rectly to the Bronze Door of the E. vestibule of the X. Exten-
sion, which may be reached by pursuing the main X. and S.
corridor, and at its terminus turning to the r. and then to the
1., the last corridoi' ending in the vestibule. Just after leaving
the vestibule of the Supreme Court the division betv^^een the
original Capitol and the Extension will be observed, the first
part reached being the connecting corridor.
The Senate Bronze Door, by Crawford, consists of a simple
post and lintel. The frame over
the door is supported by enrich-
ed brackets. The ornamenta-
tion consists of scroll-work and
acanthus, with the cotton-boll,
maize, grapes, and entwining
vines. The upper panel of each
valve contains a star, surround-
ed by a wreath of oak leaves, and
acts as a ventilator. In the foot
panel of each leaf are figures,
typical of Peace and War. Tlie
door is 14J ft. high and 9i ft.
wide, with two leaves, weighs
14,000 lbs., and was cast "by
James T. Ames, at Chicopee,
Mass. The total cost was $6,-
000 for model and $50,495 for
casting. It was put up in 1868.
The remainder of the door
is divided into 6 panels, fn
which, in alto relievo^ are rep-
resented events connected with
the revolution arj^ struggle, the
establishment of the Government, and the foundation of the
Capitol. The panels containing historical subjects, in chro-
nological succession, begin at the top of the left valve of the
door, as f ollow^s :
I. Battle of Bunker Hill and Death of Warren, June, 1775.
SENATE BRONZE DOOK.
SENATE EXTENSION. 91
II. Battle of Monmouth, June, 1778, and Rebuke of General Lee, who meditated
betraying the American Army.
III. Battle of Yorktown, October, 1781. Hamilton's Capture of the Redoubt.
IV. Welcome of Washington at Trenton, April, 1789, on his way to New York
to assume the office of President of the United States. This panel contains por-
traits of the sculptor, his wife, and three children, and of Rogers, the sculptor of
the Main Door.
V. Inauguration of Washington, First President of the United States, in New
York, April 30, 1789. The principal figures in this panel are portraits, including
John Adams, Vice President, on his right; Chancellor Livingstone administers the
oath; Mr. Otis, Secretary of the Senate, presented the Bible. The other distinguished
personages represented arc Alexander Hamilton, Generals Knox and St. Clair, Roger
Sherman, and Baron Steuben.
VI. Laying of the Corner-stone of the Capitol of the United States at Washing-
ton, September 18, 179J. The prominent figures are likenesses.
The order to Mr. Crawford contemplated two doors, one for
the E. Portico of each wing. The sculptor had proceeded no
further than to complete tlie di-awing- of his designs and the
work of his models in clay, when he was overtaken by death.
The work, however, was completed by W. H. Rhinehart, of
Maryland, an assistant in the studio of the sculptor at Rome.
The fortunate exaction of a guaranty from the European
founder, who seemed to doubt the ability of the nation to
maintain its credit and to cope with the Rebellion, then
going on, led to the shipment of the models to the United
States in 1863. They were somewhat damaged in removal,
but were restored by Silas Mosman, of Massachusetts, under
whose superintendence they were cast. The mechanical ex-
ecution of this work is considered in every respect equal to the
great Door, and establishes the skill of American workmen
in competition with those of Europe.
Above the door, resting on a cap supported by massive
brackets, are two reclining female figures, in American mar-
ble, by Crawford, representing Justice and History. Both
recline against a globe, the former supporting a volume bear-
ing the words "Justice, Law, and Order," and has a pair of
scales lying by her side. The latter holds a scroll, inscribed
"History, July, 1776." On either side of the door, in the
beautiful marble wall, is a niche, ready to receive appropriate
From this portico the bronze door enters a vestibule^ consist-
ing of a colonnade of 16 fluted marble columns, with capitals
of acanthus and tobacco leaves. The columns are disposed in
couples, and equally divided on either side with corresponding
pilasters. The ceiling is composed of massive blocks of liiglily-
polished marble, ranged so as to form panels, three of which
are provided with stained glass for the admission of light.
The walls are scagliola imitation of Sienna marble, and are
broken at suitable intervals into niches, with bases of Ten-
nessee marble. The floor is tessellated in white and blue
92 SENATE EXTENSION.
marble. The first door on the 1., after entering, leads into
the Official Reporters'' Boom. On the r. is the Senate Post
Office. At the W. end is a smaller vestibule, leading- to the
floor of the Senate Chamber. The doors are of bird's-eye
maple, with bronze enrichments, and set in bronze frames.
The Senate Chamber will be described from the galleries.
The public are permitted on the floor of the Chamber when
the Senate is not in session. The regular hour of meeting
of the Senate during the session is 12 noon every day ex-
cept Sunday, and adjourns on its own motion : holiday and
night sessions are ordered by the Senate. During the ses-
sion the following persons only are by law entitled to the
privileges of the floor of the Senate : Officers of the Senate ;
Members of the House of Represen tatives and their clerks ;
President of the U. S. and private secretary ; heads of de-
partments; Mnisters of the U. S. and Foreign Ministers;
ex-Presidents and ex-Vice Presidents of the U. S. ; ex-Sen-
ators and Senators elect ; Judges of the Supreme Court of
the U. S. ; Governors of States and Territories ; General of
the Army ; Admiral of the !N"avy ; Members of National
Legislatures of foreign countries ; private secretaries of Sen-
ators, appointed in writing ; and Librarian of Congress.
The W. door in the S. wall of the main vestibule leads to the
E. Staircase^ ascending to the corridors and committee rooms
of the second floor and to the ladies' galleries and retiring
rooms. This magnificent staircase is made of highly-polished
Tennessee marble. The columns have bronze capitals. The
ascent from the main floor is by a broad flight of 16 steps, which
divide at the first landing, the rest of the ascent being by a
double flight of 18 steps. Overhead is a stained-glass skylight
set in an iron frame, surrounded by iron casing of trellis work,
resting on a heavy cornice of marble. At the foot of the steps,
in a niche, stands the semi-heroic statue of Franklin, the phi-
losopher, in marble : by Hiram Powers. 1862, $10,000.
Against the E. wall, over the first landing, is the painting of
Perry's Victory over the British on Lake Erie : by Powell, of
Ohio. 1873, cost $25,000. The painting represents the Com-
modore transferring his flag from the Lawrence, which had
been disabled, to another ship. A new movement compelled
the enemy to surrender. The best view of this painting is
from the balustrade at the top of the staircase. A double
stairway, wliich unites at the first landing below, leads be-
neath the arched support and massive blocking of the upper
staircase to the basement. A beautiful stained-glass window,
at the head of the second descent, admits light. At the foot
of these steps is the Senate Refectory. The best general view
SENATE EXTENSION. " 93
of the E. staircase may be had from the landing of the steps
leading to the basement. ^
The'W. door in the oST. wall of the vestibule opens into the
Senate Reception Room, a brilliant salo7i about 60 ft. long,
with a vaulted ceiling divided into two arches, that on tlie X.
being groined, and is divided into four sections, in which are
allegorical figures in fresco: IST., Liberty; S., Plenty; W.,
War ; E., Peace. The S. half of tlie ceiling consists of a cir-
cular arch, broken by deep caissons, arranged in concentric
circles. The fresco in the centre represents youthful figures
in a vignette of clouds. Outside the circle are allegorical fig-
ures in fi-esco : NE., Prudence; SE., Justice; SW., Temper-
ance ; ISTW., Strength. All these frescoes were executed by
Brumidi, in 1856. The ceiling is heavily gilded throughout,
and from it is suspended a fine chandelier. The walls are
finished in tint, and enriched with stucco and gilt. They are
divided into five panels, with medallion centres for portraits
of illustrious citizens. Each medallion is surrounded by
wreaths, and is surmounted by an eagle. The base of tlie
walls is scagliola, in imitation of Potomac and Tennessee
marbles. Under the arch in the S. wall is a well-executed
centre-piece in oil, by Brumidi, representing Washington in
consultation with Jefferson, his Secretary of State, and Ham-
ilton, Secretary of the Treasury .|^ On either side is a medal-
lion yet unfilled. In the N. wall of this magnificent apart-
ment, between the windows, is a mirror. The floof is of
encaustic tiles, finely laid, and with a beautifully-w^rought
star as a centre-piece. The room is furnished in rosewood,
with damask and lace cm-tains. In winter the floor is richly
On the E. a door opens into the Senate Post Office, ele-
gantly fitted with cases and other conveniences for the recep-
tion and distribution of the Senate mails. This room was
originally intended for the Library of the Senate, and was
decorated with that view. The vaulted ceiling is embellished
with frescoes by Brumidi, the principal pieces representing
History, Geography, Physics, and tlie Telegraph. Three
allegorical figures support a tasteful centre-piece, from which
drops a chandelier. The walls are finished in oil and gilt.
Adjoining, on the N"., is the Boom of the Sergeant-at-Arms o/
the Senate. On the walls under the arches are four allegorical
designs in basso relievo : that on the E. representing Dissolu-
tion or Secession, illustrated in the breaking of the fasces or
bundle of rods, while on the one side lies cotton, and on the
other corn, the rival products of the opposing sections of the
country. On the S. is the same figure as War, with the en-
gines of strife. On the W. the bundle of rods are again
94 SENATE EXTENSION.
united, with the motto E Plurihus JJ/ium and eao-le. On the
N". the implements of war are being* destroyed and exchanged
for peace. The centre-piece of the ceiling represents Ke-
construction. The W. door of tlie reception-room opens into
the vestibule of the Senate lobby. On the 1., descending
to the basement, is a private staircase^ with a bronze railing,
formed of entwining vines and foliage, relieved with eagles,
deer, and cupids. A similar staircase occupies a correspond-
ing place on the W. side of the lobby. These, including two
connecting with the lobby of the Hall of the Representatives
in the S. Extension cost nearly $22,500. Tliej'^ are elaborate
and artistic specimens bronze-work, and in a part of tlie
building too dark to enable tlieir merits to be fully appre-
ciated. They were manufactured by Archer, Warner &
Miskey, of Philadelphia.
During the sessions of the Senate admission to the Senate
lobby can only be obtained tlirough a Senator. This, how-
ever, is not in strict accordance with the rules of the body.
When the Senate is not in session the lobbj^ is open to the
public. Tlie lobby is a vaulted passage, with gilt panels and
cornice. A chanclelier makes up the deficiency of daylight.
On the 1. are two doors, leading to the floor of tlie Senate
Chamber. The first door on the r. opens into the room as-
signed to the President of the Senate, generallj^ known as
the Vice PresidenVs Room. It is a well-furnished apartment,
with plain stuccoed ceilings and tinted walls. In this room
is the original of Rembrandt PeaWs painting of Washington^
purchased by the Senate. Permission to enter iway be ob-
tained from the President of the Senate. Wlien not in use,
visitors may be admitted through the courtesy of the Ser-
geant-at-Arms or one of the doorkeepers.
The second door on the r. of the lobby leads through a small
passage or vestibule into the Marble or Senate Retiring Room.
This elegant apartment is 38 ft. long, 21^ ft. wide, and 19Jft.
high. The ceiling rests upon 4 Corinthian columns of Italian
marble, and consists of massive polished blocks of white mar-
ble, forming deep panels. The walls throughout are of highly-
polished Tennessee marble. In the panels of the walls are
large plate-glass mirrors. Those at the ends produce a striking
effect. In the E. and W. walls are niches. Two of these
contain heads of Indian chiefs, executed in marble. The floors
are of encaustic tiles. The room is handsomely furnished,
and, without question, is the finest apartment of the kind in
the world. There is a fine view of the N". portions of the city
from the windows. In front is X. Capitol st., and the diverg-
ent avs. are Delaware, inclining towards the E., and N'ew
Jersey, towards the W.
SENATE EXTENSION. 95
Leaving the room by the W. door, we again enter the Sen-
ate lobby. Passing out of tliis into tlie vestibule, on the 1. is
the ^V. private staii'case to the basement, the same as the one
already described at the E . end of the lobby. On the r. is the
Fresidenfs Room^ assigned to tlie use of the President of the
Unitecl States on liis visits to the Capitol. This room israreh''
used except on the last da5^sof the session of Congress, when
the President, witli liis secretaries and Cabinet ministers, as-
semble there to expedite the business of legislation, the Pres-
ident signing such bills passed by the Senate and House of
Representatives as meet his approval.
The walls and ceiling of this room are richly and appropri-
ately decorated. On the S. wall, under the arcli of tlie ceil-
ing, is a portrait of AYashington — a copy from Rembrandt
Peale 's — witli a reclining female ligure on either side : that on
the r. representing Victory, who holds a sliield, bearing the
inscription, Boston, Trenton, Princeton, Monmouth, and
Yorktown. The figure on the 1. Peace, with a laurel wreath.
On the four walls are medallion portraits of Washington's
first Cabinet: S., Thomas Jellerson, Secretary of State; E.,
Henrj' Knox, Secretarj^ of War, and Alexander Hamilton,
Secretary of the Treasmy ; W., Edmund Randolph, Attorney
General, and S. Osgood, Postmaster General. Under the
cornice are a nunberof small coj^per-colored medallions, rep-
resenting the coats of arms of the States. Tlie rest of the
walls are artistically decorated in arabesques. Overliead are
four corner-pieces in fresco : tlie first of Columbus, with a
globe and early instruments of navigation, representing Dis-
covery ; likeness from a portrait in Mexico. Diagonally oppo-
site, Americus Vespuccius, with charts and telescope, Explo-
ration, from a painting in Florence. William Brewster, with
an open Bible, representing Religion ; and diagonally opposite,
Benjamin Franklin, with manuscript and i^rinting-press, or
History. Four medallion pieces between these represent
Religion, Liberty, Legislation, and Executive. The medal-
lion from which the chandelier is suspended is enj-iched with
three infant figures, supporting an American flag. The ceilings
are further embellished. The entire decoration is by Brumidi.
Tiie room is the most richly decorated in the United States.
The floors are beautifully tiled. There are three large mir-
rors in the walls. In winter the room is richly carpeted and
At the end of the corridor continuing W. from the lobby is
a screw elevator^ beautifully designed and luxuriously f m^nish-
ed, for tlie use of Senators. It runs fi-om the baseuient to the
corridors of the second "floor, and is fitted up with a double
engine: cost $10,000. Turning to the 1., after leaving tlie
96 SENATE EXTENSION.
W. vestibule of the corridor, the rooms on the r. are occupied
by the Secretary of the Senate and the various clerks of the
On the same side is the W. Staircase^ in white marble.
The design is the same as the E. one, already described, and
leads directly to the gentlemen's and reporters' galleries.
The view of this staircase, looking upwards from the first
landing of the steps leading to the basement, is supremely
beautiful. The highly-polished white-marble blockings, en-
tablatures, steps, balustrades, and columns, with their exquis-
itely-wrought capitals, of the same material, strike the eye
with the magnificence of its architectural design and execu-
tion. The light thrown in from above adds to the charm of
the scene which greets the vision. The sombre hue of the
Tennessee marble employed in the E. staircase, though pre-
senting a richer appearance, does not efiectively bring out
the beauties of workmanship bestowed upon these striking
features of the interior fitting of the Capitol Extensions.
Opposite the foot of the staircase, in a niche, on the main
floor, is the statue of John Hancock, President of the Conti-
nental Congress which signed and promulgated the Declara-
tion of Independence, 1776. The statue is semi-heroic; exe-
cuted in 1860, in marble, by Horatio Stone ; cost $5,500.
At the head of the first flight of steps against the W. wall
is the Storming of Chapultepec, by Walker, N". Y. Ordered
in 1860, cost $6,000. Tliis painting was originally intended
for the room of the Committee on Military Affairs. It rep-
resents the storming of the castle of Chapultepec, Sept. 13,
1847, by the American army, under Gen. Scott. The castle,
one of the defenses of the city of Mexico, crowned an emi-
nence 900 ft. high, and was taken by means of scaling-lad-
ders. The particular moment of the conflict is the consulta-
tion between Gen. Quitman and several of the officers of the
advance division. The batteries at the foot of the hill were
taken, and the approach to the city by the aqueduct lay open.
The hill-side is already occupied by the United States rifles.
Gen. Quitman, mounted, appears on the 1. of the painting.
Gen. Shields is without his coat, and wounded. Near at hand
are Lieuts. Wilcox and Towers, of the engineers. On the 1.
stands a section of Drum's battery. In the rear, advancing
to the support of Casey's troops, are the Pennsylvania, New
York, and South Carolina volunteers, bearing their State
colors, and commanded b}^ Geary, Baxter, and Gladden.
Xicoutenca, the Mexican commander, is killed. Gen. Per-
sifor F. Smith, with the rifles, confronts the enemy's breast-
works, and points to the retreating Mexicans, who are fleeing
by the aqueduct. The filling of the picture represents offi-
THE GALLERIES. 97
cers hurrying to and fro, a few Mexican soldiers surrendering,
and wounded and slain strewn around. An aloe is cliarae-
teristic of the vegetation of the country. The artist was
pursuing his profession in Mexico when the war brolve out,
but escaped to the American lines, and joined the army as an
interpreter, returning in 1848 to tlie United States.
The S. corridor corresponds with the lobby on the K.
side of the Chamber, and is intersected by the connecting
i-ange between the Senate Extension and tiie main building.
In this corridor, opposite tlie S. entrance to tlie Senate Cham-
ber, stands an old clock, long in use by tlie body, but with
no special historic associations. The deep windows on the
N. side of the corridor, opening into the Senate cloak rooms,
are arranged for statuary. In the recess of the E. one of
this line stands a bust of Thomas H. Benton, a Senator from
Missouri, by Stone. With the exception of the E. vestibule,
which is marble, the floors throughout are paved witli en-
caustic tile of elegant design.
The Gralleries. — The second floor of the Senate Extension is
occupied by corritlors, the inner sides of wdiich are pierced
with 12 doors, leading into the Senate Galleries, and the
outer sides bounded on the E. and W. by committee rooms,
and the N^. hj retiring rooms for ladies in the E. end, and
representatives of the press in the W. On the S. is the con-
necting range, occupied by the Senate document room. On
either side of this are windows, which look out upon the
main building. These corridors are reached by the E . and
"W. staircases, already described. The walls are of a simple
tint, with variations of stucco. The ceilings are vaulted,
and are enlivened with stucco work of various designs, blended
with symbolic figures. Over the main E. vestibule is a spon
cious hall, surmounted by a beautiful arch, in the centre of
which is a skylight. Adjoining this, and over the Senate
reception room, in the NE. part of the Extension, is another
hall of similar design. Both lead into the ladies' galleries.
The second also oj)ens into the ladies'' retiring room— a hand-
somely-furnished apartment, fitted up with two Tennessee
marble mantels, m- ith mirrors and every convenience . Like the
first fioor, the second is paved with encaustic tiles throughout.
With this preliminary knowledge of the varied attractions
in art and architecture of the N". Extension of the Capitol,
before visiting the basement the visitor should step into the
gallerj'-, and at his leisure study the wonders and beauties of
the Hall of the Senators. The accompanying diagram of
desks will enable him, during the session of the body, to
place any of the Senators.
SENATE ' CHAMBER.
DIAGRAM OF SENATE CHAMBER.
V. P. Vice President. S. Secretary. L. C. Legislative Clerk. C. C. Chiel
Clerk. M. C. Minute Clerk. S. Sergeant-at-Arms. D. Doorkeeper. R. Reporters.
W. G. Brownlow, Tenn.
J. J. Ingalls, Kan.
F. T. Frelinghuysen, N. J.
Simon Cameron, Penn.
J. S. Morrill, Vt.
H. B. Anthony, R. I.
G. F. Edmunds, Vt.
J. R. West, La.
W. A. Buckingham, Conn.
O. P. Morton, Ind.
L. M. Morrill, Me.
J. W, Flanagan, Tex.
P. Clayton, Ark,
A. L Boreman, VV. Va.
P. W. Hitchcock, Neb.
T. J. Robertson, S. C.
J. J. Patterson, S. C.
M. W. Ransom, N. C.
S. B. Conover, Fla.
S. W. Dorsey, Ark.
W. B. Allison, Iowa.
T. W. Tipton, Neb.
T. W. Ferry, Mich.
G. G. VC^ right, Iowa.
O. S. Ferry, Conn.
VV. Windom, Minn.
Carl Schurz, Mo.
G. S. Boutwell., Mass.
T. O. Howe, Wis.
H. Hamlin, Me.
R. Conkling, N. Y.
John Scott, Penn.
John Sherman, Ohio.
W. Sprague, R. I.
A. Gilbert, Fla.
J. L. Alcorn, Miss.
A. A. Sargent, Cal.
38 W. T. Hamilton, Md.
39 H. G. Davis, W. Va.
40 J. F. Lewis, Va.
41 J. B. Gordon, Ga.
42 G. R. Dennis, Md.
43 A. S. Merriman, N. C.
44 J. S. Hagar, Cal.
45 H. R. Pease, Miss.
46 J. M. Harvey, Kan,
47 R. J. Oglesby, 111.
48 J. H. Mitchell, Oregon.
49 B. Wadleigh, N. H.
50 D. D. Pratt, Ind.
51 A. Ramsey, Minn.
52 Z. Chandler, Mich.
51 J. P- Jones, Nev.
54 M. C. Hamilton, Texas.
55 Charles Sumner, Mass.
56 J. A. Logan, 111.
57 R. E. Fenton, N. Y.
58 A. H. Cragin, N. H.
59 M. H. Carpenter, Wis,
60 VV. M. Stewart, Nev.
61 G. E, Spencer, Ala.
62 J. W. Stevenson, Ky.
63 A. G. Thurman, Ohio.
64 T. C. McCreery, Ky.
65 T, F. Bayard, Del.
66 H. Cooper, Tenn.
67 J. P. Stockton, N. J,
68 E, Saulsbury, Del.
69 T. M. Norwood, Ga.
70 J. W. Johnston, Va.
71 J. K. Kelley, Oregon.
72 L. V. Bogy, Mo.
73 G, Goldthwaite, Ala,
SENATE CHAMBER. 99
Hall of the Senators, or Senate Chamber. — This mao^nificent
apartment occupies the centre of the principal floor of the N.
Extension. It has an entrance for Senators from corridors
on the E ., S., and W., and two from the lobby on the IS". The
occupation of this Chamber, devoted to the deliberations of
the hig-hest branch of the legislative arm of the Government,
took place on Jan. 4, 1859. It is in the form of a parallelo-
gram of the following dimensions : Length, 113J ft. ; width,
80f ft. ; height, 36 ft. ; superficial area of floor, 9,136 sq. ft. ;
cubic contents, 328,536 cub. ft. The dimensions of the floor
of the Chamber, exclusive of the cloak rooms and lobby, are
83 ft. long and 51 ft. wide. On the E., W., and S. sides of
the Chamber are the cloak rooms of Senators, and on the IS".
the Senate lobby. Over these and around the Chamber are
the galleries^ the seats rising and receding in tiers, till
brought to a level mth the corridors of the second tloor,
which are reached by two marble staircases. The portion
of the ]Sr. Gallery over the back of the chair of the President
of tlie Senate is devoted to reporters of the press, local and
general, being provided with about 40 desks, and seats for
as many more. Directly opposite the reporters, in the S.
Gallery, a number of seats are set apart for the diplomatic
representatives. The galleries, from the reporters' to the