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CIIV PLAI-iNING AfiD
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Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography
Advocacy Planning-Toward the Development of Theory and Strategy
Donald F. Mazziotti
Graduate Program in Urban and Regional Planning
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
University of Iowa
NOV 8 1971
Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor
Post Office Box 229
Monticello, Illinois 61856
COUNCIL OF PLMKH^G LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #2l;l
ADVOCACY PLAI^^IWG —
TOWARD TIK DEVSLOPMEi'IT OF
THEORY A1\ID STRATEGY
Donald F. Mazziott:
Graduate Program in Urban and
University of Iowa
"A new, inportant, and difficult problem is emerging in
the administration of public planning agencies, that is,
there is a groidng number of instances of professional
staff members who dissent publicly from the official
agency position on a planning issue. "^
The concept of "advocacy planning" — the origin of which is
generally credited to an article appearing in the Journal of the
American Institute of Planners by Paul Davidoff^- has proliferated
in planning and architectural vjri tings for the better part of a
decade. Despite the flurry of writing on the topic by a great num-
ber of writers who range the entire political spectrum, it would
be difficult to recount an instance where an equally popular notion
had remained virtually undeveloped in theory and parctice.
While it is possible to trace the political theory underlying
the concept of advocacy planning to "pluralism,'' nowhere does the
literature seek a well-considered, theoretical definition of the
subject. Although it is possible to link the advocacy spoken of
to the subjective urging of a particular person or persons on
behalf of a particular group-related issue, 3 the student.
""Earl Finkler, "Dissent and Independent Initiative in Plan-
ning Offices." (Chicago: American Society of Planning Officials,
Planning Advisory Service , Report Ho. 269, May, 1971).
^Paul Davidoff, "Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning," Journal
of the American Institute of Planners . XXXI (November, 1965), 331-
2, CPL Exchange Bibliography #2lil
researchers, professor and professional encounter an abrupt gap on
issues which appear to be at least related and, perhaps, crucial
to group or professional advocacy. For exarple, the literature
ignores any comprehensive analysis of power relationships, group
dynamics, the logic of collective as opposed to individual action,'^
the characteristics of pressure group politics,^ or special
As planning schools and agencies begin to feel the pressures
of advocacy or dissent approaches to the heretofore "professional
tests of objectivity and analysis," the lack of a coherent defini-
tion and theory of advocacy will inevitably lead to both disrup-
tions in institutional behavior and failures in the practical
application of such a ubiqutuous notion. Indeed, on the heels of
Ralph Naders' suggestions for action programs at the 1970 Annual
Convention of the American Institute of Planners'? and a subsequent
study of the implications of such programs and/or behavior, ° it seems
clear that analysis of advocacy in a planning context has failed to
keep the pace of social change.
Based upon the foregoing comments, the follovdng bibliography
on the topic of advocacy planning has been developed with a vievr
tovrard encouraging and facilitating initial or staging research in
this policy area. Areas of agreement and divergence of thought be-
come apparent upon study of the references includedj once these
elements have been identified, serious analysis aiid theoretical
structurin g can proceed.
USee, Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action , (New York:
Schocken Books, 1968) .
5see, John R. Commons, Representative Democracy . (New York:
Biireau of Economic Research, n.d.).
°For example, Robert A. Brady, Business as a System of Power .
(New York: Colianbia University Press, 19U3) •
'H^lph Nader, "The Professional Responsibilities of a Profes-
sional Society," keynote address at the Annual Conference of the
American Institute of Planners, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 18,1970.
^Finkler, op. cit.
3. CPL Exchange Bibliography if2Ul
Advocacy Planning — A Selected Bibliography
Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation." Journal
of the American Institute of Planners , XXXV (July, 196?) ,
Berkeley, E.P. 'l-Jorkshops in Watts." ArcMtectural Forum ,
(January/Februnry, 1969) .
Brager, George A. "Advocacy and Political Behavior." Social W ork,
Journal of the American Association of Social IJorkers . Vol.
13, No. 2, (April, 196d), 5-15.
Brager, George A. and Valerie Jorrin. "Bargaining: A liethod in
Coitimunity Change." Social Work; Journal of the National
Association of Social IJorkers . Vol. Ik, Wo. k} (October, 1969),
Burke, D. Barlou, Jr., Howard H. Foster, Jr., and Peter H. Nash.
"Urban Public Policy Participation Networks," The Urban and
Social Change Review , 3 (Spring, 1970). 301.3605 URS.
Burke, Edmiind M. "Citizen Participation Strategies." Journal of
the American Institute of Planners , XXXIV (September, 1968),
Chatter jee, Pranab and Raymond A. Koleski. "The Concepts of Com-
munity and Community Organization." Journal of the Nationa l
Association of Social Workers . Vol. 15, No. 3, (July, 1970)",
Clark H. Sol. "Today's Advocate." Case and Comment . Vol. 76,
Wo. 2, (March/April, 1971), 26-3^7
Davidoff , Linda and Paul, and Weil Newton Gold. "Suburban Action:
Advocate Planning for an Open Society." Journal of the
American Institute of Planners . Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, (January,
Davidoff, Paul. "Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning." Journal of
the American Institute of Planners . Vol. XXXI, (November, 1965),
Duhl, Leonard J. and Janice Volkman. "Participatory Democracy:
Networks as a Strategy for Change.' Urban and So cial Change
Review . Vol. 3, Wo. 2, (Spring, 1970), 11-lii.
Dyckman, John ¥. "Social Planning, Social Planners, and Planned
Societies." J ournal of the American Institute of Planners .
Vol. XXXII, No. 2, (March, 1966), 66-75.
U« CPL Exchange Bibliography #2^1
Editors. "Advocacy Planning and How it l.'orks." Progressive Arch-
itecture , (September, 196|), 101-115.
Gilbert, Ileil, and Joseph W. Eaton, "lilho ^eaks for the Poor?"
Journal of the American Institute of Planners . Vol. XXXVI
(ilovember, 1970), mi-U16.
Hatch, Richard C. "Some Thoughts on Advocacy Planning," Architec -
tural Forum . (June, 1968), 72.
Hyman, Herbert. "Planning -with Citizens: Two Styles." Journal of
the American Institute of Planners . Vol. XXXV, (March, 1969),
Kahn, Alfred J. "Perspectives on Access to Social Services."
Social Work; Journal of the National Association of Social
Workers . Vol. 15, No. 2, (April, 1970), 95-101.
Kaplan, liarshall. "Advocacy and the Urban Poor." Journal of the
American Institute of Planners . Vol, XXXV, Wo. 2, (March,
Keyes, Langley C, Jr. and Edirard Teitcher. "Limitations of Advo-
cacy Planning: A Vievr from the Establishment." Journal of the
American Institute of Planners . Vol. XXXVI, No, k, (July,
Long, Norton. "The Local Community as an Ecology of Games,"
American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 3U, (March, 1958) > 80-87.
Loid., Theodore. "Decision Making vs Policy Making: Torard an Anti-
dote for Technocracy." Public Administration Review . (May/
June, 1970), 31ii-325.
Lovnry, Ritchie P. "Power to the People — Political Evolution or
Revolution?" Urban and Social Change Review . Vol. 3) No. 2
(Spring, 1970), 2-6.
Nash, Peter H. and Dennis Durden. "A Task Force Approach to Replace
the Planning Board, " Journal of the Jjnerican Institute of
Planners , Vol. XXX, No, 1, (X%h), 9-2b.
Ohlin Sc Rein. "Social Planning for Institutional Change." The
Social Welfare Forum , 85 (196U) .
Page, Clinton, "Getting Involved," jjchitectural and Engineering
News , (December, I969), 28-37.
Peattie, Lisa R. "Community Drama and Advocacy Planning,"
Journal of the American Institute of Planners . Vol, XXXVI,
No, 6, (November, 1970), U05-U10.
5. CPL Exchange Bibliography //2Ul
Peattie, Lisa R. "Reflectioxis on Advocacy Planning." Journal of
the American Institute of Plajiners . Vol, XXXIV, No. 2,
(Karch, 1966), bO-b?.
Perloff, Harvey. "Mew Directions in Social Planning." Journal of
the American Institute of Planners . Vol. XXXI, (November,
Piven, Frances Fox. "Comprehensive Social Planning; Curriculum
Reform or Professional Inperialism. " Journal of the /jnerican
Institute of Planners . Vol. XT-TVI, No. U, (July, 1970),
Van Til, John and Sally B. "Citizen Participation in Social Policy:
The Snd of the Cycle?" Social Problems . Vol. 17, No. 3,
(Uinter, 1970), 313-323.
Altschuler, Alan. The City Planning Process; A Political Analysis .
Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1965.
Angell, Stephen L. Jr. "Coalitions: The Team Approach to Planning
and Development," in Planning 1970 . Chicago: /jnerican Society
of Planning Officials, (1970), 210.
Baver, Raymond A. and Kenneth J. Gergen (eds.). The Study of
Policy FoiTTiation . Neir York: The Free Press, 1968, 370.
Blecher, "Zarl M, Advocacy Planning for Urban Development: TJith
Analysis of Six Demonstration Programs . New York; Praeger
D' Antonio, William V. and Howard J. Ehrlich. Power and Democracy
in America . South Bend; University of Notre Dame Press, 1961.
Don't Mourn, Organize; SDS Guide to Community Organizing . San Fran-
cisco: The Movement Press, (no date given).
Hatch, C. Richard. Urban Action; Planning for Change . Boston; Ginn
and Co., 1970.
Kahn, Alfred J. et. al. Neighborhood Information Centers . NeiJ
York; Columbia University School of Social Uork, 1966.
Lindbloom, Charles E. The Policy-Making Process . Englewood Cliffs,
New JeEsey; Prentice Hall Inc., (1966), 122.
Lyford, Joseph P. The Aiirtight Cage . New York: Harper and Row,
Morris, Robert and Martin Rein, "Hlmerging Patterns in Community
Planning." Urban Planning and Social Policy . A Symposium
edited by Bernard J. Frieden and Robert Morris. New York:
Basic Books, 1968.
6. CPL Exchange Bibliography •;"2hl
Cglesby, Carl £iid ry.chard ochaull. Containment and Change , ilew
York: llacmillan Publishing Co., 1967.
Olson, Ilancur Jr. The Logic of Collective Action; Public Goo ds
and the Theory of Group s, '.lev York: ochocken Books, (156cS), 176.
O.H. Collective. The Organizer's lianual . ileT: York: Bantara Books,
Seeley, John R. ''Central Planning: Prologue to a Critique," Cen-
trally Planned Change; Prospects and Concepts ., (ed.) Kobert
riorris. ileir York: -lational Association of Social h'orkers, IJoIj..
Shelling, Thomas C. The Strategy of Conflict . Cainbridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1963.
Spiegel, Hans B.C. (ed.). Citizen P a rtici pation in Urban Develo p-
ment . Vol. II, T'ashington, D.CT: r!TL Institute for A.pplied
Behavioral Science, (1969), 23U-273.
Contemporary Periodicals and Newsletters
Appleby, Thomas. "Citizen Participation in the '70' s: The Meed to
Turn to Politics." The City. Vol. 5, Ho. 3» (liay/June, 1971),
Arnstein, Sherry R. "But Uliich Advocate Planner?" in Social
Policy, Vol. 1, I!o. 2, (July/. ugust, 1970), 33-31;.
AronOTJitz, Stanley^ Roy Bennettj Bennett W. Berger, and ^dgar Z.
Friedenberg. "A Symposiun: Strategies for Radical Social
Change." Social Policy (lIovember/December, 1970), 9-23.
Caines, Ronald li. "An Invitation to Students /Advocacy Planning
for the Seventies" reprinted from JJierican Institute of
Planners ITeusletter . (no date indicated) .
Davidoff, Linda and Paul. "Advocacy Planning Polarizes the Issues"
in Social Policy, Vol. 1, .Jo. 2, (July/August, 1970), 3ii-35.
Davidoff, Paul, (interviou) . "Community Planning and the Advocate
in the Suburbs" in Planning Comment . Vol. VII, No. 1,
(Winter, 1971), l-lIT
Flacks, Richard. "Strategies for Radical Social Change." Social
Policy, (i larch/April, 1971), 7-lU.
Funnye, Clarence. "The Advocate Planner as Urban Hustler" in
Social Policy , Vol. 1, Ho. 2, (July/;ugust, 1970), 35-37.
Hall, Ridgi-ray li., Jr. "Advocates for the Poor: Legal Services,
Inc." The Hew Republic . Vol. 16U, Ho. 22, (May, 1970), 2U-25.
7. CPL Exchange Bibliography )/2lil
Hartman, Chester, (interview). "Commiinity Planning and the Advo-
cate in the City" in Planning Comment . Vol. VII, No. 1,
(Winter, 1971), 15-22.
Hartman, Chester VJ. "The Advocate PlanneE: From 'Hired Gun' to
Political Partisan" in Social Policy , Vol. 1, No. 2, (July/
August, 1570), 37-38.
Lazarus, Simon. "1*0 's the Boss?" The New Republic . Vol. 16U,
Ho. 22, (May, 1971), 21-23.
Piven, Frances Fox. "Rejoinders Disruption Is Still the Decisive
¥ay" in Social Policy , Vol. 1, No. 2, (July/August, 197C),
Piven, Frances Fox. "Whom Does the Advocate Planner Serve?" in
Social Policy , Vol. 1, No. 1, (May/June, 1970).
Roberts, Thomas H. "Advocacy of Poor and Minority Interests" in
AIP Newsletter , Vol. 6, No. 2, (February, 1971), 2.
Scribner, Sylvia. "What Area for Advocacy?" in Social Policy , Vol.
1, No. 2, (July/August, 1970), 1^0.
Starr, Roger. "Advocators or Planners?" in ASPO Nevjsletter
(American Society of Planning Officials), Vol. 33, Ho. 11,
(December, 1967), 1-2.
Wisner, Ben. "Advocacy and Geography: The Case of Boston's Urban
Planning Aid." Antipodes A Radical Journal of Geography , 2
(August, 1970), 2^::29:
Cahn, 3. and J. Cain. "The War on Poverty; A Civilian Perspective."
73 Yale L.J. 1317-133ii, (196U) .
Katin, 3rnest. "Advocate as Laimaker: Luis Kutner and the Struggle
for Due Process." 23 U. Vilana. L. Rev. 397 (Winter/Spring, 1969).
Note, "Neighborhood Law Offices; The New Wave in Legal Services for
the Poor." 80 Harv. L. Rev . Q0$ (1967).
Robb, John D. Jr. "Poverty Lai;yer's Independence — Battle Cry for
Justice." 1 New Mexico L. Rev . 21^-230 (1971).
Sparer, Howard U., Howard Thorkelson and Jonathan V/eiss. "The Lay
Advocate." i;3 U. of Detroit L.J . ii90 (1966).
Tribbles, L. "Ombudsmen for Local Government? — The Buffalo Ex-
periment." 2 Urban Law 3oh (Summer, 1970).
Warren, E. "Advocate and the i'.dmini strati on of Justice in an Urban
Society." hi Texas L. Rev. 6l$ (March, 1969).
8. GPL Exchange Bibliography #2Ul
Reports and Studies
Carter, Lisle C, Jr. "Law and the Urban Crisis." Division of
Urban Studies, Cornell University, Article 28, 1968.
(reprinted from UCLA Law Reviexr , Vol. 1^, No. h, June, 1968).
Brooks, I'iichael P. Social Planning and City Planning . Planning
Advisory Service Report No. 2ol. Chicago: American Society
of Planning Officials, (September, 1970), :^9-hh*
Davidoff, "The Bluffs: Advocate Planning," Comment . Dept. of City
Planning, University of Pennsylvania, (Spring, 1965), 59.
Finkler, Earl. "Dissent and Independent Initiative in Planning
Offices." Planning Advisory Service , Report No. 269.
Chicago: American Society of Planning Officials (A.S.P.O.)
Hartman, Chester W. and Jon Pynoos. "The Harvard Urban Field Ser-
vice: An Initial Report." The Bulletin of the Association of
Collegiate Schools of Planning , 7 (Spring, 1969) > U-H.
Kravitz, Alan S. "Advocacy and Beyond." Planning 1968 . Chicago:
American Society of Planning Officials, (196i^, 3ii-U6.
Uhlig, Richard. "Planning in the Urban Environment: Next Steps in
Social Research and City Planning," City of Philadelphia
(Technical Report #16, City of Philadelphia Community Research
Program, July, 1965) .
"Urban Extension — A Report on Experimental Programs." Ford
Foundation, Office Reports, I4II Madison Avenue.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. "Services for
People," Report of the Task Force on Organization of Social
Services. Washington, D.C.: 1968. (Duplicated).
Proceedings and Conferences
Fifth Annual Conference of Planners for Equal Opportunity. "The
Planner as Watchdog." (April 17, 1971).
Proceedings of the National Confei'ence on Advocacy and Pluralistic
Planning; Dept. of Urban Affairs, Hunter College, New York.
Proceedings: National Conference on Law and Poverty 97. "The
Extension of Legal Services to the Poor." (I96U) .
COUNCIL OF PLANl^ING LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #2l4l
ADVOCACY PLAiraNG — TOWARD THE DEVELOPMSJiT OF THEORY AND STRATEGY
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