the skillful and effective manner in which they handled this large volume of
Members of the Governing Board seldom visit the mail room, as it is in the
basement, but the Director General respectfully submits that it is worthy of their
attention and interest if they can conveniently find a few spare moments to
(c) THE MONTHLY BULLETIN has steadily grown in popularity and
usefulness, if a safe conclusion can be drawn from the demand for it. Despite
severe restrictions on white paper, greater cost of both printing annd paper, and
the cutting of the free list, the total number of names receiving the Bulletin has
grown from 13,437 in 1916-17 to 16,719 in 1917-18, or a bona fide increase of 3,282.
The total number of Bulletins distributed for the year was 181,416, divided as
follows: Spanish 111,180; English, 40,764; Portuguese, 17,112; French, 12,360.
It can here be said that if the Pan American Union 'had the funds and
facilities to care for a large circulation of the Bulletin it could undoubtedly be
increased in a short period to 100,000 per month or even more, and rank with
such a magazine as that of the National Geographic Society.
Every effort is now being made, consistent with conditions for obtaining
material and under the limitations of cost of production, to follow the wishes of
the Governing Board in shaping the character and the scope of the monthly
Bulletin. If there are shortcomings, they are almost unavoidable under the circum-
stances. The earnest cooperation, advice and sympathy of every member of the
B,oard is desired in making it worthy of the organization. The editorial staff of
the Bulletin has certainly worked diligently to maintain a high standard and it is
a pleasure for the Director General to give them credit for their efforts.
(d) OTHER PUBLICATIONS, including the general descriptive pamphlets,
commercial data for each country, and special reports and articles on various sub-
jects, printed and distributed throughout the year, reached a total of 248,431, and
396 SECOND PAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CONFERENCE
would have gone far beyond this figure had printing and cost difficulties not in-
creased as rapidly as the demand for such material. This represents an increase
of 75,540 over the preceding year.
(e) THE COLUMBUS MEMORIAL LIBRARY experienced a healthy
growth and exercised a more practical usefulness than ever before. The demands
upon it have sorely taxed the efforts of the Acting Librarian and his assistants,
but they have done the best possible under the circumstances and made it a center
of research for all kinds of official and unofficial investigators and students.
Additional stacks are now being placed in position to meet the increasing require-
ments of space. The report of the Acting Librarian gives the following interest-
ing figures, each of which represents a substantial increase over the preceding
year: Number of volumes and pamphlets, 39,810; catalogue and index cards,
149,517; maps, 1,475; atlases, 110; lantern slides, 1,377; photographic negatives,
3,374; actual accessible photographs, 21,037. The library regularly received 1,204
representative periodicals from the different countries, whose information, like that
of books, pamphlets and reports, is duly catalogued, indexed and made accessible.
(f) THE EDUCATIONAL SECTION has been carefully looked after and
extended by tine Assistant Director, who has prepared a separate and special
report on this subject, which is in the hands of the printer and will be presented
at the next meeting.
(g) THE STATISTICAL SECTION has been kept exceptionally busy,
aside from the regular demands of the Pan American Union, by the numerous
and constant requests for reliable statistical data made upon it as already indicated,
not only by the War Trade Board, the War Industries Board, the Shipping Board,
the Food Administration, and the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of
the United States Government, but by similar agencies and offices of other Ameri-
can and foreign governments. In each case the information given has been that
compiled from official sources of the American republics.
(h) THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS have been maintained in har-
mony with their striking beauty, and in as. good condition as could be expected in
the face of serious difficulties of poor and expensive labor, high cost of materials,
bad coal, smoke and soot from the furnaces of the surrounding cordon of war
buildings and dirt and dust from the tearing up of streets and new construction. A
serious problem in the present and future budgets will be that of keeping in proper
condition the exquisite buildings and carefully laid out grounds which represent an
actual investment of $1,100,000 but which could not be duplicated now for double
that sum. During the last eighteen months of the war period the Pan American
Building has been the only notable official structure in Washington open absolutely
without any restrictions to visitors. That this privilege has been appreciated is
proved by the throngs of persons who pass its portals and study its meaning,
its exhibits, its facilities and its architecture. It might be said that every govern-
ment of the Pan American Union might appreciate the opportunty, so to speak, of
capitalizing this daily attendance of interested representative visitors, unequalled
anywhere else in the world, by providing additional and special exhibits, maps,
photographs, and moving pictures as often urged heretofore by the Director
General. In this connection it is to be hoped that the beautiful Hall of the
Americas will be utilized this winter for appropriate lectures and exhibits of pic-
tures covering each country. Assuredly the necessary latent talent exists in and
out of the Board, with appreciative audiences only awaiting the summons to
Receipts and Expenditures, 1917-18.
The receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year of July 1, 1917 June 30,
1918, were respectively $158,281.48 and $156,388.40. (See note at end of report.)
Future Work of the Office.
Looking forward to the after-the-war period, it can be seen that the Pan
American Union will face extraordinary demands upon its facilities. The present
daily correspondence, the character of inquiries and the word of numerous per-
sons who call at the office, leave no doubt upon this point. If the Pan American
Union has made good in the past by serving all the American Republics and all
the world in fact it will have far greater activity and responsibility in the imme-
There is much constructive work ahead of it in which it must not fail. It
must also take and tie up agai-n tnany of the threads of practical Pan Americanism
which were broken by the war. Under this latter head comes the vital question of
holding the Fifth Pan American .Conference which was to have met in Santiago,
Chile, in 1914, but was postponed on account of the war. The date for this
gathering will probably be determined after peace is declared, and then a new pro-
gram will have to be framed.
Plans will also naturally be brought forward for the Third Pan American
Scientific Congress which will be held in Lima in 1920.
Already there are possibilities of a second Pan American Financial Confer-
ence being called. Although this is under the International High Commission, the
Pan American Union, as in the case of the first Conference, will be asked to
Among many opportunities of extending the office responsibilities of the Pan
American Union are the following: (1) providing for daily or frequent illustrated
lectures in the building on the countries of the Union, as practical educational
work among not only those specially interested but the throng of regular daily
visitors ; (2) special lectures or conferences in the Hall of the Americas, given by
members of the Governing Board or others whom they may designate; (3) the
giving by its staff or others recommended by it of informative lectures and
addresses throughout the countries of the Union, especially before universities,
learned societies, and commercial and social organizations; (4) extension in the
building of actual exhibits of the products and re'sources of the different countries,
because the Pan American Building is the most appropriate place for such exhibits ;
(5) improvement of the monthly Bulletin in every way practical, so that its pres-
ent great usefulness and popularity may be extended and perfected; (6) enlarge-
ment of the scope and work of the Educational Section so that it may become a
powerful factor in promoting educational and intellectual exchange; (7) as corol-
lary to the above, the popularizing of the study of the Spanish, Portuguese and
English languages, respectively, according to countries, and their literature, and
the study of Pan American history and progress among both the higher and
secondary institutions of all the Americas; (8) development of the Columbus
M'emorial Library through the cooperation of the governments and members of
the Board, so that it may become more than ever a central point of depositing
and obtaining accurate information; (9) extension of the statistical and informa-
tion sections by a more comprehensive plan for the publication of special reports
that will promote, not only material, commercial and financial relations, but closer
intellectual and social ties.
The above are only part of the program of the Director General, the Assistant
Director and the staff of the Pan American Union, but they are respectfully sub-
mitted to the Governing Board for their interest and consideration, because they
can only be carried out by their sincere and constant cooperation. Any suggestion,
moreover, for the good of the Pan American Union which may be made by mem-
bers of the Board are most heartily welcomed by the executive officers.
In conclusion, the Director General desires to acknowledge with gratitude
the kind interest, advice and assistance which he has always received from mem-
bers of the Board, and he respectfully invites a continuance of such generous
attitude during the coming year. He wishes also to thank especially the able,
sympathetic and wise-counselling Assistant Director, the hard-working Chief Clerk,
the conservative and responsible Chief Accountant, and all the other members of
the staff who have done their best to make the Pan American Union an organization
and institution of practical usefulness to every American republic and to all the
NOTE An itemized statement of all expenditures and receipts for the past
fiscal year, 1917-18, and of estimated expenditures and receipts for the next fiscal
year, 1919-20, was included in the original complete report and duly approved by
the Governing Board.
* Since this was written, it has been officially announced that President
Wilson has issued the invitations to the Latin American for the Second Pan
American Financial Conference to be held in Washington in January, 1920.
398 SECOND PAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CONFERENCE
LATIN AMERICAN FOREIGN TRADE -1913-1917 A COMPARATIVE SURVEY
Specially Prepared for the Second Pan American Commercial Conference
BY MATILDA PHILLIPS, ASSISTANT STATISTICIAN, PAN AMERICAN UNION.
The foreign trade of the twenty Latin American Republics for the calendar
year 1917, compiled from the latest reports of the statistical offices of the several
countries, and expressed in customs valuations converted into United States cur-
rency, amounted to $3,281,003,645. This is the highest figure ever attained and
represents an increase over 1913, the former high water mark, of $400,280,627.
Comparing the year 1917 with the last full year before the war (1913), there
was a decrease in all Latin American imports of 10.38 per cent, and an increase
in exports of 34.55 per cent.
In the northern group of countries, comprising Mexico, Guatemala, Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Haiti,
there was an increase in both exports and imports, 97.54 per cent, in the former,
and 57.66 per cent, in the latter. In the southern group Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela there was a
decrease of 30.91 per cent, in imports and an increase of 22.14 per cent, in exports,
as shown by the following tables :
All Latin America.
Imports. Exports. Total.
1917 $1,188,953,129 $2,092,050,516 $3,281,003,645
1913 1,326,639,783 1,554,083,235 2,880,723,018
Increase . $137,686,6541 $537,967,281 $400,280,627
Per cent 10.38 1 34.55 13.89
Latin Republics of North America.
Imports. Exports. Total.
1917 $483,972,903 $667,753,198 $1,151,726,101
1913 306,331,362 388,017,904 694,349,266
Increase $177,641,541 $279,735,294 $457,376,835
Per cent 57.66 97.54 65.87
South American Republics.
Imports. Exports. Total.
1917 . $704,980,226 $1,424,297,318 $2,129,277,544
1913 $1,020,308,421 1,166,065,331 2,186,373,752
Increase $315,328,195 $258,231,987 $57,096,208
Per cent. , 30.91 1 22.14 2.61 1
In per cent, of the whole, the imports from the United States into Latin
America represent 58.80 in 1917, as opposed to 24.69 in 1913. The proportion of
the United Kingdom in 1913 was 27.70 per cent.; in 1917 it was 19.01 per cent.
France fell from 8.65 per cent, to 4.11 per cent. Germany, with 18.34 per cent, in
1913, disappeared, and Spain, with 3.80 per cent., has taken her place.
Of the total Latin American exports, the United States increased her trade
in 1917 over that of 1913 by 121.70 per cent.; the United Kingdom by 28.24 per
cent. ; France by 28.69 per cent, and, as in the case of imports, Germany disap-
peared, her place being taken by Spain with 1.85 per cent.
The statistical tables forming a part of this survey give the total imports and
exports of Latin America for the years 1913 and 1917, and the share of the leading
countries participating therein.
CHARACTER OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
Latin American imports are in general of the same character as the imports
of western European countries and of the United States, except that they do not
comprehend any large proportion of raw material for use in manufacturing. The
great bulk of the imports, other than foodstuffs, are articles of a high degree of
manufacture, finished for consumption. Outside of commodities not so included,
the chief are lumber, gold, mineral oils, iron and steel construction material, flour,
canned goods, and some unwrought iron, steel, copper, and other metals. Of the
manufactured articles not food, which comprise the bulk of the imports, the range
is very large, covering practically all the finished manufactured products known
in Europe or in the United States textiles, leather manufactures, furniture,
household utensils, office appliances, tools, hardware, machinery, especially the
lighter kind, agricultural implements, mining supplies and tools, engines, motors,
glassware, telephonic, telegraphic, and other electrical apparatus and material, and
paper. Edible oils, canned vegetables, meats and fish, sweets and jams, edible pastes,
spices and condiments, and wines and liquors, comprise the chief import of the
more highly manufactured food products. In countries not producing the same,
there are imports of sugar, tobacco and fruits.
There is a remarkable uniformity in the imports of all the 20 countries.
As a general rule what can be sold in Cuba or Mexico can also be sold in Argentina
On the contrary, Latin American exports, while in general falling in one
class, i.e., raw materials for use in manufacturing, primary food products, and
metals, yet owing to the great differences of soil, climate, rainfall, and other
natural conditions, proximity or remoteness to markets, and development of trans-
portation systems, are widely differentiated in the several countries. With the
exception of Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, food exports in general are tropical
or subtropical products, such as coffee, cane sugar and cacao. The food exports
of the three countries Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile are, however, of the same
character as the food exports of the United States meats and grain.
The principal exports of the 20 countries are as follows :
Mexico. Gold, silver, antimony, mercury, copper, lead, zinc, mineral oils,
sisal, hides and skins. There are some exports of rubber, woods, peas and beans.
Guatemala. Coffee, hides, woods, bananas.
Salvador. Coffee, silver, gold, indigo, sugar.
Honduras. Gold, silver, bananas.
Nicaragua. Coffee, woods, rubber, sugar.
Costa Rica. Coffee, bananas, gold, silver.
Panama. Bananas, ivory nuts, coconuts, rubber.
Cuba. Sugar, molasses, distillates, tobacco, iron and copper ore, woods,
fruits, hides and skins.
Dominican Republic. Sugar, cacao, tobacco, coffee, bananas, hides.
Haiti. Coffee, cacao, honey, cotton, cotton seed, logwood.
Argentina. Frozen beef and mutton ; hides, wool, sheepskins, goat skins,
bristles, canned meats, beef scrap, tallow, butter, grease, bones, wheat flour, corn,
linseed, oats, hay, bran, quebracho.
Bolivia. /Tin, silver, bismuth, copper, rubber, coco, wolframite.
Brazil. Coffee, rubber, hides, yerba mate, cacao, tobacco, skins, sugar, gold,
manganese, cotton, cotton seed, beef, bran, monazite sand.
Chile. Nitrate of soda, copper, silver, fruits and grains, hides, wool, fur
Colombia. Coffee, bananas, tobacco, ivory nuts, rubber, cacao.
Ecuador. Cacao, ivory nuts, rubber, coffee, gold, hides.
Paraguay. Hides, quebracho, yerba mate, tobacco, fruits.
Peru. 'Copper, vanadium, wolframite, rubber, sugar, cotton, wool, guano,
Uruguay. Wool, hides, beef, tallow, hair, wheat, flour.
Venezuela. Coffee, cacao, rubber, hides, goatskins, gold, meats, copper,
SECOND PAN AMERICAN COMMERCIAL CONFERENCE
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