AND THEIR PEOPLE
3 T153 Q021065b 3
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
AND THEIR PEOPLE
AND THEIR PEOPLE
A RECORD OF PERSONAL OBSERVATION AND EXPERIENCE, WITH
A SHORT SUMMARY OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FACTS
IN THE HISTORY OF THE ARCHIPELAGO
DEAN C. WORCESTER
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.
All rights reserved
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped October, 1898. Reprinted November,
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
J. S. Cusliin;; & Co. - Berwick & Smith
Norwood Mass. V. S. A.
During the years 1870-74, Dr. J. B. Steere made an
extended trip for the purpose of gathering zoological
specimens and ethnological material, and in the course
of his travels visited the Philippine Islands.
He found the archipelago in an unsettled state. The
fierce Moros of the south interfered somewhat with his
work, means of communication between the islands were
most unsatisfactory, and he was hampered by ill-health ;
but in spite of the disadvantages under which he laboured
he secured a considerable collection of birds. This col-
lection was afterward submitted to the authorities at the
British Museum, and was found to contain representa-
tives of no less than forty-three species which were new
Dr. Steere's results tempted others to visit this little-
known field, but Mr. Everett, an English naturalist, was
the only one to make extensive collections. He also
discovered a surprising number of new birds.
Believing that much still remained to be done in
working up the birds and mammals of the archipelago,
Dr. Steere planned to visit the Philippines again in
1887-S8. He offered to take with him a limited num-
ber of men, who were to bear their own expenses, to
profit by his previous experience and his knowledge of
the country, and in turn to allow him to work up tlie
material collected by them.
An interest in the study of birds, as well as a desire
to aid in the exploration of a little-known country, led
three of his former students to join his expedition.
His party as finally constituted consisted of him-
self, Mr. E. L. Moseley, Dr. Frank S. Bourns, Mateo
Francisco, and the writer. Mateo Francisco was a full-
blooded Philippine native whom Dr. Steere had brought
home with him in 1874, and who had continued to live
in this country.
We arrived at Manila in September, 1887, and during
the next eleven months visited Palawan, Mindanao,
Basilan, Guimaras, Panay, Negros, Siquijor, Cebu, Bo-
hol, Samar, Leyte, Masbate, Marinduque, Mindoro, and
Luzon, in the order named.
The expedition was unofficial. We were regarded
with more or less suspicion by Spanish authorities, and
on more than one occasion were seriously interfered
with by them.
The close of our trip found us with health seriously
impaired by hardship and exposure. Bourns and I were
firmly convinced that we should never again wish to
risk such an undertaking. But unpleasant experiences
became enjoyable in retrospect, and as we worked over
our material and realized what had been accomplished
and what remained to be done, the old fever came back
A year after our return we were making vigorous
efforts to find ways and means for a second and more
extended visit to the Philippines. We succeeded in
interesting Mr. Louis F. Menage, of Minneapolis, Minn.,
in our project, and through his liberality our second trip
was made possible.
We sailed in July, 1890, intending to remain in the
islands two years. At the close of the second Mr.
Menage gave us an eight months' extension of time, my
companion going to Borneo, while I remained in the
On our second trip we received the most courteous
treatment at the hands of the Spanish officials. Warned
by our previous experiences, we had applied through
the Department of State to the Spanish Minister of
the Colonies for permission to carry on our work un-
molested. This gentleman had sent an order cover-
ing our case to Weyler, the Governor-General, and he
in turn addressed a strong order concerning us to the
officials in all the provinces which we visited.
We worked in Luzon, Panay, Guimaras, Negros,
Siquijor, Cebu, Mindoro, Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi
Tawi, Palawan, Culion, Busuanga, Samar, Romblon,
Tablas, Sibuyan, and Masbate during our stay, remain-
ing in each island long enough to get a fairly repre-
sentative collection of its birds and mammals.
Owing to the semi-official character of our expedition,
we had exceptional opportunities for observation. We
were thrown among all classes, from the highest Spanish
officials to the wildest savages. For our own satisfac-
tion we made careful notes and numerous photographs.
At that time nothing could have seemed to us more
improbable than that the information which we were
gathering would ever be of use to our government, or
of interest to the general public.
The rapid march of events during the present year
has brought chano^es which no one could have foreseen.
My friend and former companion, Dr. Bourns, has placed
his services at the disposal of his country, and, on ac-
count of his special knowledge of the Philippines, has
been assigned to duty on the staff of the commander-in-
chief of the American forces operating there.
In view of existing conditions, it has seemed to me
that our experiences might be of sufficient interest to
justify their publication, and so the story of our sojourn
in the islands has been written.
While I hope that some of the facts brought out may
serve to throw light on the present state of affairs, it is
certainly true that conditions as they are to-day can be
properly understood only in the light of those of days
long since gone. The place at present occupied by the
Philippines in the world's history is so prominent as
naturally to suggest the question, What place have they
occupied in the past? It has seemed to me fitting, there-
fore, to preface my account of personal observation and
experience by a brief resume of the more important
points in the history of the archipelago, and I wish to
say that I have drawn my historical facts chiefly from
Mr. John Foreman's excellent book, " The Philippine
DEAN C. WORCESTER.
University of Michigan, September i, 1898.
The Philippine Islands in History . . . e . . i
General Description of the Archipelago , . . '57
First Visit to Palawan , . .76
Second Visit to Palawan . 94
Balabac, Cagayan Sulu, Mindanao, and Basilan . . .123
Second Visit to Mindanao — The Moros . . . .148
^ For detailed references to text see index,
Tawi Tawi 205
Panay and Guimaras 223
Masbate and Marinduque 336
First Visit to Mindoro 362
Second and Third Visits to Mindoro 389
ROMBLON, TaBLAS, AND SiBUYAN 46 1
CULION AND BUSUANGA 483
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Mayon Volcano, with a Tagalog Village in the Foreground —
Luzon ........ Frontispiece
Scene on a Manila Canal, showing Cascos and Dugouts . . 27
Spanish Mestizas, showing Tagalog Dress (without Tapis) —
Manila .......... 34
A Bit of the Wall and Moat of Old Manila. Entrance to Pasig
River in Left Background . . . . . . .41
* Outskirts of New Manila — from a Window in the Hotel de
Oriente . . . . . . . . . -53
Bamboo Bridge and Cocoanut Grove — Luzon. . . -59
Primitive Agriculture — Luzon. . . . . . -72
* A Spanish Birthday Party — Puerto Princesa, Palawan . . 96
* Tagbanua Types — Iwahig River, Palawan .... 99
* Tagbanua Mother and Children — Palawan . . . .103
* A Typical Tagbanua House — Palawan . . . . .106
* Tagbanua Women and Girls — Palawan ..... 109
* Skin of Huge Python — Palawan . . . . . • 115
* A Group of Zamboanguenos — Ayala, Mindanao . . .129
* A Typical Gobernadorcillo — Siquijor ..... 134
* Native House of Caiia and Nipa — Mindoro .... 138
* Moro Houses — Sulu . . . . . . . .150
* Moro Arms . . . . . . . . . -155
* Moro Children — Sulu . . . .. . . . -157
* From a photograph by Dr. F. S. Bourns,
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
* Mosque of Sultan Harun — Sulu
* Moros fencing with Straight Krises — Sulu
Moro Chiefs — Mindanao ....
* A Moro Village at Low Tide — Sulu .
* Fully Armed Moros — Sulu ....
* The Old Sultana of Sulu, with Body-guard
* The Rightful Sultan of Sulu, with Body-guard .
* The State Boat of Sultan Harun
* Scenes in Sulu .
* Sultan Harun .......
* Moro Musical Instruments, and Girl dancing — Sulu
* Moro Interior, showing Women and Children .
* Moros .
Mateo Francisco, a Typical Philippino
* A Tuba-gatherer — Salag Dak6, Guimaras
* Church, Convento, and Watch-tower — Dumaguete,
* A Typical Tribunal — Dumaguete, Negros
* A Spanish Mestiza — Bais, Negros .
* A Gobernadorcillo and his Wife — Bais, Negros
* Native Sail-boat, with Bamboo Outriggers — Mindoro
* Watch-tower for Defence against the Moros — Siquijor
* Market-place and Entrance to Cockpit — Siquijor
A Phihppine Sawmill. House with " Concha " Windows
" Mapa de las Yslas Philipinas "... facin^
A Typical Philippine Scene — Luzon
* A Group of Mangyans, and their House — Mt. Halcon, Mindoro
* Married Mangyan Woman, showing Typical Dress — Mt
con, Mindoro ......
* Unmarried Mangyan Girls, showing Typical Dress — Mt. Halcon,
* From a photograph by Dr. F. S. Bourns.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix
* Typical Mangyan Houses — Adlobang River, Mindoro
* Our Camp on the Baco River — Mindoro.
* Group of Mangyans — Baco River, Mindoro
* Our First Timarau — Baco River, Mindoro
* Mangyan Storehouse for Grain — Mt. Halcon, Mindoro .
* Group of Mangyans — Mt. Halcon, Mindoro
* Group of Mangyans, showing Effect of Contact with Civilized
Natives — Laguna de Naujan, Mindoro
* A Crocodile awaiting our Convenience — Laguna de Naujan
* Partially Civilized Mangyans — Subaan River, Mindoro
Facsimile of a Page in an Anting Anting ....
Tagalog Houses along a Canal near Manila
A Typical River Scene — Luzon .....
* House of Mr. Collins, our Headquarters at the Laguna de Bay
— Luzon .........
* The Old Stone Fort at Culion
*From a photograph by Dr. F. S. Bourns.
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS IN HISTORY
In the year 15 19 there began a voyage which was
destined to prove of great historic importance. The
discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa had stimulated
numerous adventurers to search for the passage which
was believed to connect it with the Atlantic, but their
efforts had ended in failure, and it was reserved for
Hernando Maghallanes to win enduring fame by over-
coming all obstacles, and pushing on to success.
Maghallanes, or, as we are wont to call him, Magel-
lan, was by birth a Portuguese nobleman. He bravely
bore his part in the wars of his country until he re-
ceived a wound in the knee which caused him to
become permanently lame, and forced him to give up
active campaigning. His success had been great
enough to arouse jealousy, and his companions in
arms were not slow to take advantage of his misfor-
tune by circulating damaging reports concerning him.
The king not only gave ear to these evil rumours, but
2 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
added to them by accusing him of feigning an infirmity
from which he did not in reaUty suffer.
Stung by the ingratitude of his sovereign, whom he
had faithfully served, Magellan renounced forever his
rights as a Portuguese subject, and become a naturalized
He succeeded in winning the favour of King Charles I,
of Spain, and eventually entered into an agreement
with that monarch to undertake the discovery of new
spice islands. The king was to provide and fit out
five vessels, and in return was to have a liberal share
of the profits of the venture.
On the loth of August, 15 19, the little fleet set
sail, and on the 13th of the following December it
arrived safely at Rio Janeiro.
Magellan now turned southward, determined to find
the much-sought passage to the Pacific. Severe cold
was encountered, and mutiny arose in the fleet. The
commander wished to put into one of the coast rivers
and pass the winter. Some of his followers were will-
ing to abide by his decision, while others were deter-
mined to return home, and others yet wished to separate
from the fleet and go their own way. The great dis-
coverer showed himself equal to the emergency. One
of his rebellious captains was put ashore in irons.
Another, who had the presumption to attack Magellan
on his own ship, was executed, and discipline was thus
IN HISTORY 3
In the spring the expedition continued on its south-
ward course and on the 28th of October, 1520,
discovered the straits which have ever since borne
His five ships had been reduced to three by the
wrecking of one and the desertion of another. With
those that remained he passed through the Straits, and
for the first time in history European vessels breasted
the waves of the mighty Pacific.
Magellan sailed steadily to the west, and on the
1 6th of March, in the following year, discovered the
Ladrone Islands. They were named " Robber Islands "
from the fact that the natives proved to be most adroit
thieves, even going so far as to steal a boat from one
of the ships. After a short stay at the Lad rones,
Magellan continued on his westward course. The
next land reached was the north coast of Mindanao,
in the southern Philippines.
The natives proved friendly, and furnished the
Spaniards with abundant provisions. Their king gave
glowing accounts of the richness of Cebu, and as its
ruler was a relative of his, offered to pilot Magellan's
expedition to that island.
His offer was accepted, and after first taking formal
possession of Mindanao in the name of the king of
Spain, the bold explorer sailed for the north.
On the 7th of August he reached Cebu, and his
arrival spread consternation among the armed natives
4 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
who gathered on the beach. Their fears were allayed
by the Mindanao chieftain, who assured them that the
Spaniards were merely seeking provisions, and had no
The king of Cebu accordingly proposed a treaty
with Magellan, to be ratified by the ceremony of
blood-brotherhood, after the native custom. Magel-
lan assented, and the ceremony was performed. The
Spaniards erected a hut on shore and mass was cele-
brated in it, to the great awe of the simple natives.
Members of the royal family, chiefs, and other influ-
ential men received baptism, and swore allegiance to
their newly found master, the king of Spain.
The singular alliance thus formed seems to have
been of the offensive and defensive sort. At all
events Magellan entered actively into a war which
the king of Cebu was waging against his neighbours,
and on the 25th -of April, 1521, perished miserably
in a skirmish on the little island of Mactan. The
spot where he is supposed to have fallen is now
marked by a simple monument.
Trouble soon arose between his followers and the
natives, and twenty-seven of the Spaniards were
treacherously slain at a banquet to which they had
Only one hundred were left to man three ships.
The number was deemed insufficient, and one of the
vessels was accordingly destroyed. The other two
IN HISTORY 5
sailed westward once more, discovering Palawan, and
touching at North Borneo. At Tidor they loaded
with spices, but one of them sprang a leak, and the
caro-o had to be removed. The other continued on
her journey, and her crew, after many adventures and
fearful hardships, finally reached their own country
again, thus completing the first circumnavigation of
Encouraged by the results of this venture. King
Charles organized two more expeditions, neither of
which was productive of important results.
The Philippines had been nominally added to the
Spanish realm, but their value was long a matter of
doubt. The first serious attempt to take actual pos-
session of them was made under Philip II, in whose
honour they had been named. In providing for this
new expedition Philip was inspired by religious zeal, his
purpose being to conquer and Christianize the island-
ers. To this end four ships and a frigate were made
ready, on the coast of Mexico. The army of invasion
consisted of four hundred soldiers and sailors under the
leadership of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi. Six Augus-
tine monks accompanied the men-of-war, to wr.tch
over the spiritual welfare of the native races to be
In due time the expedition reached the Philippines.
After touching at Camiguin and Bohol and despatch-
ing a boat to Mindanao, Legaspi decided to land at
6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
Cebu. The ruling prince was greatly surprised at
the appearance of so many formidable ships, and sent
one of his subjects, noted for his bravery, to sp}- on
the Spaniards and report. The man was much
impressed by what he saw, and assured his master
that the ships were manned by giants with long,
pointed noses, who were dressed in magnificent robes,
ate stones (hard biscuits), drank fire, and blew smoke
out of their mouths. The artillery of the Spaniards
also served to awe the prince, and he thought it best
to make friends with such powerful strangers.
On the 27th of April, 1565, Legaspi landed, and took
possession of the town. The natives, becoming sus-
picious of his motives, stoutly resisted him, and kept
up their attacks for months, so that his position at
one time became precarious ; but he was determined to
remain. Little by little the people grew accustomed
to the new order of affairs, and the pacification of Cebu
and the neighbouring islands was proceeding steadily
and rapidly, when the Portuguese arrived on the scene
to set up a claim to them. They were driven off, how-
ever. In 1570 Legaspi's grandson, Salcedo, was sent
to subdue Luzon. He landed near the present site
of Manila, and was well received by the rulers of the
native tribes in that vicinity, who seem to have been
overawed by the appearance of the heavily armed
troops. A treaty of peace was duly signed, and was
ratified by the usual ceremony, the natives giving up
IN HISTORY 7
their independence and agreeing to pay tribute. What
advantage they were to gain in return does not appear.
One of the chiefs, Soliman b}- name, repented of
his bad bargain, and attempted to make trouble. His
forces were defeated by Salcedo, and he was compelled
to renew his allegiance to the king of Spain. The
territory now included in the pro\'ince of Batangas
was soon subdued, as was the island of Mindoro, and
communication was established with Legaspi, who was
subjugating Panay. He hastened to Manila, and on
arriving there declared that city the capital of the
archipelago, and the king of Spain the sovereign of
the whole group.
Dwellings suitable for Europeans were built, and
fortifications erected. On the 24th of June, 1571, a
city council was established. A year later Legaspi
died. The achievements of this remarkable man seem
almost incredible when one considers the smallness of
his force. Could the natives have looked into the
future, they would doubtless have given him a very
Salcedo continued the work of subduing refractory
tribes. His method was successful, and has been fol-
lowed more or less closely by his successors up to the
present day. It consisted in allowing the conquered
people to be governed by their own chiefs, so long as
the latter acknowledged the sovereignty of the Spanish
8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
No attempt seems to have been made to explore the
natural resources of the country, to open up communi-
cation between the different provinces, or to improve
the condition of the people. Mere greed of conquest
was apparently the chief motive of the invaders.
The Spaniards were not destined to remain in un-
disturbed possession of their easily acquired territory.
Shortly after Legaspi's death a rival conqueror appeared
in the person of Limahong, a Chinese pirate and out-
law. Limahong had chanced to fall in with a Chinese
trading junk w^iich was returning from a trip to Luzon.
This he captured, and forced her crew to pilot him to
Manila. He brought a formidable fleet of sixty-two
armed junks, carrying 4000 men and 1500 women.
The news of Limahong's proposed raid reached Manila
before him, and hurried preparations were made for
the defence of the city. The Chinese attacked at
once upon their arrival, forcing their way within the
walls of the citadel itself, but were finally driven out.
A second and more determined attack was made on
the following day, and the invaders not only again
got w^ithin the walls, but stormed a fort into which
the Spanish forces had retired. A bloody hand-to-hand
combat followed. The Spaniards fought with splendid
bravery, and the Chinese were finally repulsed. They
retreated to their ships, but not before they had been
so badly punished that they were glad to make their
escape from the bay.
IN HISTORY 9
Limahong now landed on the west coast of Luzon,
and set up his " capital " at the mouth of the Agno
River. For some months he remained undisturbed, but
a strong force was eventually sent against him, and he
was again forced to flee. He left the archipelago for
good, abandoning some of his followers, who took to
About this time began the long series of dissensions
between Church and State which have continued to
disturb the peace of the colony up to the present day.
Supremacy was claimed by both civil and ecclesiastical
authorities, and so much trouble arose that the Bishop
of Manila despatched a priest to Spain, with instructions
to lay the whole matter before the king. This resulted
in the publication of an important decree, the first of
its kind, which provided in detail for the conduct of
affairs in the Philippines.
Tribute was to be levied upon the natives, and it
was ordered that the sum thus raised should be di-
vided in a definite ratio between the church, the treas-
ury, and the army.
Import and export duties were also established, as well
as fixed salaries for all soldiers and state emplo3'es.
Hospitals were provided for. The fortifications of
Manila were to be improved, four penitentiaries were
to be established at suitable points, and it was further
decreed that a number of well-armed war-vessels should
be maintained, to repel attacks from without.
lo THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
A most important feature of the decree was a proviso
that all the slaves in the colony should be set free
within a specified time, and that none should be made
Money was provided for the erection of a cathedral,
the number of Austin friars was increased by forty,
and the wandering mendicant friars, who had previously
infested the colony, were now speedily suppressed.
Meanwhile, the only communication between Spain
and the Philippines was by way of Mexico ; and the
colony was dependent for additional troops, for manu-
factured goods of all descriptions, and even for money,
on the galleons which arrived from time to time.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the
hostilities between the Spanish and the Dutch extended
to the Philippines ; and the latter not infrequently sent
strongly armed vessels to lie in wait for, and capture,
the Mexican treasure-ships, thereby inflicting heavy
loss upon the colony. A detailed account of the naval
engagements which followed would fill a volume. At
one time a formidable Dutch fleet arrived off Manila
Bay at a time when the governor was ill prepared to
repel an attack, and had they pressed their advantage
with vigour, they might have taken Manila and changed