The crown, the Philippics and ten other orations of Demosthenes online

. (page 1 of 27)
Online LibraryDemosthenesThe crown, the Philippics and ten other orations of Demosthenes → online text (page 1 of 27)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


101 7928

3 1822 01101 7928


^ji - " - r ii — ni>i j>>ii unmuin

fWtW i g w m wmtmm i w

/? //















London : J. M. DENT & SONS, Ltd.
New York: E. P. DUTTON & CO.




MJ) 5




I OS • a/icffen oFMr





My principal aim in undertaking this work is to produce
a readable version of Demosthenes, adhering to the original
as closely as is consistent with the primary object. Brevity
and simplicity of style, together with the choice of apt. and
forcible words, are the most essential elements of a good

It is sometimes asked, and there seem to be various
opinions on the question, whether a translation should be
literal ? It depends, I say, upon the object which you pro-
pose to accomplish. If you are composing a translation
to be used in the Hamiltonian method of teaching, or as
a mere help to the idle student against his day of examina-
tion, then you must be literal. And to perform such a task
is not very difficult. But if you seek to accomplish a higher
purpose, it is not to be done in this way: a work of another
order becomes necessary

The primary object of a good translation is, that it may
be read with pleasure, or at least without difficulty, by your
countrymen; and secondary to this is the assisting of the
student in his perusal of the original. It is true that for
both these purposes a certain degree of closeness is neces-
sary: but the first of these cannot be attained by a literal
version, on account of the varying idioms of languages;
whereas the second may be accomplished by a good readable

Nor does the matter rest here. I say that the classical
student will derive much greater benefit from a readable
version than he could from a literal. I speak of the real
and self-improving student, not the cramming idler, nor
yet the mere school-boy. Let us only see what his wants

Such a person, in studying a Greek author, is not to look
to a translation for a perfect analysis of the construction
of sentences. This he should find out independently, from


viii The Orations of Demosthenes

those principles of grammar wherewith his mind has been
long storing itself, from glossaries, notes, and commentaries.
A translation which undertook to solve all the student's
grammatical difficulties would be nothing more than a
long note; having indeed its use, but not performing the
service of a good translation.

The student, looking elsewhere for a thorough explana-
tion of the syntax, may fairly consult the translator as an
exponent of the true meaning of ever}'- sentence. And this
is one piece of service which the translator renders him.
But he has a right to look for much more than this; viz.,
good English, choice words, and all the other elements of
good writing; in short, the full sense of the original ex-
pressed in such a way as an Englishman would have
expressed it himself, allowing for unavoidable discrepancies.
No man will deny the importance of these things. One
of the objects of studying foreign languages is, to obtain
a more perfect mastery over your own. And a translation,
either in prose or verse, may in this respect be made a
useful medium of instruction, testing the powers and
capabilities of your own tongue in comparison with those
of another. Lord Brougham very truly observes:

" Even to scholars the experiment is not without interest
of trying how far the two languages can be used, so as to
render in the one the thoughts couched originally in the
other; and even to scholars the comparative trial of the
structures of the two, their resemblances, their differences,
and their contrasts, is very interesting."

To attain the advantage here proposed, it is manifest
that the version must be thoroughly English; or there
can be no comparison at all. But I must turn now to a
another view of the question.

While it is the translator's duty to produce (if possible)
such a work as, placed side by side with the original, shall
be in point of style and composition not unworthy of it,
he must be sure to preserve all needful accuracy in regard
to the sense and meaning. The term itself implies that he
must do this. A translation is different from an imitation.
He must adhere to the original. He must be accurate.
But, how closely must he adhere ? what degree of accuracy
must he observe ? are questions that naturally occur, and

Introduction Jx

cannot well be answered except practically, by examples.
I will give just now some examples to illustrate my views;
but will first endeavour, as far as I am able, to express my
opinion in general words.

It is the business of the translator to express the full
sense briefly, simply, forcibly; to add nothing, omit
nothing; never to amplify or exaggerate. He should not
servilely imitate constructions, or follow the order of words,
yet not depart even from them unnecessarily. The pro-
duction of good English he will regard as essential; to this
everything must give way but the sense of the author.
Within the limits of these two conditions, faithful interpre-
tation and good writing, he may turn and twist his sentences
with a considerable degree of latitude and freedom. But
these limits will always preserve him from unreasonable
vagaries. While he does not affect to teach grammatical
rules, they must be the guide to his own version, or he
cannot translate faithfully, so that he will always afford
a clue to the construction, and will never mislead.

To accomplish all this, not only must you be thoroughly
familiar with the language which you translate, but you
should have deeply studied your own, and even know
several besides.

It is an essential condition of producing a good transla-
tion, that you should be able to produce a literal one. Only
this is far from being all. There are hundreds of good
scholars who are able to do this, but who are not competent
to write well. And, on the other hand, clever men and
practised writers have failed in translation because they
never took due pains to study the original language. Hence
we have had so many bad translations from opposite causes.
The literal translators necessarily fail, for want of a suffi-
ciently high aim, a proper conception of their duty. The
readable have been men who neglected or despised the
niceties of scholastic learning. There are others also, from
whose acquirements more might have been expected, who,
carried away by the fervour of their imagination, or not
liking the trouble of attending to words, have considered it
sufficient to give the general meaning of an author, clothing
it often in language which is purely their own.

I now come to another question, which is of some import-

x The Orations of Demosthenes

ance in translating Demosthenes, viz., how the translator
is to deal with all the public and political nomenclature of
the Athenians, the civil and military titles, names of offices
and institutions, terms of law and jurisprudence. On this
subject I am not disposed in the least to depart from the
principle which I adopted many years ago, when I made
my first essay on Demosthenes, and which I stated thus: —

"As a general rule, I think it better to translate into
English than to Anglicise the Greek. Thus I say jury,
parish, indictment, in preference to dicast, deme, graphe. It
is true that in each of these cases the word but imperfectly
describes the thing intended ; for instance, the proceedings
upon our indictment are very different from those of the
Athenian prosecution so described. But, on the other
hand, the vernacular term conveys the idea more pleasingly
to the common reader ; and, be it remembered, a translation
is more for the use of the unlearned than of the learned.
I strive therefore to be as little as possible un-English ; and
while I always seek for the word which corresponds most
nearly with the original, I am satisfied if it corresponds
in some essential points."

In short, in the translation of many common words we are
compelled by the difference of times and circumstances to
be guilty of some inaccuracy. For example, 7rAeu' is
rendered to sail, in many cases where not sails but only oars
impelled the ship; and it is commonly preferred to the
word navigate, as being of more ordinary use. 'I^^eis is
rendered knights, though our word conveys a somewhat
different idea. Charta and papyrus are called paper, though
the material was different from ours. The meals, the
articles of dress of the Greeks and Romans, do not corre-
spond with ours ; but we make the best of it and translate
them. If I call the Roman lectus, a couch, I do not present
an idea of its form, or of the mode in which Roman guests
were placed at table. You must go to the dictionary of
antiquities, or to some commentary, for an explanation of
that. So, if I translate XeirovpyLa, a public office, service,
or duty, I do not exhibit the peculiar nature of the service;
yet I give a positive translation of the word, which is good
as far as it goes.

But I grant there is some discretion to be observed. We

Introduction xi

must look also to the other side of the question. There are
some terms entirely untranslatable. Archon cannot be
converted into English any more than consul. I do not
reduce the Attic money to English, which would cause
confusion ; and for the same reason I do not imitate Leland
in adopting the names of the Roman months. Further,
I would eschew all fanciful similarities, all undignified
expressions. I would not call any ancient vehicle a hack-
ney-coach or a cabriolet, nor any ancient functionary a
Lord Mayor. Nor do I approve of Francis converting
Taj^LapyoL and $v\apyoi into colonels and aids-de-camp.
There is some truth in what Olivet says of the use of such
terms, that to put them in the mouth of Demosthenes is like
painting Alexander or Caesar in a peruke or an embroidered

I agree also with what Pope says with respect to a trans-
lation of Homer: —

" The use of modern terms of war and government, such
as platoon, campaign, junto, or the like, into which some
translators have fallen, cannot be allowable; those only
excepted, without which it is impossible to treat the sub-
jects in any living language."

I have observed a similar rule in the translation of Virgil.
But I must remark that prose and poetry stand on a some-
what different footing. Archaisms are often allowable and
good in poetry, to give it (as Pope says) a venerable cast;
and, on the other hand, many modern words are fit for
prose, which would not be suitable for poetry — as

In all these things taste and judgment are required. You
must take care that your translations are as apposite as
possible ; and when you resort to words which can give but
an imperfect idea of the original, select only such as are
dignified, simple, significant, having rather a general and
permanent, than a local or ephemeral character. I see, for
example, no objection to words such as the following: —
Prince, general, captain, officer, commissioner, deputy, pre-
sident, clerk, secretary, assessor, treasurer, paymaster, col-
lector, board, rate, property-tax, register, audit, tribe, town-
ship, assembly, chairman, bill, decree, motion, resolution,
statute, advocate, jury, summons, action, indictment, plea,

xii The Orations of Demosthenes

verdict, damages, fine, information, arbitrator, award, mort-
gage, trespass.

But I will detain the reader no longer. I wish I were as
sure that I had carried out my principles well, as I am that
the principles themselves are sound.

C. R.-K.


Works (Greek text): Editio princeps Aldus Venice, 1504, chief
later editions: Bekker, 1823, 1824 (Oratores Attici), 1854-5; Baiter
and Sauppe, 1838, etc.; Vomel, 1843, 1845; Dindorf, 9 vols., 1846-51;
3rd edition, 3 vols., 1859-61; edited by Blasz, 3 vols., 1885-9; two
or more works by Westermann, 1851, 1856, and later editions; Vomel,
Critical Text of Speeches, i.-xvii., xviii.-xx., 1856-7, 1862, 1868;
Facsimile of Codex B, H. Omont, 1892-3.

Greek Text with English notes and commentaries: — Select Private
Orations (Dindorf Text), C. T. Penrose, 1843; Olynthiac Orations
(chiefly Dindorf Text), D. B. Hickie, 1844; R. Whiston (Bibl. Classica),
1851, etc., 1859-68; Philippics, T. K. Arnold, 1851; Philippics,
Olynthiacs, The Embassy, G. H. Heslop (Catena Classicorum), 1868-72,
1880; Select Private Orations, F. A. Paley and J. E. Sandys, 1874-5,
2nd edition, 1886, 3rd edition, 1896-8, 4th edition, 1910; On the
Crown, and Philippics, T. H. L. Leary, 1879; Against Androtion and
Timocrates, W. Wayte, 1882, 2nd edition, 1893; Philippics, E. Abbott
and P. E. Matheson, 1887, etc., 4th edition, 1897, etc. ; Against Canon
and Callicles, F. D. Swift, 1895; Olynthiacs and first Philippic, 1897;
and second and third Philippic, on The Peace, The Chersonesus,
J. E. Sandys (Macmillan's Classical Series), 1900, S. H. Butcher
(Script. Class. Bibl. Oxon.), 1903; First and Second Olynthiac, P. E.
Whelan, 1904.

English Translations: Olynthiacs and Philippics (with Life),
Th. Wylson, 1570; Orations, by several hands, under the direction of
Lord Somers, 1702, 1744; Orations of Demothenes and Aeschines,
P. Francis, 1757-8; Philippics, T. Leland, 1756; Philippics (Orations of
Demosthenes on occasions of public deliberation, of Dinarchus against
Demosthenes, of Aeschines and Demosthenes on the Crown), 1763-70,
and several later editions; Select Speeches, C. R. Kennedy, 1841.

Works: C. R. Kennedy (Bohn's Classical Library); Philippics and
Olynthiac Orations (Stock's text), R. Morgan, 1856; Orations on the
Crown, C. R. Kennedy (Bohn's Shilling Series), 1888; Olynthiacs and
Philippics translated upon a new principle, O. Holland, 1901.

Separate Works: —

Adversus Septmem : Revised Greek text, with notes, J. E. Sandys,
1890; English Translation, by a graduate of Cambridge, 1879, 1885.

De Corona: Greek text with notes, B. Drake, 1851, i860, 1866,
6th edition (T. Gwatkiu), 1880; T. K. Arnold, 1851; G. A. and W. H.
Simcox (with Aeschines against Ctesiphon), 1866; A. Holmes (Catena
Classicorum), 1871, 1881; M. L. d'Ooge, 1875; E. Abbott, and P. E.
Matheson, 1899; W. W. Goodwin, 1901; Greek text with English
translation: Henry, Lord Brougham, 1840; revised edition (Lubbock's
Hundred Best Books), 1893. English translations: H. Owgan, 1852;

Bibliography xiii

W. Brandt, 1870; R. Collier, 1875; J. Biddle, 1881; C. R. Kennedy,
with biographical introduction (Bonn's Shilling Series), 1888.

Midias : Greek text and notes, C. A. M. Fennell, 1S83; English
translation, C. A. M. Fennell, 1882.

Olynthiacs : Greek text with notes, T. K. Arnold, 1849; H. M.
Wilkins, i860; Oxford Pocket Classics, 1870; T. R. Glover (Pitt Press
Series), 1897; i. to iii., H. Sharpley (Blackwood's Classical Texts), 1900.

Philippics : Greek text with notes, J. A. Davies (Pitt Press Series),
1907; English translation, literal (Oxford translation of Classics), 1885.

Life: Demosthenes: An Account of His Life and Works, S. H. Butcher
(Classical Writers), 1881. See also (Greek and English) Fragments of
Orations in Accusation and Defence of Demosthenes Respecting the
Money of Harpalus, arranged and translated by S. Sharpe (with
facsimile of original), 1849.


Introduction .
Chronological Abstract



Orations —



First Olynthiac .
Second Olynthiac
Third Olynthiac
First Philippic .
On the Peace


Second Philippic
On the Chersonese


Third Philippic
Fourth Philippic
On the Letter .


On the Duties of the State


On the Navy Boards
On the Liberty of the
For the Megalopolitar



Appendix —

Athenian Money and Mines





385 Demosthenes is born.

This was just nineteen years after the termination of the Pelopon-
nesian war. Greece was reposing under the peace of Antalcidas,
and the power of Sparta had reached its height.
383 Philip of Macedon is born.

His father, Amyntas II., has disputes with the Olynthians con-
cerning their encroachment on his territories, and applies to
Sparta for aid.

Apollonia and Acanthus, two of the Chalcidian cities, send an em-
bassy to Sparta for the same purpose.

Sparta declares war against Olynthus, and sends a force under
Eudamidas which takes possession of Potidaea.
382 Phcebidas, sent from Sparta to reinforce Eudamidas, stops on his
road at Thebes, and seizes the Cadmea, in which he places a
Lacedaemonian garrison. An oligarchical government is estab-
lished at Thebes, at the head of which are Archias and Leon-
tiades, devoted to Sparta. A multitude of Theban exiles fly to
Athens; among them Pelopidas.

Teleutias, brother of Agesilaus, is sent with a larger force against
Olynthus; is joined by a Theban contingent, by Amyntas, and
Derdas prince of Elymia.

The Spartans require Athens to dismiss the Theban exiles.
Athens refuses.

Teleutias defeats the Olynthians in a battle near the city, and
shuts them in their walls.
381 Teleutias is defeated by the Olynthians, and slain.
380 Agesipolis, one of the kings, is sent with reinforcements from
Sparta; takes Torone, and dies of a fever. Polybiades succeeds
to the command, and besieges Olynthus.
379 The Olynthians sue for peace, and submit to join the Peloponnesian

Pelopidas and his associates return to Thebes, where, having slain
Archias and Leontiades, they are joined by their countrymen,
and attack the Spartan garrison. A body of Athenian volunteers
come to their assistance, and the garrison capitulates.
378 Demosthenes loses his father, and is placed under the care of three

The Spartans send their king Cleombrotus into Boeotia.

Chabrias, with an Athenian force, occupies the pass at Eleutherse ;
Cleombrotus enters by another road, and having dispersed a
Theban force at Platssa, takes possession of Thespiae, where he
leaves Sphodrias, with a part of his army, and then returns to

The Athenians, alarmed at the Spartan invasion, condemn their
generals who had aided in the recovery of the Cadmea.


2 The Orations of Demosthenes


378 Sphodrias marches against Athens, to surprise the Piraeus; ad-
vances as far as the Thriasian plain, and retreats, after plunder-
ing the country.

The Athenians prepare for war with Sparta; strengthen the
Pirams; increase their fleet, and make alliance with Thebes.

Chios, Byzantium, Rhodes, and Mitylene revolt from Sparta, and
renew their confederacy with Athens.

Sphodrias is recalled, and Agesilaus sent with a large Pelopon-
nesian army into Bceotia. He ravages the Theban territory, but
having encountered an Athenian and Theban force, commanded
by Chabrias and Gorgidas, is repulsed, and returns home, leaving
Phcebidas in command at Thespias.

Phoebidas, after gaining partial success against Gorgidas, is de-
feated and slain.
377 Agesilaus again invades Bceotia; is joined by a force of Olynthian
cavalry, gains some advantage over the Thebans, and, after
strengthening the oligarchical party at Thespias, crosses over to
Megara, where he falls ill.

The Sacred Band, consisting of three hundred men, is established
at Thebes.

Acoris, king of Egypt, at war with Persia, engages the services of
Chabrias, who, on complaint made by Artaxerxes, is recalled by
the Athenians, and Iphicrates sent to assist the satrap Pharna-
376 Cleombrotus is sent into Bceotia, where he is repulsed by the
Athenians and Thebans, and returns home.

A Peloponnesian fleet is sent out under the command of Pollis, to
intercept the corn-ships bound for Athens. Chabrias totally de-
feats the fleet at Naxos.

Athens regains her ascendancy in the /Egean sea, and many of the
islands return under her protection.

Timotheus sails with a fleet to Corcyra, which renews her alliance
with Athens.

Jason of Pheras establishes his power or influence over most of the
towns of Thessaly.
375 Timotheus is successful against the Peloponnesians in the Ionian

Pelopidas fails in an attempt to surprise Orchomenos, is attacked
on his retreat by a superior force of Spartans at Tegyra. The
Spartans are put to the rout, and their generals slain.
374 The Thebans send an army into Phocis, which is in alliance with
Sparta. Cleombrotus crosses the Gulf of Corinth, to the assist-
ance of the Phocians, and forces the Thebans to retreat.

The Athenians attempt to make peace with Sparta, but this is
interrupted by a dispute concerning some Zacynthian exiles
restored to Timotheus. A Peloponnesian fleet under Mnasippus
is sent to recover Corcyra. The Athenians determine to relieve
it, and despatch Timotheus with a fleet from Athens, who is
forced for want of supplies to cruise about the ^Egean isles and
the coast of Macedonia and Thrace.

Pharnabazus and Iphicrates invade Egypt, which after partial suc-
cess, they are compelled to evacuate. Iphicrates quarrels with
Pharnabazus, and returns to Athens.
373 Mnasippus lands in Corcyra, and blockades the. city, but is routed
in a sally, and slain. His fleet retires to Leucas.

Chronological Abstract of Events 3


373 Tiraotheus is recalled to Athens, and brought to trial, but ac-
quitted. Iphicrates, Callistratus, and Chabrias, succeed to the

The Athenians sail to Corcyra, and capture a Syracusan fleet sent
to the aid of Mnasippus. Cephallenia is brought over to the
Athenian alliance.

The Thebans surprise Platasa, and raze the city to the ground. The
inhabitants, allowed to depart, take refuge in Athens, and are
admitted to the privileges of citizens.

Thespias is taken, and shares the same fate.

372 Iphicrates crosses to Acarnania, and carries on the war against the

Peloponnesians with various success; is preparing to invade


371 The Athenians send ambassadors to Sparta, to conclude peace.

The Thebans, invited to join in the embassy, send Epaminondas.

Peace is made between the Peloponnesians and the Athenian con-
federacy. Epaminondas refuses to concur in the treaty on
behalf of Thebes, because she was required to acknowledge the
independence of the Boeotian towns.

Cleombrotus is ordered to march from Phocis into Bceotia; en-
counters the Thebans under Epaminondas at Leuctra, is totally
defeated and slain.

Jason of Pheraa arrives at Leuctra after the battle. By his media-
tion an armistice is effected, and the Lacedaemonian army
retreats into Peloponnesus.

A congress is held at Athens, and attended by most of the Pelo-
ponnesian states, who resolve to maintain the independence
declared by the peace of Antalcidas.

The Mantineans rebuild their city, which had been dismantled by
the Lacedaemonians.

A democratical movement takes place in Peloponnesus.

The Arcadians, encouraged by Epaminondas, resolve to build a
new city, to become the seat of a federal government, to be called
Megalopolis. Pammenes is sent with a small Theban force into
371 Tegea and Orchomenos, under the influence of Sparta and aristo-
cratical institutions, oppose the Arcadian union. The Tegeans
are defeated and their city taken. Sparta declares war.

Amyntas II. dies, leaving three sons, Alexander, Perdiccas, and
Philip. Alexander ascends the throne.

Jason of Pheras announces his intention of marching to Delphi
and presiding over the Pythian games. He collects a large
army, and excites alarm; but is murdered a short time before
the festival. His brothers Polydorus and Polyphron succeed

Agesilaus marches to Mantinea, ravages the country, and returns
to Sparta.

The Thebans prepare to invade Peloponnesus; collect troops from

Online LibraryDemosthenesThe crown, the Philippics and ten other orations of Demosthenes → online text (page 1 of 27)