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William Smith.

A dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history online

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cheek pieces, throat-Lnsh, head stall and straps
across the forehead aud nose. A beai"ing;-rein was
fastened to a ring or hook in front of the saddle,
and the driving-reins passed through other rings



on each side of both horees. From the centi^al
point of the saddle rose a short stem of metal,
ending in a knob, whetiier for use or mere orna-
ment is not certain. The driver stood on the
off-side, and in discharging his arrow hung his



CHARIOT

whip from the wrist. In some instances the king
is represented alone in his chariot with the reins
fastened round his body, thus using his weapons witK
his hands at liberty. Most commonly % persons,
and sometimes 3 rode in the chariot, of whom the
third was employed to cany the state umbrella
(2K. ix.20, 24; 1 K.xxii. 34; Acts viii. 38). A
second chariot usually accompanied the king to
battle to be used in case of necessity (2 Chr. xxv. 34).

On peaceable occasions the Egyptian gentleman
sometimes drore alone in his chariot attended by
servants on foot. The horses wore housings to
protect them from heat and insects. For royal ])cr~
sonages and women of rank an umbrella was carried
by a bearer, or fixed upiight in the chariot. Some-
times mules were driven instead of horses, and_ in
travelling sometimes oxen, but for travelling pur-
poses the sides of the chariot appear to have been
closed. One instance occurs of a 4-wheeled cai-,
which, like the tzt^q.kvkKos &fia^a (Herod, ii. 63),
was used for religious pui"poses. [Cart.] The
processes of manufacture of chariots and harness are
fully illustrated by existing sculptm'es, in which
• also are represented the chariots used by neighbour-
ing nations (Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, i. p. 368,
386 ; ii. p. 75, 76, 2nd Ed.).

The earlier Assyrian war chariot and harness did
not differ essentially from the Egyptian. Two or
three persons stood in the car, but the driver is
sometimes represented as standing on the near side,
whilst a 3rd wanior in the chariot held a shield to
protect the archer in discharging his arrow. The
car appears to have had closed sides. The war
chariot wheels had 6 spokes ; the state or peace
chariot 8 or more, and a 3rd person in state-pro-
cessions carried the royal umbrella. A 3rd horse,
like the Greek wapijopos, was generally attachQd
(Layard, Nineveh, ii. 350").



CHEBAR



297




Aesyrian churiot.

In later times the 3rd hoi-se was laid aside, the
wheels were made higher, and had 8 spokes : and
the front of the car, to which the quiver was re-
moved from its former side position, was made
square instead of round. The cars were more
highly ornamented, panelled, and inlaid with va-
luable woods and metals, and painted. The em-
broidered housings in which in earlier times the
horses were clothed, were laid aside, and plumes
and tassels used to decorate their necks and fore-
■ heads. (Layard, Nineveh, ii. 353, 356 ; Nineveh
and Babylon, 341, 587, 603, 618 ; Mon. of Nin.
2ud series, pi. 24; Ez. xxvii. 20).

The Persian art, as appears from the sculptures
at Persepolis, and also at Koyounjik, shows great
similaiity to the Assyrian ; but the procession re-
presented at the former place contains a chai'iot or
car with wheels of 12 spokes, while from the sculp-
tures at the latter, it appears that the Elamites, or



Persians, besides chariots containing 2 pi^rsons
which were sometimes drawn by 4 horses, used
a kind of cart drawn by a single mule or
more, consisting of a stage on high wheels ca-
pable of holding 5 or 6 persons, of whom the
driver sat on a low stool, with his legs hanging on
each side of the pole. (Xenoph. Cyrop. iv. 3, 1,
and 2, §23; Is. xxii. 6; Ez. xxiii. 24; Niebuhr,
Voyage, ii. 105'; Chardin, Voyage, viii. 257, PI.
lix. ; Layard, Nin. ^ Bah. 447449; Olearius,
Travels, p. 302.)




Assyrian chariot.

Chariots anned with scythes (Hpixara Speiravf}-
tpopa, Xen. Anah. i. 7, §10) may perhaps be in-
tended by the "chariots of iron" of the Canaan-
ites ; they are mentioned as pai-t of the equipment
of Antioclius (2 Mac. xiii. 2), and of Dariiis (Diod.
Sic. xvii. 53 ; Appian. Syr. .32). Xenophon men-
tions a Persian chariot with 4 poles and 8 horses
{Cyrop. vi. 4).

Among the parts of wheeled-cairiages mentioned
in A. V. are, 1. the Wheels, D''3SiX,S|oj/'€j, rote;
also D'?37J ; rpoxol, rotae. 2. Spokes, D'"lB'n,
radii. 3. Nayes, D'33 ; modioli. 4. Felloes,
□'•pK'n ; i/QjTot ; apsides. 5. Axles, Hn* ; X"P^^ j
axes. To put the hoi-ses to the carriage, ^DX •
CeEIcu ; jungere ; and once (Mic. i. 13), Dn"l.

The Persian custom of sacrificing horses to the
Sun (Xen. Cyrop. Tiii. 3, 12), seems to have led
to offerings of chariots and horses for the same
object among the Jewish monai-chs who fell into
idolatry (Ez. viii. 17; 2 K. xxiii. 11; P. della
Valle, XV. ii. p. 255 ; Winer, Wagen). [H. W. P.]

CHAR'MIS(Xap/iis; Ahx.Xa^nds; Charmi),
son of Melchiel, one of the three " ancients " (irp^a-
Pirepoi), or "rulers" (S/Jxoj/Tes) of Bethulia
(Jud. vi. 15, viii. 10, x. 6).

CHAE'KAN {Xappav ; Charan), Acts vii. 2, 4.
[Haran.]

CHASE. [Hunting.]

CHAS'EBA {Xcureffd ; Casebd), a name among
the Ust of the " Servants of the Temple " (1 Esd.
V. 31), which has nothing con-esponding to it in
Ezra and Nehemiah, and is probably a mere corrup-
tion of that succeeding it — Gazera.

CHB'BAB (naS ; Xopdp ; Chobar), a river in
the " laud of the Chaldaeans " (Ez. i. 3), on the
banks of which some of the Jews were located at
the time of the captivity, and where Ezeldel saw
his earlier visions (Ez. i. 1, iii. 15, 23, &c.). It
is commonly regarded as identical with the Habor
(^il^), or river of Gozan, to which some portion
of the Israelites were removed by the Assyrians



298



CHEBEL



(2 K. xvii. 6), But this is a mere conjecture, rest-
ing wholly upon the similarity of name ; which
after all is not very close. It is perhaps better to
suppose the two streams distinct, more especially if
we regai-d the Habor as the ancient 'A^o^^as (mo-
dem Khabour)^ which fell into the Euphrates at
Circesium ; for in the Old Testament the nanoe of
Chaldaea is never extended so far northwards. The
Chebar of Ezekiel must be looked for in Babylonia.
It is a name which might properly have been given
to any great stream (comp. ^23, greaf). Perhaps

the view, which finds some support in Pliny {II.
N. vi. 26), and is adopted by Bochart {Phaleg, i.
8) and Cellarius (Geograph. c. 22), that the Che-
bar of Ezekiel is the Nahr Malcha or Royal Canal
of Nebuchadnezzai- — the greatest of all the cuttings
in Mesopotamia — may be regai-ded as best desennng
acceptance. In that case we may suppose the
Jewish captives to have been employed in the exca-
vation of the channel. That Chaldaea, not upper
Mesopotamia, was the scene of Ezekiel's preaching,
is indicated by the ti;adition which places his tomb
at Keffil (Loftus's Chaldaea, p. 35). [G. R.]

CHE'BEL (bnn), one of the singular topo-
graphical terms in which the ancient Hebrew lan-
guage abounded, and which give so much force and
precision to its records. The ordinary meaning of
the word Chehel is a " rope " or " cord ;" and in this
sense it frequently occurs both literally (as Josh. ii.
15, " cord ;" 1 K. xxx. 31, " ropes ;" Is. xxxiii. 23,
"tacklings;" Am. vii. 17, "line") and metapho-
rically (as Eccl. xii. 6 ; Is. y. 18 ; Hos. xi. 4).
From this it has passed — with a curious corre-
spondence to our own modes of speech — to denote a
body of men, a " band" (as in Ps. cxix. 61). In
1 Sam, X, 5, 10, our word " string" would not
be inappropriate to the circumstances — ** a string
of prophets coming down from the high place."
Fui-ther it is found in other metaphorical senses,
arising out of its original meaning (as Job xviii. 10 ;
Ps. xviii. 4; Jer. xiii. 21). From the idea of a
measuring-line (Mic. ii. 5), it has come to mean a
"portion" or "allotment" (as 1 Chr. xvi. 18;
Ps. cv. 11 ; Ez. xlvii. 13). It is the word used in
the familiar passage " the lines * ai"e fallen unto
me in pleasant places" (Ps. xvi. 6). But in its
topographical sense, as meaning a *' tract " or
" district," we find it always attached to the region
of Argob, which is invariably designated by this,
and by no other term (Deut. iii. 4, 13, 14 ; IK.
iv. 13). It has been already shown how exactly
applicable it is to the circumstances of the case.
[Argob.] But in addition to the obsei-vations there
made, the reader should be refeired to the report of
the latest traveller in those interesting regions, who
abundantly confirms the statements of his prede-
cessors as to the abrupt definiteness of the boundary
of the district. (Mr. C. C. Graham, in Cambridge
Essays, 1858.) No clue is aflPorded us to the reason
of this definite localization of the term Chehel ; but
a compaiison of the, fact that Ai*gob was taken
possession of by Manasseh — a pai't of the gi-eat
tribe of Joseph — with the use of this word by tliat
tribe, and by Joshua in his retort, in the very early
and characteristic fi'agmeut, Josh. xvii. 5, 14 (A. V.
"poi-tion"), prompts the suggestion that it may
have been a provinciaHsm in use amongst that large



» The use of the word in this sense in our own idiom-
atic expression — " hard lines " — will not be forgotten.
Other correspondences hetween Chehel as applied to



CHEDORLAOMER

and independent part of Isi-ael. Should this be
thought untenable, its application to tlie " rocky
shore " of Argob may be illustrated and justified
by its use (Zeph. ii. 5-7; A. V. " coast") for the
" coast line" of the Mediterranean along Philistia.
In connexion with the sea-shore it is also employal
in Josh. xix. 29.

The words used for Chehel in the older vei-sions
are (Txoivto'fia, ireplfierpov, ir^pixtapov ; regio,
funiculus. [G.]

CHEDOELA'OMER (^pV^inS ; XoZoWo-
yofi6p; C/wdorlahomor), a king of Elam, in the
time of Abraham, who with three other chiefs
made war upon the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah,
Admah, Zeboim, and Zoai-, and reduced them to
servitude. For twelve yeai-s he retained his hold
over them ; in the thii-teenth they rebelled ; in the
next year, however, he and his allies maiched upon
theu' country, and after defeating many neighbour-
ing tribes, encountered the five kings of the plain
in the vale of Siddim. He completely routed them ;
slew the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah, and carried
away much spoil, together with the family of Lot.
Chedorlaomer seems to have perished in the i-escue,
which was efiected by Abraham upon heaiing of
the captivity of his nephew (Gen. xiv. 17). Ac-
cording to Gesenius, the meaning of the word may

be "handful of sheaves, from %.^f kandfid and
1?0y, sheaf f but this is unsatisfactory. The name
of a Ling is found upon the bricks recently dis-
covered in Chaldaea, which is read Kudur-ma-
pula. . This man has been supposed to be identical
with Chedorlaomer, and the opinion is confirmed
by the fact that he is further distinguished by a
title which may be translated " Ravager of the
west." " As however one type alone of his legends
has been discovered," says Col. Rawlinson, "it is
impossible to pronounce at present on the identifi-
cation. The second element in the name * Chedor-
laomer ' is of course distinct from that in * Kudur-
mapula.' Its substitution may be thus accounted
for. In the names of Babylonian kings the latter
portion is often dropped. Thus Shalmaneser be-
comes Shalman in Hoshea ; Merodach-bal~adan
becomes Mardocempal, &c. Kudur-mapulami^i
therefore become known as Kudur simply. The

epithet 'el Ahmar,' y.j.£>^|, which means the

Red, may aftenvai'ds have been added to the name,
and may have been corrupted into Laomer, which,
as the orthography now stands, has no apparent
meaning. Kedar-el- Ahmar, or *Kedar the Red,'
is in fact a famous hero in Arabian tradition, and
his history beai-s no inconsiderable resemblance to
the Scripture naii*ative of Chedor-laomer. It is
also very possible that the second element m the
name of Chedor-laomer, whatever be its trae fonn,
may be a Semitic ti-anslation of the original Hamite
term mapula.** " Chedorlaomer may have been
the leader of certain immigi-ant Chaldaean Elamites
who founded the gi-eat Chaldaean empire of Bevosus
in the eai'ly part of the 20th century B.C., while
Amraphel and Arioch, the Hamite kings of Shinar
and EUasai', who fouglit under his bannei- in the
Sjniau wai- as suboixliuate chiefe, and Tidal, who led
a contingent of Median Scyths belonging to the old
population, may have been the local govemoi-s who



measurement, andom- own words " rod," and " chain,"
and also " cord," as applied in the provinces and colo-
nies, to solid measure of wood, &c., are obvious



CHEESE

hrd submitted to his power when he invaded Chal-
daea" (Rawlinson's Herod., i. 436, 446). [S. L.]
CHEESE is mentioned only three tim-es in the
Bible, and on eacli occasion under a different name
in the Hebrew: (1.) HJUJ, from )aa, to curdle
(Job X. 10), referred to, not historically, but by
way of illustration : (2.) J'nn, from J'^PI, to cut
(rpvcfiaKitis ToC yihax-ros, LXX. ; formellae casei,
Vulg., 1 Sam. xyii. 18) ; the Chaldee and Syriac give
|31'13 . Hesychlus explains 'rpv(paKi^^s as rfj-iifiara
rov airaKov Tvpov : (3.) 1p3 fliSB', from nSB*,

to scrape (2£t(f)iifl ^oai/, LXX. ; cheese of lane, A. V.
2 Sam. xvii. 29 : the Vulgate, following Theodo-
tion's rendering, yaXa.Q'f}vh f^otrxiipit^, gLves pi'ngues
vitulos, guided by the position of the words after
" sheep " : the Targum and other Jewish authorities,
however, identify the substance with those men-
tioned above). It is difficult to decide how fai" these
terms correspond with our notion of cheese • for
they simply express various degrees of coagulation.
It may be observed that cheese is not at the present
day comiuon among the Bedouin Arabs, butter
being decidedly preferred ; but there i."? a substance,
closely con'esponding to those mentioned in 1 Sam.
xvii. ; 2 Sam. xvii., consisting of coagulated butter-
milk, which is dried until it becomes quite hard, and
is then ground : the Arabs eat it mixed with butter
(Burclihardt, Notes on the Bedouins, i. 60). In
reference to this subject, it is noticeable that the
ancients seem generally to have used either butter
or cheese, but not both : thus the Greeks had in
reality but one expression for the two, for j6oi5tu-
pof/ = ^ov3, Tup6s, "cheese of kine;" the Romans
used cheese exclusively, while all nomad tribes
prefen'ed butter. The distinction between cheese
proper, and coagulated milk, seems to be refen-e»l
to in Pliny, xi. 96. [W. L. B.]

CHE'LAL (^^3 ; Xa\^\ ; Clialal), Ezr. x. 30.

CHELCI'AS (XeAKiai, i. e. n>J>bri, the por-
tion of the Lord, Hilkiah ; ffekias), the father
of Sus."uma (IKst. of Sus, 2, 29, 63.). Tradition
(Hippol. in Susann. i. 689, ed. Migne) represents
him as the brother of Jeremiah, and identical with the
priest who found the copy of the law in the time of
Josiah (2 K. xxii. 8). [B. F. W.]

CHEL'LIANS, THE (Jud. ii. 23). [Chel-
i.us.]

CHEL'LUH (>nfo. Ken, info; XeAki'k ;
Cheliau), Ezr. x. 35.

CHEL'LUS {XeKKois; Alex. XeXotis; Vulg.
omits), named amongst the places beyond {i. e. on
the west of) Jordan to which Nabuchodonosor sent
his summons (Jud. i. 9). Except its mention with
*' Kades " there is no clue to its situation. Reland
{Pal. 1\1^ conjectures that it may be Chalutza,
nV-vPI, a place which, under the altered foi-m of
Etusa, wa,s well known to the Roman and Greek geo-
graphers. With this agrees the subsequent mention
of the " land of the Chellians " (ttjs XeWaluv, terra
Cellon), " by the wilderness," to the south of whom
were the children of Ishmael (Jud. ii. 23). [G.]

CHE'LOD {XfXeodx ; Alex. XeKeoiS ; Vulg.
omits). "Many nations of the sons, of Chelod"
were among those who obeyed the summons of Na-
buchodonosor to his war with Arphaxad (.Jud. i.



CHENANI



299



6). The word is apparently corrupt. Simom's
suggests XdKcov, perh. Ctesiphon, Ewald con-
jectures it to be a nickname for the Syrians, ** sons
of the moles" nVn {Gesch. iv. 543),

CHE'LUB (1-1^3). 1. A man among the de-
scendants of Judah, described as the brother of
Shuah and the father of Mechir. (In the LXX.
the name is given as Caleb, XaA.ej8, the father of
Ascha ; the daughter of the well-known Caleb was
Achsah ; Vulg. Caleb.)

2. (3 Xe\o6$, Chelub). Ezri the son of Che-
lub was the overseer of those who " did the work of
the field for tillage of the ground," one of David's
officers (1 Chr. xxvii. 26).

CHEL'UBAI (^l-lSs ; 3 Xa\4^', Cahbz), the

son of Hezron, of one of the chief famihes of Judah.
The name occurs in 1 Chr. ii. 9 only, and from a
comparison of this passage with ii. J 8 and 42, it
would appear to be but another form of the name
Caleb. It is .worth noting .that, while in this
passage Jerahmeel is stated to be a brother of
Chelubai, it appears from 1 Sam. xxvii. 10 that
the Jerahmeelites were placed on the " south of
Judah," where also were th? possessions of the
house of Caleb (Judg. i. 15 ; 1 Sam xxv. 3, xxx.

14). In the Syriac Vers, the name is UiO j>/30;

Saici; probably a transcriber's eiTor for U'^?S.O>

Celuhi (Burrington, i. 209). [G.]

CHE'MOSH (t^i»3 ; XafxSs ; Charms), the

national deity of the Moabites (Num. xxi. 29 ; Jer.
xlviii. 7, 13, 46). In Judg. xi. 24, he also appears
as the god of the Ammonites : he must not, however,
be identified with Molech. Solomon introduced, and
Josiah abolished, the worship of Chemosh at Jera-
salem (1 K. xi. 7 ; 2 K. xxiii. 13). With regard
to the meaning of the name, and the position which
Chemosh held in mythology, we have nothing to
record beyond doubtful .and discordant conjectuies.
Jei'ome {Comm. in Is. xv. 2) identifies him with
Baal-Peor; others with Baal-Zebub, on etymolo-
gical grounds ; othei-s, as G^enius {Thesaur. 693),
with Mars, or the god of war, on similar grounds ;
and others (Beyer ad Selden, p. 323) with Saturn,
as the star of ill omen, Chemosh having been wor-
shipped, according to a Jewish tradition, under the
form of a black star. Jerome (on Is. xv.) notices
Dibon as the chief seat of his worship. [W. L. B.]

CHENA'ANAH (nJV;3 ; Xavav^.; Chana-

nah ; according to Gesen. fem. of Canaan, 1.
Son of Bilhan, son of Jediael, son of Benjamin, head
of a Benjamite house (1 Chr. vii. 10), probably of
the family of the Belaites. [Bela.]

2. Father, or ancestor, of Zedekiah, the false
prophet who made him horns of iron, and en-
couraged Ahab to go up against Ramoth-Gilead,
and smote Micaiah on the cheek (1 K. xxii. 11, 24 ;
2 Chr. xviii. 10, 23). He may be the same as the
preceding. [A. C. H.]

OHEN'ANI (^3J3; Xo-yeW; Alex. Xauavl;
et Ckanani), one of the Levites who assisted at the
solemn purificatic^i of the people under Ezra (Neh.
ix. 4 only). By the LXX. the word Bani ^n)
preceding is read as if meaning " sons" — " sons of
Chcnani.^' The Vulgate and A. V. adhering to the
Masoretic pointing, insert " and."



300 CHENANIAH

CHENANrAH (;"in^^33; Xav^via, X(aui:ulasy

Chonenias), chief of the Levites, when David car-
ried the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chr. ly. 22, xsvi. 29).
In 1 Chr. XV. 27, his name is wi'itten n*JJ3.

CHE'PHAK-HAAM'MONAI (^3iDj;n ")Q3,
" Hamlet of the Ammonites ;" Kapa<ph koI Ketpipd
Kol Moj/i; Alex. Ka^npafifilv ; Villa Emona)^ a
place mentioned among the towns of Benjamin
(Josh, xviii. 2i). No trace of it has yet heen dis-
covered, but in its name is doubtless preserved the
memory of an incursion of the Ammonites up the
long i-avines which lead from the Jordan valley to
the highlands of Benjamin. [G.]

CHEPHI'EAH (HTSSri, with the definite
article, except in the later books, — " the hamlet ;"
X€«^eipa, Ke(^ipa; Caphiraf Caphara), one of the
four cities of the Gibeonites (Josh. ix. 17), and
named afterwards among the towns of Benjamin,
with Ramah, Beeroth, and Mizpeh (xviii. 26). The
men of Chephirah returned with Zerubbabel from
Babylon (Ezr. ii. 25 ; Neh. vii. 29). The Samaritan
Version, at Gen. xiii. 3, rendei*s Hai (At) by
Cephra\ mQ3 ; but this cannot be Chephirah,
since both Ai and it are mentioned together in
Josh. ix. (comp. 3 with 17), and in the lists of
Ezra and Nehemiali already quoted. And indeed
Dr. Robinson seems to have discovered it under the
scarcely altered name of Kefir, in the mountain-
country on the western confines of Benjamin, about
2 miles west of Yalo (Ajalon) (Rob. iii. 146).
[Caphira.] [G.]

CHE'RAN (1^3 ; Xa^pdv ; Charan), one of the

sons of Dishon (so A. V., but Hebrew is Dishan),
the Horite " duke" (Gen. xxx^a. 26 ; 1 Chr. i. 41).
No name cori'esponding with this has yet been dis-
covered amongst the tribes of Arabia.

CHE'EEAS (Xatpeas ; Ghaereas), a brother of
Timotheus, the leader of the Ammonites gainst
Judas Mace. (1 Mace. v. 6), who held Gazara
(Jazar, 1 Mace. v. 8)", where he was slain on the
capture of the fortress by the Jews (2 Mace. x.
32, 37.). [B. F. W.]

CHER'ETHIMS (D^nnS), Ez. xxv. 16. The

plm-al form of the word elsewhere rendered Che-
RETHITES ; which see. The Hebrew wor4 occurs
again in Zeph. ii. "5 ; A. V. '* Cherethites." In
these passages the LXX. render Cretans, and the
Vulgate by Palaestini and Philistines (Kp^res ;
Alex. Kpiras tri^wvos \ Palaestini, Philisthini).

CHERETHITES AND PELETHITES

(^ri!?Eir!1 ^nnS ; Xep^el koI ^eX^el ; ^afiuro-

(piiKaKes, Juseph. Ant. vii. 5, §4 ; Cerethi et Phe-
lethi), the life-guards of King David (2 Sam. viii. 18,
XV. 18, XX. 7, 23 ; 1 K. i. 38, 44 ; 1 Chr. xviii. 17).
These titles ai"e commonly said to signify *' execu-
tionei-s and couriers " (STyapoi) from n"lD, to slay,
and ri/D, to J^un. It is plain that these royal
guards were employed as executioners (2 K. xi. 4),
and as couriei-s (I K. xiv. 27). Similarly Potiphar
was captain of the guai'd of Phai'aoh, and also cliief
of the executioners (Gen. xxxvii. 36), as was Aiioch,
Nebuchadnezzar's officer (Dan. ii. T4). In the latter
part of David's reign the Cherethites and Pelethitcs
were commanded by Benaiali (2 Sam. viii. 18, xx.
23, xxiii. 23). But it has been conjectured that



CHERUB

the royal body-guards may have been foreign mer-
cenaries, like the Pope's Swiss guards. They ai-e
connected with the Gittites, a foreign tribe (2 Sam.
XV. 18) ; and the Cherethites ai'e mentioned as a
nation (1 Sam. xxx. 14), dwelling apparently
on the coast, and therefore probably Philistines,
of which name Pelethitcs may be only another
form. [R. W. B.]

CHE'RITH, THE BROOK (Hns ^m ;
XeLfidppovs Xop^dd ; torreTis Carith), the ton-eot-
bed or wady — to use the modern Ai-abic word
which exactly answers to the Hebrew Nachal —
in (not " by," as the translators of the A. V.
were driven to say by their use of the word
"brook") which Elijah hid himself during the
eaiiy part of the thi-ee years' drought (1 K. xi-ii.
3, 5). No further mention of it is found in the
Bible, and by Josephus {Ant. viii. 13, §2) it is
spoken of merely as x^i^dppovs tis.

The position of the Cherith has been much dis-
puted. The words of the passage unfortunately give
no clue to it : — " get thee hence {i. e. appai-ently
from the spot where the interview with Ahab had
taken place, and which may or may not be Samaria),
and turn thy face eastward (HDTp), and hide thee
in the toiTent Crith, which is facing (^JQ ^V) the

Jordan." The expression " facing the Jordan," which
occurs also in verse 5, seems simply to indicate that
the stream in question ran into that river and not
into either the Mediterranean or the Dead Sea. Jo-
sephus, as we have seen, does not name the torrent,
and he says that Elijah went, not " eastwai"d," but
towards the south — €ts t^ ivphs v6tov fiepyj. Euse-
bius and Jerome on the other hand {Ommiasticon,
Chorath) place the Cherith beyond Jordan, whei-e
also Schwarz (5J) would identify it in a Wady
Alias, opposite Bethshean. This is the Wady el-
Yabis (Jabesh),.which Benj. Tudela says is a cor-
ruption of DN^7N _1XHii-408; Asher). The only
tradition on the subject is one mentioned by Maiinns
Sanutus in 1321 ; that it ran by Phasaelus, Herod's
city in the Jordan valley. This would make it the
Ain Pusail which falls fi'om the mountains of
Ephraim into the GhSr, south of Aum SitJiabeh,
and about 15 miles above Jericho. This view is
supported by Bachiene, and in our own time by
Van de Velde (ii. 310). The spring of the brook is
concealed under high clLfis and under the shade of
a dense jungle (V. de Velde, Me7noir, 339). Dr.
Robinson on the other baud would find the name

in the Wady Kelt (tlXJj»)> behind Jericho. The
two names are however so essentially unlike, — not



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