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A COMPREHENSIVE



DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE.



MAINLY ABRIDGED FROM



DR. WM. SMITH'S DICTIONARY OF THE BIB IE,



BUT COMPRISING






IMPORTANT ADDITIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS



FROM TI1E WORKS OF



ROBINSON, GESENTO3, FURST. PAPE, POTT, WINER, KEIL, LANGE, KITTO, FAIRBAIRN

ALEXANDER, BARNES, BUSH, THOMSON, STANLEY, PORTER, TRISTRAM, KING, AYRE,

AND MANY OTHER EMINENT SCHOLARS, COMMENTATORS, TRAVELLERS,

AXD AUTHORS IN VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS.



DESIGNED TO BE

A COMPLETE GUIDE

IN REGARD TO

THE PRONUNCIATION AND SIGNIFICATION OF SCRIPTURAL NAMES ; THE SOLUTION OF DIFFICULTIES RESPECTING

THE INTERPRETATION, AUTHORITY, AND HARMONY OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS ; THE HISTORY

AXD DESCRIPTION OF BIBLICAL CUSTOMS, EVENTS, PLACES, PERSONS, ANIMALS, PLANTS,

MINERALS, AND OTHER THINGS CONCERNING WHICH INFORMATION IS

NEEDED FOR AN INTELLIGENT AXD THOROUGH STUDY OF THE

HOLY SCRIPTURES, AND OF THE BOOKS OF

THE APOCRYPHA.



EDITED BY

REV. SAMUEL W. BARNUM.




ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED MAPS AND ENORAV.'NOS.



NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON & CO., 90, 92 & 94 GRAND STREET.

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN.

18CS.









Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S6T, by

D. APPLETON & CO.

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.



PREFACE.

Dr. William Smith's Dictionary op the Bible, published in 18C0-C3, and containing, in
its three octavo volumes, nearly 3,200 pages, is a work of acknowledged excellence ; but its
size, cost, and scholarly character, unfit it for the use of the great mass of those who need a
Dictionary of the Bible. The Concise Dictionabt of the Bible, abridged from the larger
work, under Dr. Smith's superintendence, by Mr. William A. Wright (1.039 pp., 8vo, 1865),
is well executed in many respects; but it leaves out a large part of the illustrations, references,
tables, and some entire articles ; frequently presupposes a familiar acquaintance with the Script-
ures and with the learned languages ; alters, often unsatisfactorily, the pronunciation of hundreds
of proper names, and plainly evinces a lack of appreciation of the popular necessities. Dr.
Smith's Smaller Dictionary op the Bible (617 pp., crown 8vo, 1866) is characterized, in
general, by the same excellences and faults as the Concise Dictionary, and, while it has about
twenty valuable maps and plates which are not in either of the other works, it is far from
being commensurate with the wants of studious readers of the Bible.

The Comprehensive Dictionary of TnE Bible, which is the fruit of three years of editorial
labor, is a modified abridgment of Smith's larger Dictionary of the Bible, designed to present
the results of modern scholarship in a complete, intelligible, and reliable form for popular use.
It aims to be, in all respects, a Standard Dictionary for the People.

The. general principles which have guided the Editor in the preparation of the present work
are the following : —

I. To make every thing intelligible to those who understand only the English language, and
to place them as nearly as possible on a level with the scholars who are familiar with the origi-
nal languages of the Scriptures.

II. To condense the greatest possible amount of valuable information into one volume of
convenient size and moderate cost

III. To guard against all influences hostile to Christian faith and love.

In carrying out these general principles, the Comprehensive Dictionary is distinguished
from Smith's Dictionaries of the Bible, as well as from most others, in respect to —

1. Pronunciation. This Dictionary presents intelligibly and accurately the results of a dili-
gent and extended examination of the principles, analogies, and prevalent usage in this depart-
ment. In some cases, two different modes of pronunciation are given, each of which has a
foundation of authority or of reason to support it. All the words in the vocabulary are pro-
nounced and divided into syllables, and words or parts of words are also respelled whenever
this is needed to indicate the pronunciation.

2. Etymology. The derivation and signification of the proper names are systematically given
according to the best etymologists.

3. Orthography. The Scriptural names and words in which there are diversities of spelling
are inserted in the vocabulary under the different forms which are prevalent, with a reference
from the less common to the usual form.

4. Geography. Many important additions and corrections have been made in this depart-
ment, giving the results of the latest investigations, identifying the ancient sites according to
the opinions of the best-informed geographers and travellers, supplying numerous maps, plans,
views of places, &c. Among the additions in this volume are the Plan of ancient Ant'och in
Syria after Muller (from Conybeare & Howson's Life and Epistles of St. Paul), the Maps of
Arabia and Egypt (from Cassell's Bible Dictionary), the Map of the Jordan (from Tristram's

267902



iv PREFACE.

Land of Israel), the two maps of Palestine (the first from Smith's Smaller Dictionary, the other
from Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge), and the Map of the Countries visited by the Apostle
Paul (from the last edition of Kitto's Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature). In most other cases
the authorities are given with the map or other important addition.

5. History of Cities and Countries. Many articles in Smith's Dictionaries of the Bible pre-
suppose the reader's access to Smith's Dictionary of Geography, &c, and thus omit important
historical facts which the Comprehensive Dictionary briefly supplies.

6. Theology and Church Order. This Dictionary aims, without inculcating either sectarian
or latitudiuarian views, to assist its readers in ascertaining for themselves the teachings of the
Bible in regard to religious doctrines and ecclesiastical organization. It carries into this depart-
ment of Biblical investigation the feature, which Smith's Dictionary adopts in respect to nat-
ural-history terms and some others, of giving the Hebrew and Greek equivalents of the English
words with their exact significations and uses.

7. Consistency of the Dictionary with itself. While no important opinion has been suppressed
and no real difficulty evaded, great care has been taken to harmonize with the best authorities
and with one another, if possible, the oft-conflicting opinions and statements of different writers
in Smith's Dictionary, or to provide for each having its own proper influence by inserting
cross-references and notes, and often giving the name of the original contributor in connection
with his opinion or statement or article.

8. References. The Scripture references of Smith's Dictionary have been diligently collated,
often corrected, and in some articles considerably increased in number. The multitude of new
cross-references to other articles in this Dictionary will greatly facilitate the finding of the in-
formation contained in the work.

9. Additions to the original icorlc. Many new articles have been added, and numerous addi-
tions have been made to other articles, in order to give greater value and completeness to this
Dictionary. One-third of the cuts and most of the maps are from other sources than Smith's ,
Dictionaries. The additions and modifications in every part of this volume, and on every
subject in it, make it, indeed, almost a new work.

10. Authorities. The new matter has been drawn from a wide range of first-class authori-
ties. The title-page and list of abbreviations give the names of a few only out of the more
than 200 writers whose productions in various forms have been laid under contribution for the
improvement of this Dictionary. Much use has been made, not only of Dictionaries of the
Bible, Concordances, Lexicons, Commentaries, Cyclopaedias, Books of Travel, and other bound
volumes of the highest character, but also of elaborate essays and reviews in various periodi-
cals. Valuable aid in several departments has been received from officers of Yale College.
From these and other sources, many of which are mentioned in the body of the work, the
Editor has obtained the needed material to make this " A Comprehensive Dictionary of the
Bible."

11. Engravings. It is believed that no Dictionary of the Bible is so well illustrated; but
its abundant Pictorial Illustrations, as well as its numerous Maps, are intended for instruction
and general utility rather than for mere ornament.

12. Typography. The large and open page, legible type, and accurate and beautiful me-
chanical execution, need no commendation.

To all who have aided him in the prosecution of his labors, and especially to the President
and Librarian of Yale College, for the unrestricted use of the College Library, the Editor
would return his hearty thanks.

That the preparation and publication of this volume may promote the cause of true reli-
gion and sound Biblical learning, is the earnest desire and prayer of

THE EDITOR.
New Haven, June 4, 1668.



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ORIGINAL WORK.



Very Rev. HENRY ALFORD, D. D., Dean of Canterbury; Author of an edition of the Greek Testa-
ment with a critical and exegetical Commentary.

Rev. HENRY BAILEY, B. D., Warden of St. Augustine's College, Canterbury.

Rev. ALFRED BARRY, B. D., Principal of Cheltenham College.

Rev. WILLIAM L. BEVAN, M. A., Vicar of Hay.

Rev. JOSEPH W. BLAKESLEY, B. D., Canon of Canterbury.

Rev. HORATIUS BONAR, D. D., Kelso ; Author of " The Land of Promise," " The Desert of Si-
nai," &c.

Rev. THOMAS E. BROWN, M. A., Vice-Principal of King William's College, Isle of Man.

Ven. ROBERT W. BROWNE, M. A., Archdeacon of Bath.

Right Rev. E. HAROLD BROWNE, D. D., Lord Bishop of Ely.

Rev. WILLIAM T. BULLOCK, M. A., Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

Rev. SAMUEL CLARK, M. A., Vicar of Bredwardine with Brobury.

Rev. F. C. COOK, M. A., Canon of Exeter.

Right Rev. GEORGE E. L. COTTON, D. D., Lord Bishop of Calcutta.

Rev. J. LLEWELYN DA VIES, M. A., Rector of Christ Church, Marylebone.

Rev. GEORGE E. DAY, D. D., Prof, of Hebrew and Biblical Theology, Yale College, New Haven, Ct.

EMANUEL DEUTSCH, M. R. A. ft, University of Berlin, and British Museum.

Rev. WILLIAM DRAKE, M. A., Hon. Canon of Worcester.

Rev. EDWARD P. EDDRUP, M. A., Principal of the Theological College, Salisbury.

Right Rev. CHARLES J. ELLICOTT, D. D., Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol; Author of "A
Critical and Grammatical Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles," &c.

Rev. FREDERICK W. FARRAR, M. A., Assistant Master of Harrow School.

JAMES FERGUSSON, F. R. S., F. R. A. S., Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects; Author
of l; Essay on the Anc. Topography of Jerusalem," " Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored," &c.

EDMUND S. FFOULKES, M. A., late Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford.

Right Rev. WILLIAM FITZGERALD, D. D., Lord Bishop of Killaloe.

Rev. FRANCIS GARDEN', M. A., Subdean of the Chapel Royal.

Rev. F. W. GOTCH, LL. D., Hebrew Examiner, University of London ; President of the Baptist College,
Bristol.

GEORGE GROVE, Crystal Palace, Sydenham.

Rev. HORATIO B. HACKETT, D. D., Prof, of Biblical Literature, Newton, Mass. ; Author of " A Com-
mentary < n tie Original Text of the Acts of the Apostles," " Illustrations of Scripture," &c.

Rev. ERNEST HAWKINS, B. D., Canon of Westminster.

Rev. HENRY HAYMAN, M. A., Head Master of the Grammar School, Cheltenham.

Ven. LORD ARTHUR C. HERVEY, M. A., Archdeacon of Sudbury and Rector of Ickworth ; Author of
" Genealogies of our Lord Jesus Christ."

Rev. JAMES A. HESSEY, D. C. L., Head Master of Merchant Tailors' School, Preacher to the Hon.
Society of Gray's Inn; Prebendary of St. Paul's; Hampton Lecturer for 1860.

JOSEPil D. HOOKER, M. D., F. R. S., Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Rev JAMES J. HORNBY, M. A., Principal of Bishop Cosin's Hall.

Rev. WILLIAM HOUGHTON, M. A., F. L. S., Rector of Preston on the Weald Moors, Salop.



iv PREFACE.

Land of Israel), the two maps Of Palestine (the first from Smith's Smaller Dictionary, the other
from Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge), and the Map of the Countries visited by the Apostle
Paul (from the last edition of Kitto's Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature). In most other cases
the authorities are given with the map or other important addition.

5. History of Cities and Countries. Many articles in Smith's Dictionaries of the Bible pre-
suppose the reader's access to Smith's Dictionary of Geography, &c, and thus omit important
historical facts which the Comprehensive Dictionary briefly supplies.

6. Theology and Church Order. This Dictionary aims, without inculcating either sectarian
or latitudinarian views, to assist its readers in ascertaining for themselves the teachings of the
Bible in regard to religious doctrines and ecclesiastical organization. It carries into this depart-
ment of Biblical investigation the feature, which Smith's Dictionary adopts in respect to nat-
ural-history terms and some others, of giving the Hebrew and Greek equivalents of the English
words with their exact significations and uses.

7. Consistency of the Dictionary with itself. While no important opinion has been suppressed
and no real difficulty evaded, great care has been taken to harmonize with the best authorities
and with one another, if possible, the oft-conflicting opinions and statements of different writers
in Smith's Dictionary, or to provide for each having its own proper influence by inserting
cross-references and notes, and often giving the name of the original contributor in connection
with his opinion or statement or article.

8. Reference*. The Scripture references of Smith's Dictionary have been diligently collated,
often corrected, and in some articles considerably increased in number. The multitude of new
cross-references to other articles in this Dictionary will greatly facilitate the finding of the in-
formation contained in the work.

9. Additions to the original work. Many new articles have been added, and numerous addi-
tions have been made to other articles, in order to give greater value and completeness to this
Dictionary. One-third of the cuts and most of the maps are from other sources than Smith's _
Dictionaries. The additions and modifications in every part of this volume, and on every
subject in it, make it, indeed, almost a new work.

10. Authorities. The new matter has been drawn from a wide range of first-class authori-
ties. The title-page and list of abbreviations give the names of a few only out of the more
than 200 writers whose productions in various forms have been laid under contribution for the
improvement of this Dictionary. Much use has been made, not only of Dictionaries of the
Bible, Concordances, Lexicons, Commentaries, Cyclopaedias, Books of Travel, and other bound
volumes of the highest character, but also of elaborate essays and reviews in various periodi-
cals. Valuable aid in several departments has been received from officers of Yale College.
From these and other sources, many of which are mentioned in the body of the work, the
Editor has obtained the needed material to make this " A Comprehensive Dictionary of the
Bible."

11. Engravings. It is believed that no Dictionary of the Bible is so well illustrated; but
its abundant Pictorial Illustrations, as well as its numerous Maps, are intended for instruction
and general utility rather than for mere ornament.

12. Typography. The large and open page, legible type, and accurate and beautiful me-
chanical execution, need no commendation.

To all who have aided him in the prosecution of his labors, and especially to the President
and Librarian of Yale College, for the unrestricted use of the College Library, the Editor
would return his hearty thanks.

That the preparation and publication of this volume may promote the cause of true reli-
gion and sound Biblical learning, is the earnest desire and prayer of

THE EDITOR.
New Haves, June 4, 1668.



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ORIGINAL WORK.



Very Rev. HEN r RY ALFORD, D. D., Dean of Canterbury; Author of an edition of the Greek Testa-
ment with a critical and exegelical Commentary.

Rev. HENRY BAILEY, B. D., Warden of St. Augustine's College, Canterbury.

Rev. ALFRED BARRY, B. D., Principal of Cheltenham College.

Rev. WILLIAM L. BEVAN, If. A., Vicar of Hay.

Rev. JOSEPH W. BLAKESLEY, B. D., Canon of Canterbury.

Rev. HORATIUS BONAR, D. D., Kelso; Author of "The Land of Promise," "The Desert of Si-
nai," &c.

Rev. THOMAS E. BROWN, M. A., Vice-Principal of King William's College, Isle of Man.

Ven. ROBERT W. BROWNE, M. A., Archdeacon of Bath.

Right Rev. E. HAROLD BROWNE, D. D., Lord Bishop of Ely.

Rev. WILLIAM T. BULLOCK, M. A., Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

Rev. SAMUEL CLARK, M. A., Vicar of Bredwardine with Brobury.

Rev. F. C. COOK, M. A., Canon of Exeter.

Right Rev. GEORGE E. L. COTTON, D. D., Lord Bishop of Calcutta.

Rev. J. LLEWELYN DA VIES, M. A., Rector of Christ Church, Marvlebone.

Rev. GEORGE E. DAY, D. D., Prof, of Hebrew anJ Biblical Theology, Yale College, New Haven, Ct.

EMANUEL DEUTSCH, M. R. A. S., University of Berlin, and British Museum.

Rev. WILLIAM DRAKE, M. A., Hon. Canon of Worcester.

Rev. EDWARD P. EDDRUP, M. A., Principal of the Theological College, Salisbury.

Right Rev. CHARLES J. ELLICOTT, D. D., Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol ; Author of " A
Critical and Grammatical Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles," &c.

Rev. FREDERICK W. FARRAR, M. A., Assistant Master of Harrow School.

JAMES FERGUSSON, F. R. S., F. R. A. S., Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects; Author
of l; Essay on the Anc. Topography of Jerusalem," " Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored," &c.

EDMUND S. FFOULKES, M. A., late Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford.

Right Rev. WILLIAM FITZGERALD, D. D., Lord Bishop of Killaloe.

Rev. FRANCIS GARDEN", M. A., Subdean of the Chapel Royal.

Rev. F. W. GOTCH, LL. D., Hebrew Examiner, University of London ; President of the Baptist College,
Bristol.

GEORGE GROVE, Crystal Palace, Sydenham.

Rev. HORATIO B. HACKETT, D. D., Prof, of Biblical Literature, Newton, Mass. ; Author of " A Com-
mentary en fie Original Text of the Acts of the Apostles," " Illustrations of Scripture," &c.

Rev. ERNEST HAWKINS, B. D., Canon of Westminster.

Rev. HENRY HAYMAN, M. A., Head Master of the Grammar School, Cheltenham.

Ven. LORD ARTHUR C. HERVEY, II A., Archdeacon of Sudbury and Rector of Ickworth ; Author of
" Genealogies of our Lord Jesus Christ."

Rev. JAMES A. HESSEY, D. C. L., Head Master of Merchant Tailors' School, Preacher to the Hon.
Society of Gray's Inn; Prebendary of St. Paul's; Bampton Lecturer for 1860.

JOSEPH D. HOOKER, M. D., F. R. S., Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Rev JAMES J. HORNBY, M. A., Principal of Bishop Cosin's Hall.

Rev. WILLIAM HOUGHTON, M. A., F. L. S., Rector of Preston on the Weald Moors, Salop.



vi LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ORIGINAL WORK.

Rev. JOHN S. HOWSON, D. D., Principal of the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool ; Hulsean Leclurer for
1863 ; Joint-Author with Rev. W. J. Conybeare of " The Life and Epistles of St. Paul."

Rev. EDGAR HUXTABLE, M. A., Subdean of Wells.

Rev. W. BASIL JONES, M. A., Prebendary of York and of St. David's.

AUSTEN H. LAYARD, D. C. L., M. P., Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ; Author of " Nineveh
and its Remains,'' "Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon," &c.

Rev. STANLEY LEATHES, M. A., M. R. S. L., Prof, of Hebrew, King's College, London.

Rev. JOSEPH B. LIGHTFOOT, M. A., Hulsean Prof, of Divinity, Cambridge.

Rev. D. W. MARKS, Prof, of Hebrew, University College, London.

Rev. FREDERICK MEYRICK, M. A., One of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools.

Prof. JULES OPPERT, of Paris ; Author (in French) of an Assyrian Grammar, Annals of Sargon,
Chronology of Babylon and Assyria, French Scientific Expedition in Mesopotamia, &c.

Rev. EDWARD R. ORGER, M. A., Fellow and Tutor of St. Augustine's College, Ca»terbury.

Ven. THOMAS J. ORMEROD, M. A., Archdeacon of Suffolk.

Rev. JOHN J. S. PEROWNE, B. D., Vice-Principal of St. David's College, Lampeter.

Rev. THOMAS T. PEROWNE, B. D., Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

Rev. HENRY W. PHILLOTT, M. A., Rector of Staunton-on-Wye.

Rev. EDWARD H. PLUMPTRE, M. A., Prof, of Divinity, King's College, London.

E. STANLEY POOLE, M. R. A. S., South Kensington Museum.

R. STUART POOLE, M. R. S. L., British Museum ; Author of " Horse jEgyptiacae," " Genesis of the
Earth and of Man," ic.

Rev. J. LESLIE PORTER, M. A., Author of " Handbook of Syria and Palestine." " Five Years in Damas-
cus," &c. ; Prof, of Sacred Literature, Assembly's College, Belfast.

Rev. CHARLES PRITCHARD, M. A., F. R. S., Hon. Secretary of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Rev. GEORGE RAWLINSON, M. A., Camden Prof, of Ancient History, Oxford ; Bampton Lecturer for
1859 ; Author of a new English version of the History of Herodotus, with Notes and Appendices, " The
Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient World," &c.

Rev. HENRY J. ROSE, B. D., Rector of Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire.

Rev. WILLIAM SELWYN, D. D., Lady Margaret's Prof, of Divinity, Cambridge.

WILLIAM SMITH, LL. D. (Editor), Classical Examiner in the University of London.

Rev. ARTHUR P. STANLEY, D. D., Regius Prof, of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford ; Dean of Westminster ;
Author of " Sinai and Palestine," " History of the Eastern Church," &c.

Rev. CALVIN E. STOW T E, D. D., Hartford, Ct. ; late Prof, of Sacred Literature, Andover, Mass.

Rev. JOSEPH P. THOMPSON, D. D.. Pastor of the Broadway Tabernacle Chuich, New York ; Author
of " Egypt, Past and Present," &c.

Most Rev.W'ILLIAM THOMSON, D. D., Lord Archbishop of York.

Rev. JOSEPH F. THRUPP, M. A., Vicar of Barrington.

SAMUEL P. TREGELLES, LL. D., Author of " An Account of the Printed Text of the Greek Testa-
ment," a critical edition of the Greek New Testament, &c.

Rev. n. B. TRISTRAM, M. A., F. L. S., Master of Greatham Hospital; Author of "The Land of
Israel."

Hon. EDWARD T. B. TWISTLETON, M. A., late Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.

Rev. EDMUND VENABLES, M. A., Bonchurch, Isle of Wight.

Rev. BROOKE F. WESTCOTT, M. A., Assistant Master of Harrow School ; Author of " Introduction to
the Study of the Gospels."

Rev. CHRISTOPHER WORDSWORTH, D. D., Archdeacon and Canon of Westminster ; Author of a Com-
mentary on the Bible.

WILLIAM ALDIS WRIGHT, M. A., Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge ; Hebrew Examiner in the
University of London.



A COMPKEHENSIVE



DICTIONAKY OF THE BIBLE.



A

A'a-lar. Addan.

Aaron [air'on] (fr. Htb. = mountaineer? Geg. ;
enliifhtttied, Fii.), the brother of Moses and Miriam,
and son of Amrara and Joehebed (Num. xxvi. 59,
xxxiii. 39). He was three years older than Moses,
and probably several years younger than Miriam (Ex.
ii. 4, vii. 7). He is first mentioned in Ex. iv. 14, as
" Aaron the Levite," who " could speak well." He
was apparently, like many eloquent men, impulsive
and comparatively unstable, leaning almost wholly
on his brother ; incapable of that endurance of lone-
liness and temptation, which is an element of real
greatness ; but earnest in his devotion to God and
man, capable of sacrifice and of discipline by trial,
and deservedly styled " the saint of the Lord " (Ps.
cvi. 16). He was appointed by Jehovah to be the
Interpreter and " Mouth " (Ex. iv. 16) of Moses,
who was " slow of speech ; " and accordingly he was
not only the organ of communication with the Israel-
ites and with Pharaoh (Ex. iv. 30, vii. 2), but also
the actual instrument of working most of the mir-
acles of the Exodus. (See Ex. vii. 19, &c.) Thus
on the way to Mount Sinai, during the battle with
Amalek, Aaron with Hur held up the weary hands
of Moses, when they were lifted up for the victory of
Israel, not in prayer, but to bear the rod of God
(Ex. xvii. 9). Through all this period he was sub-
ordinate to his brother. At Sinai, Aaron only ap-
proaches with Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy eld-
ers of Israel, by special command, near enough to see
God's glory, but not so as to enter His immediate
presence. Left then, on Moses' departure, to guide
the people, Aaron fails to withstand the demand of
the people for visible " gods to go before them "
(see Ex. xxxii. ; Calf ; Idolatry). There can hard-
ly 1 e a stronger contrast with this weakness, and
the self-convicted shame of his excuse, than the
burning indignation of Moses, and his stern, decisive



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA comprehensive dictionary of the Bible .. → online text (page 1 of 326)