Derbyshire Archaeological Society.

Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society online

. (page 15 of 52)
Online LibraryDerbyshire Archaeological SocietyJournal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society → online text (page 15 of 52)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

predicte sigilla sua altematim apposuerunt. Hiis testibus Ad' de Gotham,
Roberto Seliok, Ad' Parker, Wiiro Hervy, Johanna Aleyn, et aliis. Datum
apud Norton' predictam septimo decimo die Septembris anno regni regis
Edwardi tertii post conquestum vicesimo sexto.

The following deed bears date 1384. The name Bate, or Batt,
not uncommon in the neighbourhood of Norton, is a nicked form
of Bartholomew. Hugh of the " Barkhous,** that is, Hugh of
the Tannery. We shall have " le Barker," that is, the tanner,

" What craftsman art thou," said the king,

** I pray thee tell me trowe ; "
*' I am a barker^ sir, by my trade,

Now tell me what art thowe ? "

Percys ReUques,

William of the Moor, that is, of Greenhill Moor. *« Jurdan-
thorp," now Jordanthorpe, possibly Jourdain's house or village.
Jourdain is an early Norman baptismal name, probably corrupted
from the Latin Hodiemus.

A person called Jordan was vicar of Norton, and another of
the same name, abbot of Beauchief, in 1228. The affix thorpe is
a Danish test-word, being an almost certain indication of a
Danish settlement


Sciant presentes et fiituri quod ego Adam Bate filius Rogeri de Parva
Norton dedi &c. Hugoni del Barkhous, de leghes, omnia {sic) terras et
tenementa, cum parcis, boscis, pascuis, pasturis, et omnibus aliis pertinendis
suis, que et quas michi decendebant jure heredit' post decessum Rogeri Bate
patris mei, in parva Norton et infra soca {sic\ de Norton' habenda.&c. prefato
Hugoni heredibus et assigiiatis suis de capitali domino feodi illius per servicia
inde debiia et de iure consueta, et ego &c . [Usual warranty of titled Hiis
testibus Will'o de Barkhous de Wodseates, Will'o de Mora de Grenhull,
Richardo Wilkynson de eadem, Johanne de mora de eadem, Henrico Rauder
de eadem, Johanne Rauder de parva Norton', Thoma de Jurdanthorp', Thoma
Parker, Adam Parker, Johanne de Lightwod. Datum apud Norton' die
sabbatis (?) in festo Purificationis beate Marie anno regni regis Ricardi
secundi post conquestum septimo.

Digitized by



The next two charters, probably dated about the end of the
13th century, relate to lands in Aston, or Cokl-Aston, now vulgarly
and improperly called Coal Aston. " Almeton *' is probably the
same as Alfreton. Nicholas subtus le Klif, />., Nicholas Undercliff.
It will be noticed that Cold-Aston is called simply ** Aston " in
the first charter. Roger, abbot of Beauchief, is probably Roger
de Foulstowe, who, according to Pegge, was abbot in 1278.
*' Birchevend " is Birchett, near Dronfield, formerly the seat of
the Blythes, lords of that manor. Burchard, Burchardus, &c., is
a personal name in Doomsday.

Stubley, that is, the "cleared field." Harwye, same as Harvey.
This deed contains the earliest mention of Cold- Asion with which
I am acquainted. There appears to have been more than one
windmill at Cold-Aston, which is a high, bleak, and windy, place.
There was one at the Herdings in the time of Elizabeth. There
was a law suit about the one at the Herdings in the time ot
Elizabeth, and attached to the voluminous proceedings is a
curious drawing of the mill itself. ** Richard le Spari." The
name is remarkable. '' Sparri *' is an old Christian name. The
Doomsday of Staffordshire has a Sparri amongst the tenants in
chief. ** Thasilharst," £^., the Hazelhurst, or hazel wood, a place
in Norton. Compare the neighbouring Hazelbarrow, a mound
where hazels grow. Bernis, a place in Dronfield, the name being
now lost


Sdant presentes et futuri quod ego Will's de Chaword dedi &c Wiiro
de Almetona totam terrain illam cum omnibus pertinenciis suis quam
Nicholaus filius Nicholai subtus le Klif de Aston quondam tenuit de Will'o
patre meo in villa de Aston. Tenend*, et habend' sibi et heredibus suis vel
assignatis et heredibus assignatorum de me et heredibus meis libere, quiete,
pocifice, integre, jure et hereditate impperpetuum cum omnibus libertatibus et
liberis communis, et omnibus aliis aisiamentis ad predictam terram pertinentibus
infra villam de Aston et extra, reddendo inde annuatim &c., septem solidos
aigenti duobus terminis sci. ad festum Sancti Johannis Baptiste tres solidos
et sex denarios, et ad festum Sancti Andrei Apostoli tres solidos et sex
denarios pro omnibus sclaribus {sic) serviciis, querelLs, consuetudinibus, et
demandis, salvo forinseoo servicio ad predictam terram pertinente. [Usual
vforranty of title.] Pro hac autem donadone, concessione, et carte mee

Digitized by



hujus confirmacione dedit michi predictus Will's novem marcas pre manibus
in Geisumma. £t ut hec mea donacio &c His testibus Rc^ero abbate
de Bello Capite, Thoma de lejrs, Petro de Wodehases, Petro de Birchevend
Wiiro de Stobbeley, et aliis.

[Copia ver*- ex*- mense Octobris anno RR*- Elizabeth, nunc xxxiiij"- et
Anno d*ni 1592, per me Richardum Co1ieS\

[Woodhouse nor any of his ances- [A faire seale of Armes in greene

tors never pay'd this or any like rent, wax thereunto. The deede remayneth

but only vj*- per an. as in the other w**» Godfrey Woodhouse, but is

deede is reserved and iiij*> land rent nncertaine w^*^ is the land herein

many yeares.] meant and intended.]


Sdant &c. quod ego Thomas de Chaworth miles dedi &c. Johanni Harwye
de Cold Aston unum toftum et unum bovatum terre que Petrus filius Robert!
Conda^de me tenuit in villuiagio [sic) cum pertinenciis suis sicut jacet in
diversis locis in villa et campis de Aston cum molendino ventricio cum liberis
redditu et introitu ad dictum molendinum. Tenend' &c. predicto Johanni
heredibus suis vel assignatis. [Rent 6s, per an. Usual warranty of title.]
His testibus Ricardo le spari, Nicholao de Norton*, Thoma del Wodhous,
Petro de Bemis, Thoma de Thasilharst, Will'o le Barker de Aston, et
multis aliis.

[Copia vera ex* mense Octrobris [This deede rem* w*** Godfrey

Anno RR*- Elizabeth, nunc xxxiiij Woodhouse, sealed w* Cheworthes
Annoque d*ni 1592. Per me Richar- seale of Armes in paste.]
dum Coke.]

A few of the more curious field names in Norton and Cold-
Aston may prove interesting. Some are of clear derivation and
meaning,' but for others I cannot account. Foynton Wood;
perhaps so called after a family of that name. Lumb : that is, a
ravine; and Dowell Lumb, Compare "the dowie dens o'
Yarrow." Jack Field: possibly geac=gauk, (Scot. gowk).
Delves: that is, quarries. Moorhouse, and Moorhouse Green.
Flackling Magatha, Flac^z, field; but what is Magathaf
Sick Mead: i,e,, brook meadow. Shoulder Broody Shoulder of
Mutton^ and Tongue; the latter being frequent. Compare the
Scotch abbey of Tungeland, /.^., Tongue land, so called from its
being built on a peninsula like a tongue. Far Bate Moor: a
family called Bate, anciently in Norton. Slack Field: Slack = a
ravine. Frimrose Bank, Carnal Wood, Zathefield^BaxnAtld.

Digitized by



Henpepper Field is frequent : possibly han^ acer^ or hemp field.
Woolhouse Field. P/^a« Cr^^; Pigman= swineherd. FighiUs^
Swine Backfield, Gooselands. Cinder Hill. Ashes Wood.
These words have reference to the charcoal burning which was
here carried on very extensively, as the parish registers show.
Sdhak Spring Wood. A very ancient family called Seliok was
seated at Norton. Query whether they gave their name to this
wood, or themselves derived their name from the place? Their
crest is a punning one ; an oak leaf. Coney greave : <>., rabbit
wood. Lower Camp Field; Upper Camp Field; (both at Wood-
s&ts); Stamel greave: i>., Starling Grove. Twenty well Sick.
Twenty well, written Quintinewell in the Beauchief charters : St.
Quintin's wdl, near the abbey, a name given by the canons. Fog
Ing: Fog = rank grass; Ing=a meadow; of Scandinavian origin.
Pinge Wood, Far Weald, Shoebroad Close, Great Sprent, and
Little Sprent, Sprint, and sprunt, provincial English for a hill or
"brae." Crimbles, Cobnar field.

My rambling course now leads me to the parish registers.
"What duller-looking volume," says Hartley Coleridge, **than
a Parish Register? What drier commentary on the text mors
omnibus communist What is it but a barren abstract of mortality —

Where to be born, and die,

Of rich and poor makes all the history ? "

The first volume of the Norton Register is, as we shall see,
rather more than a barren abstract of mortality. It almost in-
variably records the social position of the persons mentioned in
it; a thing which is not common in parish registers. The
number of sickle-smiths is very remarkable ; indeed sickle-making
seems to have been the chief occupation of the villagers. They
are variously described as fcenisecarum percussor, pulsor, confector,
fabery molitor, &»c. Common labourers are described as opifices
gregarii\ charcoal burners, carbonarii lignarii \ cutlers, cutellarii;
locksmiths, clavifactores \ wheelwrights, rotarum fabri\ tailors,
restiarii, and sometimes rudiarii. Cooke Tooke, of Greenhill, is
described as a shot maker. (Mr. Gill and another had a shot
manufactory at Greenhill, and incurred the suspicion of the

Digitized by



government) Shoemakers are crepidariL There are coverlet
weavers, dish-turners, musical instrument makers, and one
" Marya Medley *' is described as a •* chimni sweeper/

Moreover, amongst the burials, short biographical notices are
not unfrequent Emmina Gill, wife of Edward Gill, of Norton,
appears to have possessed rare virtues. She is said to have been
" the delight of hei neighbours," or in the extrordinary Latin of
the register, ddicium de proximis. The registrar, that is, I
suppose, the vicar, says he has sung her praises at the end of the
volume (qu<B horum nominum inscriptor in fine hujus registri dignis
laudibus extoUere conatur.) I thought I had made a pleasing
discovery, and turned to the end of the volume, expecting to see
a coj^ of elegiacs, but, alas ! neither verse nor prose was to be
found. On Feb. ist, 1609, the death is recorded of William
Brownell, in artibus baccalaureus^ RawnCshie [Rawmarsh] in cam*
ebor^ pedagoguSi qui zeli, pietatis^ erudicionis, et humanitatis insigne
specimen prebebat \ and on Nov. 5th, 17 17, died John Staniland,
cler^ A,B, et ludimagister Schoia de Norton. So it seems the
school had then for its master a clergyman, and a Bachelor of

The register contains the names of several families of renown —
The Kirkes of Greenhill, London, and Dieppe, conquerors and
colonizers of Canada and Newfoundland; the Seliokes and
Freschvilles, of Hazelbarrow; the Parkers, ancestors of Lord
Chancellor Macclesfield, are there. The following entry will
show emphatically the high position of the Parkers. ** 1609, JuL
20. Johannes Parker filius et apparens heres Tohannis Parker de
Lees armigeri ex Maria uxore ejus cognomento per patrem Mason,
Gilbertus comes Saiof^ JoKes dominus Darcie^ et domina Cavendish
uxor Caroli Cavetidishe consponsatores'* Andrew Marvell, father
of the statesman and patriot, married his second wife at Norton.
Her name was Lucy Harris, a daughter of John Alured, of
Charter House, by Eleanor, daughter of Ralph Constable, of St.
Sepulchre's. She married three times, (a) Francis Darley, of
Kilnhurst, near Rotherham; {b) William Harris, of Oaken
Thorpe, in Derbyshire; and {f) Andrew Marvell, the father.

Digitized by



They were married on the 22nd of Nov., 1638, young Marvell
being at that time eighteen.*

Amongst the burials are : July 31, 1601. Anthanitis Blythe de
Byrchett fa de Dranfidd artniger sepuitus fuit in capella eccksie
farochiali de Norton adjuncta tertio die Junii in node. The
Blythes, as the Dronfield register shows, removed their dead
from Dronfield, and buried them at Norton, in the chapel
founded by their great relation. A custom seems to have
obtained in some families of burying their dead by night The
reason probably is that the darkness adds solemnity to the
occasion. Evelyn, in his diary, tells us that his sister, Mrs.
Darcy, was buried on the 3rd Oct., 1635, "at night, but with no
meane ceremony." And on 27 Jan., 1641 ; ** that evening was
celebrated the pompous funerall of the Duke of Richmond, who
was carried in effigie in an open chariot thro* London in great
solemnity." It has, from time immemorial, been the custom of
the ancient family of Dyott, of Freeford, to bury its deceased
members by torch light.t The Blythes, doubtless, buried their
dead with considerable pomp, and would take a just pride in their
beautiful chapel.

1604. July 15. Robertus Waddye nuper servus magistri
Cardinal de Egmanton in conC Nottingham apud lees in puteo
immersus. [1676, Ap. 19, Nicholaus Stones mercator florentissimus
de Himsworth,

I transcribe the first page of the register, as a specimen of what
it is like. The ist Vol. is of very unwieldy shape. It measures
2ft. 2in., by p^in., and is doubled in the middle, which causes
both the binding and the leaves to be very much broken. The
baptisms begin in the first year of Elizabeth (1558), and are
continued down to Feb., 1651. The marriages begin in the 2nd
of Elizabeth (1559), and are continued to March, 1653. The
burials begin in the same year, and are continued to March,
1650. Generally, I may say that the volume is of very con-

* See Fuller Worthies Library. Andrew Marvell.

'\NoUs and Queries, 5th S. vii., 246. And see Cox's Churches of
Derbyshire, iv. 335.

Digitized by



siderable interest and value, and should be transcribed if not
printed. The preface to the volume refers to its "religious
preservation/* and its '* multifarious uses."

Inscriptio nomtnum eorum qui, regnante Elizabetha serenissima regina
nunc A^nglise, &c., aut aqose baptismate abluti, aut in matrimonio copnlati,
aut sepolturse beneficio affecti fuemnt, in ecclesia parochial! de Norton, in
comitatu Derb*, incipiens a primo ejus regni anno, et usque ad quadrigesimum
secundum annum dicti regni sui continuata, juxta formam et efTectum
cujusdam canonis in hac parte nuper editi * et in frontispicio hujus registri
transcripti f unde necessitas et utilitas antedicts inscriptonis et ejus
religiosse conservationis in multifarios (?) usus abunde liquebit.


Imprimis Elizabetha Grene filia Johannis Grene de Norton faenisecarum
fabri Baptizata fuit xxxmo Septembris anno primo Eliz., &c.

xxxmo Septembris.
Anno R. R^ne EHz,^ &c., Secundo.
Elizabetha Cam filia WilPmi Camme de parva Norton faenisecarum fabri

xmo Decembris.
Agnes Rose filia Thomae Rose de Norton laenisecarum percussoris

xximo Januarii.
Elizabetha byrkenshawe filia Johannis byrkenshawe carbonarii lignarii

xxviii Februarii.
Elizabetha Scotte filia Emori Scotte de Bello capite alias Beauchieff

1560 xmo Aprilis.

Alicia Bate filia Robert! Bate de lurdenthorp yeoman viiivo Mali.

Margareta filia putativa Robert! Boot de Norton ex Margareta Blithe relicta

Thomae blithe de himsworth defuncta xvito Junii.

Elizabetha Claiton filia humfredi Claiton de lightewood husbandmann

xxvo Junii.
Hugo Scotte filius hugonis Scotte de Norton xxx mo. Junii.

Thomas Deane filius Johannis d de Norton generosi xij August!.

Barbara Willye filia Johannis Willie de lees xvii mo. Septembris.

Willielmus ffoxe filius Henrici Foxe de lees carbonarii lignarii

!j do. Octobris.
Robertus Vicars filius Thomte Vicars baptizatus fuit xij Octobris.

Wiirmus stannyforthe filius henrici stanyforth de heardynges husbandman

xxviij Octobris.

* The volume would appear to have been compiled from an earlier volume,
as it begins in 1560.

f The transcript of the order is not made in the volume.

Digitized by



Anno R. Rine Eliz, tertio,

EUexia Townende filia Thomse Townende de grennell husbandman

zxiiij Novembris.
Richardus Kynge filius Galfridi Kinge de himswourthe ultimo Novembris.
Jacobus Plattcs filius Jacobi Plattes de grennell labourer ix no Decembris.
Margeria parker filia Johannis parker de weetlands yeoman zv to decembris
Johannes Rawson filius henrici Rawson de woodsette dale

xxvij mo decembris
Joida blithe filia Will'mi Blithe de Norton eodem die et anno.

Elizabetha Bullock filia Thomae Bullock de grennell foUifici de pinfold

ix no februarif 156 1
Elizabetha malam filia Martini Malam de norton clerici vij mo aprilis

Margeria padley filia Roberti padley de norton fsenisecarum fabri vij mo aprilis
Margeria Barnes filia Johannis Barnes de himswourth xv aprilis

Nicholaus scotte filius Emori scotte de Bello capite alias Beauchief

xyj. mo aprilis
Johanna Bullock filia Jacobi bullock de greene apud grennell yeoman

xxix no aprilis
Elizabetha alien filia Johannis alien de woodsettes dale yeoman xxv. o mail
Henry Taylor. Robt holland. Hierome Smallfield.

I here give a few inscriptions in the church.
On a plain stone in the chancel floor : —

Hie humatus jacet Rowlandus Eyre nuper de Bradwaye intra parochiam de
Norton in comi. Derbi. Ar*, tam genere quam virtute clams ; amicis patrie
charus. Obiit primo die Septembris, An'o dom*i MDCLXV.
Precipuis placuisse viris non ultima laus est.

On a plain stone in the chancel floor : —

Hie depositum est corpus Maris Wood viduse quae obiit 13 die Mail ad
1677 setatis suae 77.


On a stone adjacent : —

Hie jacet in tumulo spes olim chara parentum Ric. Wood quae (sic) obiit

JuL 31 ov 17 AD. 1675.

T. W. . . . . obiit Ap. 19. 1685.

Nos ibimus ad eos, et ipsi non revertent ad nos.

Digitized by



On a marble monument adjacent to the north wall of the
chancel : —

Hie juxta situs est Wilhelmus Bullock de Norton in agro Derbiensi armig.

Virtute, et ingenio praecod, primft statim juventute.

In. coll. D. Johan. apnd Cantabrig. electus est Socius.

Belli autem Furore ^ musis mollioribus rapide divulsus,

Regijs partibus contra rebelles cam primis se devovit,

In quibus pertinaciter cum ultimis fortissimus stetit.

Cum Ser°io> Qg^r, 2da redeunt illi etiam res suae familiares,

Diu in perduellium manibus sequestres, et misere attritae.

Nee minus jam pace quam bello olim clarns et utilis»

Deo sdlieet, ecclesiae, et regi tenaci proposito ubiq fidelis,

Quicquid, qnseque postulet necessitudo, ad amussim perfecit.

Chanis maritus, indulgens ; pater ; dominus facilis ;

Comes faeundus, et gratus ; amicus certus et integer,

Patrem secutus est filius unieus Domus spes ultima,
Johannes Bullock in Coll. D. Johan. Cantab'* noviter ascitus,
Variolis abreptus in ipso juventutis flore, cum jam spem daret,
Se Patrem vitse instituto, virtute, et moribus referre.
Vidua, utrinq. orba, et ipsa assiduo dolore pene eonfecta,
Hoc utrisq. et toti familise, hie simul sepultae, posuit monimentum.

[Pater j M,.. 7- Anno ^2^^'"^

I have not altered the punctuation, which in several places is

On a slab in the chancel floor : —

Here lyeth the body of George Sherman, of Lightwood, who departed this
life the 27th of Aug., 1706. Aged 68 years.

'Here also lyeth the body of Margaret his wife. Departed this life the
12 of Aug Aged 62.

On a slab in the chancel floor : —

Here is deposited in good hope of a glorious resurrection y* mortal yet
precious part of Joseph Morewood of Hemsworth, gent., that earnestly holy,
humble, conscientious, and circumspect Christian, whose immortal and most
precious part was translated from this world to the far better country on the
28lh day of March . . . setatis suae 55. [The date is obscured by
a stone.]


Digitized by



There are many memorials of the Gills and Bagshawes in the
chancel, but as they are affixed to the walls, and in no danger of
being effaced, I have not, owing to the limited space at my
disposal, here transcribed them.

In the church-yard is this amusing epitaph on a scythe-
smith : —

My scythe and hammer lies reclined,

My bellows too has lost their winde.

My iron is spent, my steel is gone,

My scythes are set, my work is done,

My fires extinct, my forge decayed,

My body in the dust is laid.

The following, too, is remarkable, to say no more about it : —

Heaven did thy lovely presaunce want,
And therefore did so early thee transplant ;
For meaner soids he could delay,
Impatient for thine he could not stay.

Of the older Norton families, the Kirkes, of Greenhill, appear

to have been not the least distinguished. Thurstan Kirke, of

Greenhill, yeoman, son of Arnold Kirke, of Whitehough, alias

Whitehall, Esq., married Frances, daughter of Jerome Blythe, of

Greenhill, Esq., by Anna, his wife. Anna Blythe died on the

29th of March, 1585, and she is described in the Norton register

as ^^ modesta^ pia^ it beneficientissma matrona.'' A family of nine

children sprang from this marriage, the eldest being Gervase

Kirke, who was bap*- Ap. i6, 1568. Jerome Blythe was the

father of Anthony Blythe, Esq., of Burchet, who, as we have seen

above, was buried at night in the chapel of his ancestors.

Gervase went to London, and there became a distinguished

merchant adventurer. Along with Sir W. Alexander, son of Sir

W. Alexander, Principal Secretary of State for Scotland, R.

Charlton, and W. Berkeley, he obtained His Majesty's license for

discovery, fishing, and trade, ** on the south side of the river of

Canada." He had five sons; David, (afterwards Sir David),

Lewis, (afterwards Sir Lewis), Captain Thomas, John, and

Captain James. On the 20th March, 1629, Captains David and

Thomas Kirke, factors for the Canada adventures, left Gravesend

. 3

Digitized by



with 8 ships and two pinnaces. They arrived at Great Caspe on
the 15th of June, and at Todousac and Quebec between that
date and the 3rd of July. Here they traded with the natives
for skins. Captain Thomas, with 200 men, demanded the
surrender of Quebec, about the 3rd of July, and it was given up
to him on the 9th. Upwards of 1,700 beaver skins were taken
in the fort, and came into the Company*s hands. On the 5th of
March, 1630, a commission was issued to inquire what goods,
merchandise, and other things, had been taken by Captain David
Kirke from the fort of Quebec, the College of Jesuits, and the
French Admiral Rochemont, whose arms the Kirkes afterwards
took. A month later, the French General, De Caen, petitioned
the Privy Council, complaining that Captain Kirke would not
give up the beaver skins, for which he had offered the highest
price, nor the keys of the warehouse, to the Lord Mayor of
London, though application had been made to Mistress Kirke,
his mother, (his father, Gervase Kirke, being dead*) to W.
Berkeley, and Robert Charlton. In May, 1631, Captain David
was examined before Sir H. Marten, the result of his examination
being as follows : — He was employed as chief commander in
two voyages to Canada, in 1628, at the charge of his late father,
Gervase Kirke, and other merchants in London, and in 1629 at
that of Sir W. Alexander, the younger, Gervase Kirke, and their
partners. He declares that on the first voyage he took
possession of all Canada, except Quebec ; and on the second, of
Quebec also. He had a commission to expel the French from
that country. He was assaulted by a French pinnace, commanded
by Emery de Caen, two of his company being killed, and 12 or
18 others wounded. He acquired the beaver skins in trading
with the natives and the French for victuals, and did not take
them from Quebec; for when the fort surrendered there was
nothing but a tub of bitter roots in it He complains that inter-
lopers presume to trade in the ports of Canada, to the great
damage of the adventurers.

* He died in London, and was buried at All Hallows', Bread Street, on the
[13th] Dec, 1639.

Digitized by



On Dec. ist, 163 1, a grant of arms was made to Captain
David Kirke, and his brothers, Lewis Kirke, Governor of Canada,
and James Kirke. The grant confirms to them their paternal
coat, with the addition of the arms (slightly varied) of Mons. de
Rockmond, a French Admiral, whom they had taken and brought
into England. The grant was made in consideration of their
having vanquished the French fleet under De Rockmond.
In the following year they brought Mons. Champlain prisoner to

How the differences between the Canada Company and the
French were settled does not clearly appear. A patent had been
granted on the nth May, 1633, to Sir W. Alexander, and others,
for sole trade to the river and gulf of Canada, and all places
adjacent, for beaver and all other skins and wool for 3 1 years.

Online LibraryDerbyshire Archaeological SocietyJournal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society → online text (page 15 of 52)