Denton Jaques Snider.

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gists refuse to accept the reconstructed
Group, preferring to leave the three statues
in their singleness and separation.


The Apollo Belvedere combines a double
action, a movement of the whole body irre-
sistibly forwards to the goal, while the head
is turned sidewise with a glance at some ob-
structing object. It expresses the triumph-
ant sw^eep of the God over human opposition ;
we may saj", if we think in that w^ay, it re-
veals the might of the Infinite as against the
Finite. This is the perennial charm of the
statue — a divine mastery over obstacles. The
slightly swollen nostrils show the least effort,
the brow gives out a note of serene contempt,
as the God strides to victory. Still the work
is probably a copy, but of the best ; the orig-
inal doubtless was of bronze. Moreover, the
graceful, slender proportions indicate later
Art, it is not Phidian in character nor is it
even Praxitelean. Some have supposed,
however, that the original conception of the
descending God belongs to a lost work of the
Hellenic Period, which has been transformed
into the present Hellenistic shape. But what-
ever be its history, the Apollo Belvedere has
been in the past and still is among the most
popular works of ancient Sculpture.

The Artemis of the Group (known as the
Diana of Versailles) has a similar double
motion; her whole body is striding rapidly
forward, while her head turns sidewise as if
for a glance at the foe, for whom she plucks


an arrow from her quiver with the left
hand, while she holds the bow in her right
hand (the stag at her side is merely her con-
ventional symbol). There is no doubt that
her womanly, even shrinking features look
forth with greater anxiety than Apollo's ; not
so triumphant, more modest in her Godhood,
more agitated in her drapery, she manifests
quite a contrast in character with her
brother. But she has the same slenderness
and gracefulness of form, which indeed suit
her better than him. And her deeper agita-
tion seems also in place ; the difference is in-
deed that between the woman and the man
in the perilous emergency, though both face
it with courage. In both cases we note the
Gods are beginning to show more of the in-
ternal self than formerly.

The Apollo Belvedere was found at An-
tium, where once stood a palace of a Roman
Emperor, and has been restored somewhat;
especially the left hand is modern. What
did it grasp? Some say a bow to slay the
enemy, whoever he may have been, but prob-
ably it held the ''terrible Aegis," the sym-
bol of the thunder storm and lightning, with
which the God put men to flight in a panic,
according to Homer (see Iliad XV, 306, etc.).
Now the Gallic repulse, according to the leg-
end, was caused chiefly by a terrific tempest


of snow and hail, accompanied by thunder
and lightning. This event was celebrated, in
obedience to an oracle, by dedicating the
above mentioned statues at Delphi, doubtless
not long after the attack of the Gauls which
took place in 279 B. C. A somewhat similar
event is recorded by Herodotus as having
taken place when the Persian, the other Bar-
barian, attacked the Delphic shrine some two
hundred years before, during his great in-

The third statue, the Capitoline Athena,
appears to be of a diiTerent character in the
style of workmanship, as well as in her dra-
pery and attitude. Hence her place in the
trio has been strongly challenged. Still the
Group as reconstructed form a striking unity
both in their common movement and in the
common object to which their looks are di-
rected. At any rate the ancient Group was
dedicated at Delphi in memory of the divine
repulse of the Gallic Barbarians, who, how-
ever, were left out' of the work. But next
they too are to be taken up into Art.

(2) The Pergamene Statues. That which
we call the Barbarian Fate is now repre-
sented in the person of the Barbarian him-
self by Greek Art developed at Pergamum
in Asia Minor. King Attains I met the
Gauls and won victories over them, which he


caused to be celebrated in a wholly new kind
of Sculpture known as Perganiene. The
Gauls themselves in all their barbarism are
taken as models instead of the beautiful
shapes of the classic world. These statues of
Gallic warriors are of two kinds, the large
and the small ; the small ones are about three
feet in length, and usually are rejjresented
in the last stages of combat and death,
fiercely fighting to the end; quite a number
of these very tense dwarf-like, rather demo-
nic forms are scattered through the galleries
of Europe. The large size is represented in
the well-known Dying Gaul (formerly called
the Dying Gladiator, whom Byron has cel-
ebrated). In this new artistry only the Gauls
seem to have been represented, at least no
Greek antagonist of theirs is known among
these sculptured figures. Moreover, the Bar-
barian is shown as overwhelmed, as dying or
already dead. So the Greek has again met
Barbarian Fate and conquered, though he
does not appear personally in the combat.
Besides, it is not the Greek Mytlius which is
employed now by xVrt, but the immediate his-
toric reality. No ideal presentation of Fate
in any of her legendary shapes is here, but
the actual fact itself with its human actor
taken from life.

Still the Greek would not be Greek if he


wholly dropped liis My tliiis ; even in . Asia
Minor lie could not go quite so far as that.
Hence, we find in the mass of statues dedi-
cated by King Attains I (241-197 B. C),
which stood at the south wall of the Athe-
nian Acropolis and have been briefly men-
tioned by Pausanias, two mythical subjects :
the fight of the Gods against the Giants, and
the victory of the Athenians over the Ama-
zons; both these contests were ideal pre-fig-
urements of the struggle of the Greek world
against its barbarous foes. To these were
added sculptured figures representing the
supreme historical conflict of the Greeks, par-
ticularly of the Athenians, against the Per-
sian toward three centuries before — truly
the overture of Hellenic History. The ded-
ication of all these statues, a royal present
to Athens as the chief Greek protagonist
against barbarism, must have taken place
some years before 200 B, C, when the Perga-
mene school of Art was in its first early

Here then Ave have a conscious, purposed
artistic summary of the long fight of Greece
against Barbary, both mythical and his-
torical — truly a fight for all civilization. The
work indicates that the Hellenistic Period
was a time of reflection, of looking backwards
and taking account of the past; also a time


of vast erudition, one of whose centres was
the famous Hbrary at Pergamum. Observe
that in these dedicatory figures four phases
of the struggle with Barbarian Pate are duly
given : ( 1 ) with the Persian, the old historic
one; (2) with the Gaul, the new historic one;
(3) the humanly mythical one, the Athenians
against the Amazons; (4) the divinely myth-
ical one, the Gods against the Giants. This
last conflict, the Olympian or ideal summa-
tion of them all, will be repeated in a later
Pergamene w^ork with a hundredfold empha-
sis and amplification.

Notable likewise is the fact that Athens is
no longer the center radiating Art over
Greece, but is the recipient of it from the
outside — a great change from the Hellenic
Period, when she was supremely the city of
world-historical Sculpture. Moreover, the
character of the Art is very different: it is
in a prodigious wrestle with its outer and
inner Fate, full of the turmoil seething
through the many diverse peoples of Asia
Minor, as if struggling to break out of its
own limits in a burst of contorsions. Such
is this Anatolian Sculpture, as we may name
it, product of a new order and of a new folk,
not Hellenic but Hellenized.

The Gallic danger had by no means passed
away when a new Fate begins to dawn upon


this Hellenistic world ; now it comes from the
West, and is not that of the Barbarian, not
wild and irregular, but steady and thor-
oughly disciplined. The Roman soldier en-
ters the present Period with the solid ad-
vancing tramp of his legions, never to be
turned back where he has once set his foot,
irreversible as Fate itself. This is just what
he is to the Greek mind of the present age,
and as such he is mirrored in its Art.

II. The Roman Fate. Already the reflec-
tion of Rome's domination over Greece has
been noted in the typical work of Hellenistic
Sculpture, the Laocoon. But there is an-
other large group of statues known as the
Farnesian Bull, which is wrought in the same
artistic style and conceived in the same
spirit. Both are usually placed alongside of
each other in the Art Museums of today;
the original is now at Naples, having been
taken thither from Rome where it was found
in the Baths of Caracalla about 1525 (accord-
ing to one account). How it got to Rome
from Tralles, the place of its origin in Asia
Minor — or possibly from Rhodes, is un-
known. But it was one of those works of
Greek Art which, like the Laocoon, flattered
Roman pride indirectly by celebrating Rome
as the Fate of Greece. So it was transported
to the victor from its native land and set up


in a public place, where every Roman conld
read in it a glorification of his City.

The work springs from a Greek Mytlms
known to the people and nsed by the poets.
Two sons of Zens, Amphion and Zethus, by
a mortal mother, Antiopa, avenge the wrongs
done the latter by Qneen Dirke through her
jealousy. Those two heroic youths getting
possession of her tie her to a wild bull and
let her be dragged to death. So the Greek
youths were ready to avenge the wrongs of
Mother Hellas upon Queen Roma, now in
authority, and to let loose the elemental
strength of nature upon the oppressor com-
ing from the West. With such a feeling
every Hellenistic man must have view^ed this
work, which is one of splendid energy and
full of the spirit of the time ; though the year
is not definitely ascertained, the artists prob-
ably belonged to the middle of the second
century B. C, thus the work hovers around
the last deed of Greek independence, the bat-
tle of Corinth (146 B. C). One may well
feel in it a call and a hope, the two stalwart
sliapes in their bearing promise a triumph,
which, however, is not historically to be ful-

The Roman comparison can be carried out
further. The legend of Antiopa suggests
that of Rhea Silvia, who also suffered for


a divine alliance, and whose two sons by the
God Mars were Romulus and Remus, foun-
ders of Rome. Possibly the Greek story
was chosen with a side glance at the Roman
one, which naturally followed the new con-
queror every where. So, likewise, these two
sons of the highest God, the Greek spectator
could well hope, might become founders of
a new order or at least vindicators of the old.
Here, too, may be placed the well-known
statue once called the Borghese Gladiator,
but really it is a Greek foot soldier portrayed
at the tensest moment of his combat with a
foe doubtless on horseback. The human body
is thus strained to its utmost stretch in ward-
ing off the threatened Fate, and giving back
a finishing blow in turn. Every muscle is
strung up for the final test, and from toe to
finger tip is one long muscular life-line,
chorded up for the moment of victory or
death. What must the Hellenistic man have
thought and felt at the view of such almost
superhuman exertion in a Greek fighter?
For the statue is the work of Agasias of
Ephesus, and belongs to the so-called Ephe-
sian school of Asia Minor; its date may be
placed at about 100 B. C, though some
writers have put it much later. But its char-
acter and execution are thoroughly Anato-
lian, the soul and body being keyed up to the


highest human tension in the desperate
struggle with Fate. It is close kin to the
Pergamene statues, to the Laocoon, and the
foregoing Farnesian Bull.

As already said, the most impressive sculp-
tural utterance of this Roman Fate over-
whelming the Greek world and also the
Greek Gods is the Laocoon, in which, how-
ever, the deities are not introduced in per-
son, though their destiny is certainly implied
by the work. But now they are to appear in
their personal presence, participating in the
deepest conflict of the time as set forth by its

777. The Fate of the Gods. The Olym-
pians are, therefore, seen whelmed into this
struggle with Fate, which rends the Greek
Pantheon. The old and the new Gods are
now actuallv at war, of which we have al-
ready noted prophetic intimations in Phi-
dias and even in Homer, who has also his
battle between deities over Troy. And the
last flash of Laocoon 's dying look was a rec-
ognition of the coming divine order over that
for which he had given his life. Very sug-
gestive is Pliny's report of the statue called
the Repentant Athamas, by the Rhodian
artist Aristonidas, about 200 B. C. Athamas,
according to the legend, is punished for a vi-
olation with a fit of madness sent* by the



Goddess Hera, and in this coiidition slays his
son, Learchiis. AVhen he recovers sanity and
beholds his deed, he sinks into a state of the
deepest repentance — at which moment the
sculptor portrays him with a power which
seems to have made every contemporary be-
holder tremble at himself and his country.
For it brought to consciousness that Hellas
had slain many of her own sons in the Pel-
oponnesian and the later inter-urban wars.
Some such feeling may be already traced in
the Niobe. The result is the clutch of Fate
has reached out and seized the weakened
Nation — the ever-pressing fact of the Hel-
lenistic time. The Gods of Greece are them-
selves undone and overmastered from w^ith-
out, and hence discredited within.

But the most extensive and surprising
monument of the Hellenistic time is the
Great Altar of Pergamum, often called that
of Zeus, but every Greek God and Goddess
would seem to be participators in this uni-
versal conflict with Fate which in the most
hideous and destructive shapes assails the
Olympians. Usually it is titled a Giganto-
machia, or battle between Giants and Gods,
taking its designation from the legend in old
Hesiod which had been often represented in
Greek Sculpture. But this work has a far
vaster Outreach; not only Giants are por-


trayed, but beasts and reptiles, and espe-
cially the commingled forms of man with
snakes and other repulsive animals wind and
coil violently through the whole composition,
which would seem to show all the positive
and negative forces of the universe in one
furious turmoil of conflict. Hence to our
conception it is rather a Theomachia, or uni-
versal battle between both kinds of Gods, the
good and the evil. There is a Persian sug-
gestion in the work, though the Mythus be
Greek; it calls up the strife of Ormazd and
Ahriman, the two eternally opposing powers
of the divine and the diabolic — the creed of
ancient Persia, the ruler of Asia Minor for
more than two centuries. In fact some such
vein runs through all this Anatolian Sculp-
ture, which makes it so restless and strifeful,
so permeated with the sense of guilt and suf-
fering and everlasting struggle, very differ-
ent from the old Hellenic serenity which
would show itself even in direct conflict. But
now the Gods themselves descend into the
arena and their divine shapes are convulsed
with all the throes of the uncertain contest.
The Great Altar of Pergamum was built
by King Eumenes II (197-159 B. C.) some
fifty years after those dedications at Athens
by his father Attains I, which have been al-
ready considered. The Gauls no longer ap-


pear, tliey seem to have been quieted by the
gift of the tract of land known afterwards
as Galatia. The Barbarian Fate, which then
had the stress of Art, is now transformed in-
to Fate universal, being carried up into the
realm of the Gods themselves. Around this
Altar, itself a loftv, manv-columned Greek
structure, ran the colossal frieze, over seven
feet in height, on Avhich the figures were
sculptured often in very high relief. There
was a smaller second frieze whose subject
was the exploits of Telephus, here to be
omitted. The building was over 100 feet
square, and thus the huge frieze presented a
long gallery of sculpture to the beholder as
he walked around the four sides. Every part
of this long and wide space was massed with
the figures of Gods and their foes in continu-
ous upheaval and in fantastic variety of as-
sault and wounds by animals, serpents, men
and deities — a rough-and-tumble fight of the
Avhole God-world to the death.

Most of the so-called Giants are snake-
legged, from the thighs downward the two
members run out into the body of a huge
snake with its head, but sometimes with its
tail, darting in freedom. Other commingled
shapes are those of men with the partial body
of a lion, a bull, perhaps of a dog (Cerberus).
Triple-shaped Hecate is here using her six

Till-: lIELLHM^Tir PfJINOD. Igl

ariiLs against assailing monsters, ^vllO are
hardly more monstrous than herself. Winged
creatures are present and appear to be light-
ing on both sides; so serpent turns to assail
serpent, and in one or two cases attacks its
own human counterpart. Is it a case of evil
undoing evil ? In fact one is reminded again
and again of Dante's Inferno, M'itli its con-
siderable gallery of mixed shapes of man
and animal, which also show the tendency to
be self-undoing, even self-attacking, as
Minos, the infernal judge, bites himself in
the coils of his own tail. Dimly some such
conception seems to underlie the action of
some of these monsters, though not of all.
Man, demonized, turns snake, and Sculp-
ture shows him in his very image and deed.
Still the theorv of the Avhole is obscure, and
the interpretation of the special parts is by
no means yet finished.

We can see, however, the outlines of a
great struggle between the Olympians and
the anti-Olympians; the highest Gods are
present, Zeus, Athena, Apollo, as well as the
humblest down to little-known Dione, The-
mis, even Asteria. Sometimes the names are
inscribed on the figure. The Pantheon is
there, but so is all Pandemonium, both belong
together in the last generalization of thought,
as well as of Art. Where is the scene laid!


In every Greek soul of tlie time ; it is the very
scission of the Hellenistic consciousness. One
feels often a grotesqueness in these shapes,
which once more calls up Dante and his age,
with its medieval struggle against the de-
mons. And in the commingled shapes there
is a return to the mythology of early Greece,
even to the Orient which has sculptured the
Egyptian Sphinx and the Assyrian Bull.
But the Pergamene Frieze unrolls a new
discipline, verily a kind of Last Judgment.

Which side wins, the deities or the demons?
Hard to tell ; we certainly have no right to
say, with a distinguished critic of this work :
the Gods are everywhere victorious. The
battle continues raging and swaying; even
Zeus is the center of the tensest sort of a
tussle; not yet decided, says his massive
body still in the wrench of supreme exertion.
In fact the point of the impression to be con-
veyed to every beholder is that the conflict is
now going on around him ; it is undoubtedly
that of Hellenistic Greece evervwhere, but
peculiarly that of Asia Minor with its Ori-
ental tinge running through all its Greek
culture and civilization.

The Sculpture of Pergamum representing
the furious battle between the Greek Gods
and the Giants, wdien set up in Berlin some
years ago, roused an extraordinarv interest

THi: HlJLLtJXIiiTIC I'EltlOI). 183

among" the Germans. They saw in it another
"Twilight of the Gods" made so impressive
in one of Wagner's operas. It appealed to
an old mythical vein still alive in the Teu-
tonic folk-soul, whose deepest legend re-
mains some form of Ragnorok. The Faust
nature of present Germany found a fascinat-
ing expression of itself in this antique Gi-
gantomachia. Hence, some voices were
heard declaring that this Pergamene Sculp-
ture was the greatest artistic bequest of the
classic world, greater than that of the Par-

But herewith the Hellenistic Period of
Greek Art closes — a time of intense scission,
separation, wrestle of the spirit outwards
and Avithin. It is the one colossal all-includ-
ing Greek tragedy, which the Athenian dra-
matic poets had ideally prefigured before it
became the overwhelming tragic reality. The
pathos of Aeschylus is truly prophetic; his
hero Prometheus of the mythical aforetime
in truth belongs to the historical aftertime.
Every Greek beholding the Sophoclean
Oedipus coiled about by Fate, felt that he
himself could not escape; that not only him-
self, but his world, was Laocoon.

But, behold ! Roman Fate has clutched that
Greek folk and its art, is dragging the same
to its den — let us note the outcome.



It is an ever-memorable attempt, replete
with instruction for all time, especially for
us here in America : Rome undertakes to
seize, to make her own and even to re-create
from the outside Greek Sculpture, which is
the artistic expression of a diiferent people
and age, of a different social and institutional
order, yea of a different God-world. Can she
do it I She has conquered the Greek nation
and its City-State; can she command Greek
Art, and make it appear on her Capitol Hill
in all its originality at her bidding? Can the
Greek artist himself, being transferred to
Rome with his complete outfit of technical
skill, bring down again the Olympian deities
into new and beautiful shapes, even if he
tries with all his might ? Sculpture, sepa-
rated from its native fountain in the folk-
soul, and divorced from the faith and insti-
tution of which it is the spontaneous utter-
ance, will always show itself an alien at
Rome in spite of much cultivation.

During quite the entire Hellenistic Period,
the Roman cloud was rising and approaching
Greece, till finally it overshadowed the whole
Greek territorv. We are to remember that


there were three Hellases, Occidental in Italy
and Sicily, Middle Hellas, the original center
of the Nation, and Oriental Hellas, which
largely sprang from the conquests of Alex-
ander. Kome was a neighbor to the first Hel-
las and reduced it to her authority during the
Third Century B. C. ; then she entered Mid-
dle Hellas and subjected that to her sway
during the Second Century B. C. In this
same conflict Oriental Hellas, now ruled by
the Successors of Alexander, gets involved;
the result is that Roman armies begin to en-
ter Asia Minor, where they fight the victori-
ous battle of Magnesia (190 B. C), after
which Oriental Hellas is aware of its future
master. Thus the Roman Fate has risen dis-
tinctly to view in all three Hellases, with a
triumphant political mastery, and, that which
is Rome's special gift, she has organized the
day's victory into permanent possession.

Already we have noticed how the Sculp-
ture of the Hellenistic Period represented
this Western Fate. But now begins a new
turn in the total Greek Art-world : its bodily
removal and concentration into the city of
the conqueror on the Tiber. This is the dis-
tinctive act of the Helleno-Roman Period,
which we may vaguely set down as lasting
toward three hundred years, though both its
dawn and its disappearance cannot be defi-


nitely bounded. At 100 B. C. the current
had set in strongly, and it continued with
varying intensity till after the death of the
emperor Hadrian (138 A. D.).

I. The most striking external fact of this
movement was the direct transfer of Greek
statues to Rome. As these possessed value
in the eyes of the vanquished, the victors
probably carried them off at first as mere
booty, beginning with the Greek cities of
Southern Italy and Sicily. Such also we may
deem the astonishing prize of M. Fulvius
Nobilior who captured and took away from

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