr.
Rutter then delivered the remarks given on page 292.)
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: Has anyone a question to ask Mr.
I have a telegram here from the very efficient Chief Clerk of the Pan
American Union, Mr. Franklin Adams, who is now in South America, sent from
Santiago, Chile. He says: "The Chilean press reflects marked and notable interest
in the Pan American Conference. Congratulations from us here." That is a good
thing to hear, considering that is twenty-five thousand miles away.
( Announcements. )
THURSDAY, JUNE 5, 1919
The Conference was called to order at 10 o'clock by Director General Barrett.
The session was presided by the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, Dr. Leo
DIRECTOR GENERAL BARRETT: We are entering this morning on the
third day of perhaps the most remarkable conference, in attendance and represen-
tation, that has ever been held in this building.
I now have real pleasure in introducing one of the dearest and best friends
and collaborators I have had in the cause of Pan Americanism during the last
seventeen or eighteen years, a man who has given so much of his time from the
Treasury Department to helping to organize the International Joint High Com-
mission and now is promoting the commercial and financial relations of North and
South America. I have great pleasure in introducing Dr. L. S. Rowe, the Assistant
Secretary of the Treasury, who will preside over this session.
THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY: Your Excellencies,
Mr. Director General, Members of the Conference, Ladies and Gentlemen: I want
in the first place to express to this Conference the warm greetings of the Secre-
tary of the Treasury, and, at the same time, to express to each and every one of
you his sincere regret that imperative official engagements, which have taken him
out of the city, have prevented him from attending these sessions.
I also wish to express, and if I may be permitted to join thereto my own
deep sense of appreciation, to the Governing Board as well as to the Director Gen-
eral of the Pan American Union the great satisfaction of the Secretary of the
Treasury for the very real national and international service that they have per-
formed in bringing together this notable body to discuss questions of such deep
import to the present and to the future of this continent.
The Secretary of the Treasury has also authorized me to make an important
announcement to this Conference. The President of the United States, on the
recommedation of the Secretary of the Treasury, has decided to convene the Second
Pan American Financial Conference on January 12, 1920. You will all recall that
the first Conference was held in May, 1915, on the recommendation of the then
Secretary of the Treasury, Honorable William G. McAdoo, and it was called at
that time in order to discuss the very difficult situation, financial and industrial,
that had been created for all the countries of the American continent by reason
of the outbreak of the European war.
The Second Financial Congress will convene at the close of the war for a
further interchange of view, of experience and counsel with reference to the many
and difficult problems that are confronting both Governments and peoples of the
American Continent at the close of the European War.
The delegations from each of the countries will be presided over by the re-
spective Ministers of Finance, and the Secretary of the Treasury of the United
States will have the opportunity at that time to hold a special conference with the
Ministers of Finance of all the Republics of the American Continent with a view
to this interchange of experience, of counsel and of policy. I may add, however,
that the period between the first and the second Conference, a period now of little
over four years, has been fruitful of important results by reason of the fact that
the first Conference provided for a definite mechanism and organization through
which the Resolutions of the Conference were to be put into execution.
I will not burden you with a recital of the problems to the study of whose
solution the International High Commission has devoted itself. I shall content
myself with a reference first to the installation of the great Bureau of International
Registration of Trademarks at Havana, the organization and operation of which
was so eloquently placed before you by the distinguished Director of that Bureau
whom I see here this morning, Dr. Mario Diaz Irizar of Havana; and, second
with the expression of the constant hope and expectation that prior to the as-
sembling of the Second Pan American Financial Conference, the Southern Bureau
to be established at Rio de Janeiro will have been organized, because for the pur-
64 SECOND PAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CONFERENCE
pose there is now only required the approval of two further States of the South
American group. With their approval, the registration of trademarks throughout
the American Continent, their complete protection will have become an accom-