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Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (Volume 1) online

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3 3433 08254264 2










DICTIONARY



OF



GREEK AND ROMAN



BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY.



VOL. I.



LONDON :

SPOTTISWOODES and SHAVT,
New-street-Square.



DICTIONARY



OF



GREEK AND ROMAN

BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY.



EDITED BY



WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D,

OF THE " DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.




ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS J3N<3^V,INpS,0}J

'



u II II > 'I I

( I I I 'I lit I

> , ' I ) > J )

I till I t



. > .



IN THREE VOLUMES.
VOL. I.





*



BOSTON:

CHARLES C. LITTLE, AND JAMES BROWN.
LONDON: TAYLOR, WALTON, & MABERLY: AND JOHN MURK AY

M.DCCC.XLIX.



PUB ;




R



< . i >

. .



i < i

. < i 1



CC t I

' < I

'



t
< '



LIST OF WRITERS,



INITIALS. NAMES.

A. A. ALEXANDER ALLEN, Ph. D.

C. T. A. CHARLES THOMAS ARNOLD, M. A.

One of the Masters in Rugby School.

J. E. B. JOHN ERNEST BODE, M. A.

Student of Christ Church, Oxford.

Ch. A. B. CHRISTIAN A. BRANDIS,

Professor in the University of Bonn.

E. H. B. EDWARD HERBERT BUNBURY, M. A.

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

A J. C. ALBANY JAMES CHRISTIE, M. A.

Late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.

A. H. C. ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH, M. A.

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.

G. E. L. C. GEORGE EDWARD LYNCH COTTON, M. A.

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; one of the Masters in
Rugby School.

S. D. SAMUEL DAVIDSON, LL.D.

W. F. D. WILLIAM FISHBURN DONKIN, M. A.

Savilian Professor of Astronomy in theUmVeto>k.y,of Oxford.

'>>>:> at ' T -> T >

W. B. D. WILLIAM BODHAM DONNE.
T. D. THOMAS DYER.



E. E. EDWARD ELDER, M. A.

i+ , !

Head Master of Durham School.



*

I ) ' I
> ' > J >

3 J J > T



' 'tor,.)

> > >



J. T. G. JOHN THOMAS GRAVES, M.A., F.R.S.

W. A. G. WILLIAM ALEXANDER GREENHILL, M. D.
Trinity College, Oxford.

A. G. ALGERNON GRENFELL, M, A.

One of the Masters in Rugby School,



LIST OF WRITERS.

INITIALS. NAMES.

W. M. G. WILLIAM MAXWELL GUNN,

One of the Masters in the High School, Edinburgh.

W. I. WILLIAM IHNE, Ph. D.

Of the University of Bonn.

B. J. BENJAMIN JOWETT, M.A.

Fellow and Tutor of Baliol College, Oxford.

II. G. L. HENRY GEORGE LIDDELL, M. A.

Head Master of Westminster School.

G. L. GEORGE LONG, M. A.

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

J. M. M. JOHN MORELL MACKENZIE, M. A.

C. P. M. CHARLES PETER MASON, B. A.

Fellow of University College, London.

J, C. M. JOSEPH CALROTV MEANS.

H. H. M. HENRY HART MLLMAN, M. A.

Prebendary of St. Peter's, Westminster.

A. de M. AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN.

Professor of Mathematics in University College, London*

W. P. WILLIAM PLATE, LL. D.

C. E. P. CONSTANTINE ESTLIN PRICHARD, B. A .

Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford.

W. R. WILLIAM RAMSAY, M. A.

Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow.

L. S. LEONHARD SCHMITZ, Ph. D., F. R. S. E.

Rector of the High School of Edinburgh.

P. S. PHILIP SMITH, B. A.

Of University College, London.

A. P. S. X&RTabfe'^NSVSff StJyLEY, M.A.
"' '

Felldw arid Tutor' of University College, Oxford.

* f ^ * * * j *

A. S. ADO'LP^ ST^'fli;

,....,.

, .P,r,ofessoF|in- -the (rymnasium of Oldenburg.

L. U. LTrtiTtti .trftisidHS, 1 ' '

Professor in the University of Bonn.

R. W. ROBERT WHISTON, M. A.

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

The Articles which have no initials attached to them are written by the Editor



PREFACE.



THE present work has been conducted on the same principles, and is designed
mainly for the use of the same persons, as the " Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Antiquities." It has been long felt by most persons engaged in the study of
Antiquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English
language for illustrating the Biography, Literature, and Mythology, of the
Greek and Roman writers, and for enabling a diligent student to read them in
the most profitable manner. The writings of modern continental philologists, as
well as the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the
difficulties connected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct
knowledge and more comprehensive views than were formerly possessed. The
articles in this Dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the
original sources ; the best modern authorities have been diligently consulted ;
and no labour has been spared in order to bring up the subject to the present
state of philological learning upon the continent as well as at home.

A work, like the present, embracing the whole circle of ancient history and
literature for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least
one man's life, and could not in any case be written satisfactorily by a single
individual, as no one man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the sub-
jects of which it treats. The lives, for instance, of the ancient mathema-
ticians, jurists, and physicians, require in the person who writes them a
competent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark
applies, to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and
numerous other subjects. The Editor of the present work has been fortunate in
obtaining the assistance of scholars, who had made certain departments of anti-
quity their particular study, and he desire^'to- talie tMis fojJporUvnky of returning
his best thanks to them for their valuable aid', by which he has 'be"n 'able to pro-
duce a work which could not have been accomplisXed %* any single person.
The initials of each writer's name are given at *,Jje end of the articles he has
written, and a list of the names of the contributors"'i3"prefix4l1' ttf the work.

The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of
any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest
times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era,
and to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by
the Turks in the year 1453. The lives of historical personages occurring in the
history of the Byzantine empire are treated with comparative brevity, but accom-



Vlll PREFACE,

parried by sufficient references to ancient writers to enable the reader to obtain
further information if he wishes. It has not been thought advisable to omit the

o

lives of such persons altogether, as has usually been done in classical dictiona-
ries ; partly because there is no other period short of the one chosen at which a
stop can conveniently be made ; and still more because the civil history of the
Byzantine empire is more or less connected with the history of literature and
science, and, down to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, there was an
interrupted series of Greek writers, the omission of whose lives and of an
account of their works would be a serious deficiency in any work which aspired to
give a complete view of Greek literature.

The relative length of the articles containing the lives of historical persons
cannot be fixed, in a work like the present, simply by the importance of a man's
life. It would be impossible to give within any reasonable compass a full and
elaborate account of the lives of the great actors in Greek and Roman history ;
nor is it necessary : for the lives of such persons are conspicuous parts of history
and, as such, are given at length in historical works. On the contrary, a Dic-
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography is peculiarly useful for the lives of
those persons who do not occupy so prominent a position in history, since a know-
ledge of their actions and character is oftentimes of great importance to a proper
understanding of the ancient writers, and information respecting such persons
cannot be obtained in any other quarter. Accordingly,, such articles have had a
space assigned to them in the work which might have been deemed dispropor-
tionate if it were not for this consideration. Woodcuts of ancient coins are
given, wherever they could be referred to any individual or family. The draw-
ings have been made from originals in the British Museum, except in a few
cases, where the authority for the drawing is stated in the article.

More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman Writers than
to any other articles, partly because we have no complete history of Greek and
Roman Literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of
modern German scholars contain on this subject more than on any other a store
of valuable matter which has not yet found its way into English books, and has,



hitherto, orrly. tf^rtiuily &nfl iii &' fe w; instances, exercised any influence on our
,*. * 4 <

course of cUsfercal 'instruction/*' lo'tlfese articles a full account of the Works, as



well as of the Livfcsj o ^ie; Writers is given, and, likewise, a list of the best

editions of the wcfpRs*, togetner'wrch references to the principal modern works

, * t * j *
upon each subject' '.I i*. */

The lives of all 'Christian* "Writers, though usually omitted in similar publi-
cations, have likewise been inserted in the present Work, since they constitute an
important part of the history of Greek and Roman literature, and an account of
their biography and writings can be attained at present only by consulting a con-
siderable number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a
literary than a theological point of view ; and accordingly the discussion of strictly



PREFACE.

theological topics, such as the subjects might easily have given rise to, has been
carefully avoided.

Care has been taken to separate the mythological articles from those of an his-
torical nature, as a reference to any part of the book will shew. As it is necessary
to discriminate between the Greek and Italian Mythology, an account of the Greek
divinities is given under their Greek names, and of the Italian divinities under their
Latin names, a practice which is universally adopted by the continental writers
which has received the sanction of some of our own scholars, and is moreover of
such importance in guarding against endless confusions and mistakes as to require
no apology for its introduction into this work. In the treatment of the articles them-
selves, the mystical school of interpreters has been avoided, and those principles
followed which have been developed by Voss, Buttmann, Welcker, K. O. Miiller
Lobeck, and others. Less space, relatively, has been given to these articles than to
any other portion of the work, as it has not been considered necessary to repeat all
the fanciful speculations which abound in the later Greek writers and in modern
books upon this subject.

The lives of Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, have been treated at considerable
length, and an account is given of all their works still extant, or of which there is
any record in ancient writers. These articles, it is hoped, will be useful to the artist
as well as to the scholar.

Some difficulty has been experienced respecting the admission or rejection of cer-
tain names, but the following is the general principle which has been adopted. The
names of all persons are inserted, who are mentioned in more than one passage of an
ancient writer : but where a name occurs in only a single passage, and nothing more
is known of the person than that passage contains, that name is in general omitted.
On the other hand, the names of such persons are inserted when they are intimately
connected with some great historical event, or there are other persons of the same
name with whom they might be confounded.

When there are several persons of the same name, the articles have been arranged
either in chronological or some alphabetical order. The latter plan has been usually
adopted, where there are many persons of one name, as in the case of ALEXANDER,
ANTIOCHUS, and others, in which cases a chronological arrangement would stand in
the way of ready reference to any particular individual whom the reader might be
in search of. In the case of Roman names, the chronological order has, for obvious
reasons, been always adopted, and they have been given under the cognomens, and
not under the gentile names. There is, however, a separate article devoted to each
gens, in which is inserted a list of all the cognomens of that gens,

In a work written by several persons it is almost impossible to obtain exact uni-
formity of reference to the ancient Writers, but this has been done as far as was
possible. Wherever an author is referred to by page, the particular edition used

by the writer is generally stated ; but of the writers enumerated below, the following
VOL. i. a



X PREFACE.

editions are always intended where no others are indicated : Plato, ed. H. Stephanus,
1578 ; Athenaeus, ed. Casaubon, Paris, 1597 ; the Moralia of Plutarch, ed. Francof.
1620; Strabo, ed. Casaubon, Paris, 1620; Demosthenes, ed. Reiske, Lips. 1770; the
other Attic Orators, ed. H. Stephanus, Paris, 1575 ; the Latin Grammarians, ed.
H. Putschius, Hanov. 1605 ; Hippocrates, ed. Kuhn, Lips. 1825-7 ; Erotianus, ed.
Franz, Lips. 1780; Dioscorides, ed. Sprengel, Lips. 1829-30; Aretaeus, ed. Kuhn,
Lips. 1828; Rufus Ephesius, ed. Clinch, Lond. 1726; Soranus, ed. Dietz, Regim.
Pruss. 1838; Galen, ed. Kuhn, Lips. 1821-33; Oribasius, Aetius, Alexander. Tral-
lianus, Paulus Aegineta, Celsus, ed. H. Stephanus, among the Medicae Artis Prin-
cipes, Paris, 1567 ; Caelius Aurelianus, ed. Amman, Amstel. 4to. 1709.

Names of Places and Nations are not included in the Work, as they will form the
subject of the forthcoming " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography."

WILLIAM SMITH.
London, October, 1844.



LIST OF COINS ENGRAVED IX THE FIRST VOLUME.



In the following list AV indicates that the coin is of gold, JR of silver, JE of copper, IJE first bronze
Roman, '2JE second bronze Roman, 3JE third bronze Roman. The weight of all gold and silver coins
is given, with the exception of the aurei and denarii, which are for the most part of nearly the sar
weight respectively. When a coin has been reduced or enlarged in the drawing, the diameter of the
original coin is given in the last column, the numbers in which refer to the subjoined scale : those
which have no numbers affixed to them are of the same size in the drawing as the ori finals.



-





co


*


o


:-.


M


03


D








to


u


lib





a


^i


co


p-<
<c


5





a

a.

30
80
81
82
83
86
90
93



94
114

116

J

118
119
122

126
128

132
137
155

156
180
188
189
192
194

w

196


197
198

199


c
E
s
"o

o

2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1


1
2

1
2
2
1

1

S)

^

2
1

1
2

2
2
1
2

55
1

2
2
1

2
1


Coin


~a
*-
u

s


*
& c .s

5 -Eg
& c


d

H
f:




6D

a

t.


c
E
a
"3


1

2

5
1



2


1

2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1

!

2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2

M
2
2
1


Coin.




(3

u

S


Weislit
in
Ornins.


I-<V row -W -H'-'Kf
CO CO CO CC t -


Aemilianus


l^E
2JE
JR
^l
M
JR
M
M
M
IJE

M

AV
M
M

M

JR

2JE

JR
AV
M

M
JE
M
M
M
M

M
M

M

M
M
M
M
M


2211


8?


199

55

200

5?
?1

1?

210
212
216

M

217
253
257
263
278
284


285

5?

285
287
350
354

?
355

19

356
360
367

M

405
412
418
420
431
435
438
443
455

55


>1

456
457
458


Antiochus VII
Antiochus VIII. . . .


jR
^l
M
M
M
JE
JE,
M
1JE
JR
M
JR
1JE
AV
JR
JE
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
JR
AV
AV
^l
AV
JR
JR
JR
AV
AV
LE
jH
^R
^l
JE
JE
JR
JR


25 1J
255
245
242
250|

185

55

6]
66i
63
63
60
60

5H
60
241
60
143
184
425$

190




Agrippina I


Antiochus IX


Aerippina II.


Antiochus X


Ahala


Antiochus XI. . . .




Antiochus XII
Antiochus XIII. . . .
Antonia




Do


Do


Antoninus Pius ....
M. Antonius ;


Do. (Emperor.) . .
Alexander Balas, king of




L Antonius


Alexander I., king of


* '2

2404


"4

71
9|

2
9

9
11

8|

9
81

Rl


Julia Aquilia Severa . .
Arcadius


Alexander II., king of
Epeirus


Archelaus


Aretas


Alexander I., king of
Macedonia


442'






Alexander II., king of


-i . 2

254
143i
1601

264
61

262$

265
253
263
249
239
250i




Ariarathes VII
Ariobarzanes I
Ariobarzanes III. . . .


Alexander III. (the
Great), king of Mace-
donia


Alexander (Roman em-
peror)






Alexander Zebina, king
of Syria .






Allectus ....




Amastris


Arsaces XXVIII. . . .


Amyntas, king of Mace-
donia


Do


Amyntas, king of Galatia






Antigonus, king of Asia
Antigonus Gonatas . .
Antinous








Antiochus, king of Corn-
magene






Antiochus Hierax . . .
Antiochus I v king of
Syria






Balbtis, Acilius ....
Balbus, Antonius . . .


Antiochus II


Antiochus III


Antiochus IV


a

9

7
9^


Balbus, Cornelius . . .
Balbus, Naevius ....
Balbus, Thorius ....


Antiochus V


Antiochus VI.



Xll



LIST OF COINS.



i

CM


Column.


Coin.


"a
o>

s


*j
M

"S-.S

^ S s

^


D
H

W


Hi

CJO




Column.


Coin.


"a

4J
V


** *
w

M_ C
J-=|


o

M

7.


482


2




/R


107




805


2


Cloelius


*










Do


ffi


326


9


807


2




rF,






11
492


11

2




/R






810


1




M






505


9


Britannicus


7F,






819


9,




AV






506


2




/R






828


1




AV






512


1




/R






831


2


Constantinus, the tyrant


AV






516


1




/R.






837


1


Constantinus I. (the










o


Do


ffi










Great)


AV






11

KIR


i




^R








2




/R






539


2


Caesar Sex Julius . .


/R






846


2


Constantius T


/R






555


2


Caesar, C. Julius . . .
Do


M
/R






848
849


2

1


Constantius II
Constantius III


M

3,^F,






11
556


11
1


C and L. Caesar . . .








850


1




/R






557


1




/R.






852


1




/R.






561


2




/R.






858


1




/R.






563


2




/R.






863


2




m






565


9




/R






868


2


Cotta


/R






602


O


Capito Fonteius . .


/R










Do


/R










Do


/R






870


9,


Cotys


AV


119




11

603


11
]




/R






871


?,




M






604


1


Capitolinus, Petillius .


<*R.






882


1




/R






610


2




/R






891


1




tfi






613


I




/'R






892


1


Crispus .........


AV








?




/R






895


2




/R






Jl




Do


/R






946


2




? rR






11

617


11
1




/R






949


1




1 ffi








2


Carus . i . .


/^






955


1




iE






11

618


1




/R






956


9




a^R






e^i


1




ff 1 ,






965


1


Demetrius I., king of








650


2


Cato


/R.












^R


'?61


9






Do


/R








2


Demetrius II., kino* of








11

663


2




/R,












ffj










Do


/"R






967


1


Demetrius I., kin^ of








11

665


11
1


Censorinus .......


?,rR












/R


262


q






Do


?,rF,








9,


Demetrius II.i king of








w


11


Do


/R












ff?


260


8-


15


11


Do


ffi






968


1


Demetrius III., kinf of








1?


11
2


Do


^R












^E






11

672


1




M






996


9,


Diadumenianus ....


yR






6/5


1




AV






1004


2




^51






748


2


Cilo or Chilo


JR.






1014




Diocletianus ......


^R






755


1




]JE






1033


1


Dionysius. of Heracleia


yR


148




757


2




M






1037


2


Dionysius II., of Syra-








760


2


Clara Didia, ......


JR












yR


26 3




775


1




JR






1061


1




^R






777


1


Claudius (emperor). 1st








1062


2




M












M






1063


1




JR










Do. 2nd coin .


JE






1064


1




M






11


11
2


Claudius II. ......


JE






1071


?




JR






11

800


1


Cleopatra, wife of An-








1086


1




'2JE












yT?


109


9


1087


2


Drusus, Nero Claudius


M






802


2


Cleopatra, queen of








1092


2




JR










Eevpt ,


^R


51


!






Do.


M










CleoDatra. wife of Juba


^R


50i







14


Do..


M







A DICTIONARY



OF



GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY



AND



MYTHOLOGY,






ABARIS.

ABAEUS ('A&uos), a surname of Apollo de-
rived from the town of Abac in Phocis, where the
god had a rich temple. (Hesych. s. v."Aai Herod,
viii. 33 ; Paus. x. 35. 1, &c.) [L. S.]

ABAMMON MAGISTER. [PORPHYRIUS.]

ABANTI'ADES ('Agavrido-ns) signifies in
general a descendant of Abas, but is used especi-
ally to designate Perseus, the great-grandson of
Abas (Ov. Met. iv. 673, v. 138, 236), and
Acrisius, a son of Abas. (Ov. Mel. iv. 607.) A
female descendant of Abas, as Danae and Atalante,
was called Abantias. [L. S.]

ABA'NTIAS. [ABANTIADES.]

ABA'NTIDAS ('ASai/ricas), the son of Paseas,
became tyrant of Sicyon after murdering Cleinias,
the father of Aratus, B. c. 264. Aratus, who was
then only seven years old, narrowly escaped death.
AbantidfiS was fond of literature, and was accus-
tomed to attend the philosophical discussions of
Deinias and Aristotle, the dialectician, in the agora
of Sicyon : on one of these occasions he Avas mur-
dered by his enemies. He was succeeded in the
tyranny by his father, who was put to death by
Nicocles. (Plut. Arat. 2. 3 ; Paus. ii. 8. 2.) '

ABARBA'REA ('ASapSape-n), a Naiad, who
bore two sons, Aesepus and Pedastis, to Bucolion,
the eldest but illegitimate son of the Trojan King
Laomedon. (Horn. //. vi. 22, &c.) Other writers
do not mention this nymph, but Hesychius (s. r.)
mentions 'ASapgapeai or 'Aapa\cuai as the name
of a class of nymphs. [L. S.]

A'BARIS ("Agapis), son of Seuthes, was a
Hyperborean priest of Apollo (Herod, iv. 36), and
came from the country about the Caucasus (Ov.
Met. v. 86) to Greece, while his own country was
visited by a plague. He was endowed with the
gift of prophecy, and by this as well as by his
Scythian dress and simplicity and honesty he
created great sensation in Greece, and was held in
high esteem. (Strab. vii.p. 301.) He travelled about
in Greece, carrying with him an arrow as the
symbol of Apollo, and gave oracles. Toland, in
his History of the Draids, considers him to have
been a Druid of the Hebrides, because the arrow
formed a part of the costume of a Druid. His
history, which is entirely mythical, is related in
various ways, and worked up with extraordinary



ABAS.

particulars : he is said to have taken no earthly
food (Herod, iv. 36), and to have ridden on his
arrow, the gift of Apollo, through the air. (Lobeck,
Aglaophamus, p. 314.) He cured diseases by in-
cantations (Plat. CJiarmid. p.158, B.), delivered the
world from a plague (Suidas, s. v. "ASapis), and
built at Sparta a temple of Kopri (riareipa. (Pans,
iii. 13. 2.) Suidas and Eudocia ascribe to him
several works, such as incantations, Scythian
oracles, a poem on the marriage of the river
Hebrus, expiatory formulas, the arrival of Apollo
among the Hyperboreans, and a prose work on the
origin of the gods. But such works, if they were
really current in ancient times, were no more
genuine than his reputed correspondence with
Phalaris the tyrant. The time of his appearance
in Greece is stated differently, some fixing it in
01. 3, others in 01. 21, and others again make
him a contemporary of Croesus. (Bentley, On the
Epist. of Phalaris, p. 34.) Lobeck places it about
the year B. c. 570, i.e. about 01. 52. Respecting
the perplexing traditions about Abaris see Klopfer,
Mytfiologisches Wotierluch, i. p. 2 ; Zapf, Di*]>ulu-
tio historica de Abaride, Lips. 1707; Larcher, on
Herod, vol. iii. p. 446. [L. S.]

ABAS ("Agas). 1. A son of Mctaneira, was
changed by Demeter into a lizard, bccau-.' he
mocked the goddess when she had come on her
wanderings into the house of her mother, and
drank eagerly to quench her thirst. (Xicander,
T/ieriaca; Natal. Com. v. 14; Ov. M<t. v.
450.) Other traditions relate the same
of a bov, Ascalabus, and call his mother Misuie.

** 7 .

(Antonin. Lib. 23.)

2. The twelfth King of Argos. He was tin-
son of Lynccus and Hypermnestra, and grau.!-
sonofDanaus. He married Ocalcia, who l">iv
him twin sons, Acrisius and Proctus. (Apollod.



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