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over her husband that she procured the succession
to the throne for her son Ptolemy Philadelphus, to
the exclusion of Eurydice's children, and this,
too, in spite of the remonstrances of Demetrius of
Phalerus with the king. (Just. xvi. 2 ; Diog.
LfiL-Yt. v. 78; comp. Ael. V. H. iii. 17.) Plutarch



BERENICE.

speaks of her as the first in virtue and wisdom of
the wives of Ptolemy, and relates that Pyrrhus
of Epeirus, when he was placed with Ptolemy as
a hostage for Demetrius, courted her favour espe-
cially, and received in marriage Antigone, her
daughter by her first husband Philip. Pyrrhus is
also said to have given the name of " Berenicis," in
honour of her, to a city which he built in Epeirus.
(Plut. Pyrrh. 4, 6.) After her death her son
Philadelphus instituted divine honours to her, and
Theocritus (Idyll, xvii. 34, &c., 123) celebrates
her beauty, virtue, and deification. See also
Athen. v. pp. 202, d., 203, a. ; Theoc. Idyll, xv.
106 ; and the pretty Epigram (55) of* Calli-
machus. It seems doubtful whether the Berenice,




whose humane interference with her husband on
behalf of criminals is referred to by Aelian ( V. H.
xiv. 43), is the subject of the present article, or
the wife of Ptolemy III. (Euergetes.) See Peri-
zonius, ad Ael. I. c.

2. Daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, became
the wife of Antiochus Theos, king of Syria, ac-
cording to the terms of the treaty between him and
Ptolemy, B. c. 249, which required him to divorce
Laodice and marry the Egyptian princess, estab-
lishing also the issue of the latter as his successors.
On the death, however, of Ptolemy, B. c. 247,
Antiochus put Berenice away and recalled Laodice,
who notwithstanding, having no faith in his con-
stancy, caused him to be poisoned. Berenice fled
in alarm to Daphne with her son, where being be-
sieged they fell into the hands of Laodice's parti-
zans, and were murdered with all their Egyptian
attendants, the forces of the Asiatic cities and of
Ptolemy Euergetes (brother of Berenice) arriving
only in time to avenge them. These events are
prophetically referred to by Daniel in the clearest
manner. (Polyb. Frag in. Hist. 54, v. 58, ad fin.;
Athen. ii. p. 45, c. ; Just, xxvii. 1 ; Polyaen. viii.
50 ; Appian, Syr. 65, p. 130 ; Dan. xi. 6, and Hie-
ron. ad loc.)

3. Grand-daughter of Berenice, No. 1, and
daughter of Magas, who was first governor and
then king of Cyrene. Athenaeus (xv. p. 689, a.)
calls her, if we follow the common reading, u Bere-
nice the Great," but perhaps r\ Maya should be
substituted for r? /u,fyd\-rj. (Schweigh. ad Ailicn.

I. c.) She was betrothed by her father to Ptolemy
Euergetes, as one of the terms of the peace
between himself and his half-brother Ptolemy

II. (Philadelphus), the father of Euergetes.




BERENICE.

Magas died, however, before the treaty was exe-
cuted, and his wife Arsinoe* (Just. xxvi. 3), to
prevent the marriage of Berenice with Ptolemy,
offered her, together with the kingdom, to De-
metrius, brother of Antigonus Gonatas. On his
arrival, however, at Cyrene, Arsinoe fell in love
with him herself, and Berenice accordingly, whom
he had slighted, caused him to be murdered in the
very arms of her mother ; she then went to Egypt,
and became the wife of Ptolemy. When her son,
Ptolemy IV. (Philopator), came to the throne, B.C.
221, he put her and his brother Magas to death, at
the instigation of his prime minister Sosibius, and
against the remonstrances of Cleomenes III. of
Sparta. The famous hair of Berenice, which she
dedicated for her husband's safe return from his
Syrian expedition [see No. 2] in the temple of
Arsinoe at Zephyrium ('A^poSlrTj Ze<vpmj), and
which was said by the courtly Conon of Samos to
have become a constellation, was celebrated by
Callimachus in a poem, which, with the exception
of a few lines, is lost. There is, however, a trans-
lation of it by Catullus, which has been re-trans-
lated into indifferent Greek verse by Salvini the
Florentine. (Polyb. v. 36, xv. 25 ; Just. xxvi. 3,
xxx. 1 ; Pint. Demetr. ad fin., Cleom. 33 ; Catull.
Ixvii. ; Muret. ad loc.; Hygin. Pott. Astrcm. ii.
24 ; Thrige, Res Cyren. 59 61.) Hyginus
(/. c.) speaks of Berenice as the daughter of Ptolemy
II. and Arsinoe [No. 2, p. 366, b.] ; but the ac-
count above given rests on far better authority.
And though Catullus, translating Callimachus, calls
her the sister of her husband Euergetes, yet this
may merely mean that she was his coiisin, or may
also be explained from the custom of the queens of
the Ptolemies being called their sisters as a title of
honour ; and thus in either way may we reconcile
Callimachus with Polybius and Justin. (SeeThrige,
Res Cyren. 61; Droysen, Gesch. der Nachfolyer
Alexanders, Tabb. xiv. xv.)

4. Otherwise called Cleopatra, daughter of
Ptolemy IX. (Lathyrus), succeeded her father on
the throne, B. c. 81, and married her first cousin,
Alexander II., son of Alexander I., and grandson
of Ptolemy VIII. (Physcon), whom Sulla, then
dictator, had sent to Egypt to take possession of
the kingdom. Nineteen days after her marriage
she was murdered by her husband, and Appian
tells us, that he was himself put to death by his
subjects about the same time ; but this is doubtful.
(Paus. i. 9 ; Appian, Bell. Civ. i. p. 414; but see
Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 16 ; Appian, Mithr. p. 251.)

5. Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, and eldest
sister of the famous Cleopatra (Strab. xii. p. 558),
Avas placed on the throne by the Alexandrines
when they drove out her father, B. c. 58. (Dion
Cass. xxxix. 12, &c. ; Liv. Epit. 104; Plut. Cat.
Min. 35 ; Strab. xvii. p. 796.) ,She married first
Seleucus Cybiosactes, brother of Antiochus XIII.
(Asiaticus) of Syria, who had some claim to the
throne of Egypt through his mother Selene, the
sister of Lathyrus. Berenice, however, was soon
disgusted with the sordid character of Seleucus,
and caused him to be put to death. (Strab. /. c. ;
Dion Cass. xxxix. 57; comp. Sueton. Vespas. 19.)
She next married Archelaus, whom Pompey had

Pausanias (i. 7) mentions Apama as the name
of the wife of Magas ; but she may have had both
names, or Arsinoe may have been his second wife.
See p. 367, a.; andThrige, Res Cyrenensium, 60.



BERENICE.



483



made priest and king of Comana in Pontus, or,
according to another account, in Cappadocia ; but,
six months after this, Auletes was restored to his
kingdom by the Romans under Gabinius, and
Archelaus and Berenice were slain, B. c. 55. (Liv.
Epit. 105 ; Dion Cass. xxxix. 55 58 ; Strab. xvii.
p. 796, xii. p. 558 ; Hirt. de Bell Alex. 66 ; Plut.
Ant. 3 ; comp. Cic. ad Fam. i. 1 7, ad Q. Fr.
ii. 2.)

II. Jewish Berenices.

1. Daughter of Costobarus and Salome, sister of
Herod the Great, was married to Aristobulus, her
first cousin. [ARISTOBULUS, No. 4.] This prince,
proud of his descent through Mariamne from the
blood of the Maccabees, is said by Josephus to
have taunted Berenice with her inferiority of birth ;
and her consequent complaints to Salome served to
increase that hostility of the latter to Aristobulus
which mainly caused his death. (Joseph. A nt.xv'm.
5, 94, xvi. 1. 2, 4. 1, 7. 3 ; Bell. Jud. i. 23.
1, 24. 3.) After his execution, B. c. 6, Bere-
nice became the wife of Theudion, maternal uncle
to Antipater the eldest son of Herod the Great,
Antipater having brought about the marriage with
the view of conciliating Salome and disarming her
suspicions of himself. (Joseph. Ant. xvii. 1. 1 ;
Bell. Jud. i. 28. 1.) Josephus does not mention
the death of Theudion, but it is probable that he
suffered for his share in Antipater's plot against
the life of Herod. [See p. 203, a ] (Joseph. Ant.
xvii. 4. 2 ; Bell. Jud. i. 30. 5.)

Berenice certainly appears to have been again
a widow when she accompanied her mother to Rome
with Archelaus, who went thither at the com-
mencement of his reign to obtain from Augustus
the ratification of his father's will. (Joseph. Ant.
xvii. 9. 3 ; Bell. Jud. ii. 2. 1.) At Rome she
seems to have continued for the rest of her life,
enjoying the favour of Augustus and the friendship
of Antonia, wife of the elder Drusus. [ ANTOXIA,
No. 6.] Antonia's affection, indeed, for Berenice
exhibited itself even after the death of fir. latter,
and during the reign of Tiberius, in offices of sub-
stantial kindness to her son Agrippa I., whom she
furnished with the means of discharging his debt
to the treasury of the emperor. (Strab. xvi. p.
765 ; Joseph. Ant. xviii. 6. 1 6.)

2. The eldest daughter of Agrippa I., by his
wife Cypros, was espoused at a very early age to
Marcus, son of Alexander the Alabarch ; but he
died before the consummation of the marriage, and
she then became the wife of her uncle, Herod,
king of Chalcis, by whom she had two sons.
(Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. 4, xix. 5. 1, 9. 1, xx.
5. 2, 7. 3; Bell. Jud. ii. 2. 6.) After the
death of Herod, A. D. 48, Berenice, then 20 years
old, lived for a considerable time with her brother,
and not without suspicion of an incestuous com-
merce with him, to avoid the scandal of which she
induced Poiemon, king of Cilicia, to marry her ;
but she soon deserted him and returned, to Agrippa,
with whom she was living in~ A. D. 62, when St.
Paul defended himself before him at Caesareia.
(Joseph. Ant. xx. 7. 3 ; Juv. vi. 156 ; Ads,
xxv. xxvi.) About A. D. 65, we hear of her
being at Jerusalem (whither she had gone for the
performance of a vow), and interceding for the
Jews with Gessius Florus, at the risk of her life,
during his cruel massacre of them. (Joseph. Bell.
Jud. ii. 15. 1.) Together with her brother, she
endeavoured to divert her countrvmen from their

2 i 2



484



BEROSUS.



purpose of rebellion (BM. Jud. ii. 16. 5); and
having joined the Romans with him on the out-
break of the war, she gained the favour of Vespasian
by her munificent presents, and the love of Titus
by her beauty. Her connexion with the latter
continued at Rome, whither she went after the
capture of Jerusalem, and it is said that he wished
to make her his wife ; but the fear of offending the
Romans by such a step compelled him to dismiss
her, and, though she afterwards returned to Rome,
he still avoided a renewal of their intimacy. (Tac.
Hist. ii. 2, 81 ; Suet. Tit. 7 ; Dion Cass. Ixvi.
15, 18.) Quintilian (Inst. Oral. iv. 1) speaks of
having pleaded her cause on some occasion, not
further alluded to, on which she herself sat as
judge. [E. E.]

BERI'SADES (BepicraSTjs), a ruler in Thrace,
who inherited, in conjunction with Amadocus and
Cersobleptes, the dominions of Cotys on the death
of the latter in B. c. 358. Berisades was probably
a son of Cotys and a brother of the other two
princes. His reign was short, as he was already
dead in B. c. 352 ; and on his death Cersobleptes
declared war against his children. (Dem. in Aris-
tocr. pp. 623, 624.) The Birisades (B/pi<ra57js)
mentioned by Deinarchus (c. Dem. p. 95) is pro-
bably the same as Parisades, the king of Bosporus,
who must not be confounded with the Berisades
mentioned above. The Berisades, king of Pontus,
whom Stratonicus, the player on the lyre, visited
(Athen. viii. p. 349, d.), must also be regarded as
the same as Parisades. [PARISADES.]

BEROE (BepoTj), a Trojan woman, married to
Doryclus, one of the companions of Aeneas. Iris
assumed the appearance of Beroe when she per-
suaded the women to set fire to the ships of Aeneas
on the coast of Sicily. (Virg. Aen. v. 620, &c.)
There are three other mythical personages of this
name, concerning whom nothing of interest is re-
lated. (Hygin. Fab. 167; Virg. Gearg, iv. 341 ;
Nonnus, Dio-nys. xli. 155.) [L. S.]

BEROE, the wife of Glaucias, an Illyrian king,
took charge of Pyrrhus when his father, Aeacides,
was expelled from Epeirus in B. c. 316. (Justin,
xvii. 3.)

BERONICIA'NUS (Bcpowjuoro's), of Sardis,
a philosopher of considerable reputation, mentioned
only by Eunapius. ( Vit. Soph, sub fin.)

BERO'SUS (Bripuffos or Brjpucraos), a priest of
Belus at Babylon, and an historian. His name is
usually considered to be the same as Bar or Ber
Oseas, that is, son of Oseas. (Scalig. Animadv. ad
Euseb. p. 248.) He was born in the reign of Alex-
ander the Great, and lived till that of Antiochus II.
surnamed eos (B. c. 261-246), in whose reign he
is said to have written his history of Babylonia.
(Tatian, adv. Gent. 58 ; Euseb. Praep. Evany, x.
p. 289.) Respecting the personal history of Berosus
scarcely anything is known ; but he must have
been a man of education and extensive learning,
and was well acquainted with the Greek language,
which the conquests of Alexander had diffused
over a great part of Asia. Some writers have
thought that they can discover in the extant frag-
ments of his work traces of the author's ignorance
of the Chaldee language, and thus have come to
the conclusion, that the history of Babylonia was
the work of a Greek, who assumed the name of a
celebrated Babylonian. But this opinion is with-
out any foundation at all. The fact that a Baby-
lonian wrote the history of his own country in



BEROSUS.

Greek cannot be surprising ; for, after the Greek
language had commenced to be spoken in the East,
a desire appears to have sprung up in some learned
persons to make the history of their respective
countries known to the Greeks : hence Menander of
Tyre wrote the history of Phoenicia, and Manetho
that of Egypt. The historical work of Berosus
consisted of three books, and is sometimes called
BauAo>j'Ka, and sometimes XaA5cu/<:a or i&Topiai
XaA5ai'/cai. (Athen. xiv. p. 639; Clem. Alex. Strom.
i. p. 142, Protrept. 19.) The work itself is lost,
but we possess several fragments of it, which are
preserved in Josephus, Eusebius, Syncellus, and
the Christian fathers, who made great use of the
work, for Berosus seems to have been acquainted
with the sacred books of the Jews, whence his
statements often agree with those of the Old Tes-
tament. We know that Berosus also treated of
the history of the neighbouring countries, such as
Chaldaea and Media. (Agathias, ii. 24.) He him-
self states, that he derived the materials for his
work from the archives in the temple of Belus,
where chronicles were kept by the priests ; but he
appears to have used and interpreted the early or
mythical history, according to the views current in
his time. From the fragments extant we see that
the work embraced the earliest traditions about
the human race, a description of Babylonia and its
population, and a chronological list of its kings
down to the time of the great Cyrus. The history
of Assyria, Media, and even Armenia, seems to
have been constantly kept in view also. There is
a marked difference, in many instances, between
the statements of Ctesias and those of Berosus ;
but it is erroneous to infer from this, as some have
done, that Berosus forged some of his statements.
The difference appears sufficiently accounted for
by the circumstance, that Ctesias had recourse to
Assyrian and Persian sources, while Berosus fol-
lowed the Babylonian, Chaldaean, and the Jewish,
which necessarily placed the same events in a dif-
ferent light, and may frequently have differed iu
their substance altogether. The fragments of
the Babylonica are collected at the end of Scaliger's
work de Emendatione Tcinporum, and more com-
plete in Fabricius, Bibl. Grace, xiv. p. 1 75, &c., of
the old edition. The best collection is that by
J. D. G. Richter. (Berosi Chald. Historiae quae
supersunt; cum Comment, de Berosi Vita, S^c. Lips.
1825, 8vo.)

Berosus is also mentioned as one of the earliest
writers on astronomy, astrology, and similar sub-
jects ; but what Pliny, Vitruvius, and Seneca have
preserved of him on these subjects does not give us
a high idea of his astronomical or mathematical
knowledge. Pliny (vii. 37) relates, that the Athe-
nians erected a statue to him in a gymnasium, with
a gilt tongue to honour his extraordinary predic-
tions ; Vitruvius (ix. 4, x. 7, 9) attributes to him
the invention of a semicircular sun-dial (Jwmicy-
cliuni), and states that, in his later years, he set-
tled in the island of Cos, where he founded a school
of astrology. By the statement of Justin Martyr
(Cohort, ad Grace, c. 39 ; comp. Pans. x. 12. 5 ;
and Suidas, A-. v. St'SuAAa), that the Babylonian
Sibyl who gave oracles at Cuma in the time of the
Tarquins was a daughter of the historian Berosus,
some writers have been led to place the real Bero-
sus at a much earlier date, and to consider the his-
tory which bore his name as the forgery of a Greek.
But there is little or no reason for such an hypo-



BESSUS.

thesis, for Justin may have confounded the well-
known historian with some earlier Babylonian of
the name of Berosus ; or, what is more probable,
the Sibyl whom he mentions is a recent one, and
may really have been the daughter of the historian.
( Paus. I. c.) [SIBYLLAE.] Other writers again have
been inclined to assume, that Berosus the historian
was a different person from the astrologer ; but this
opinion too is not supported by satisfactory evi-
dence.

The work entitled Berosi Antiquitatum libri
quinque cum Commentariis Joannis Annii, which
appeared at Rome in 1498, fol., and was afterwards
often reprinted and even translated into Italian, is
one of the many fabrications of Giovanni Nanni, a
Dominican monk of Viterbo, better known under
the name of Annius of Viterbo, who died in 1502.
(Fabric. Bill. Graec. iv. p. 163, &c. ; Vossius, De
Hist. Grace, p. 120, &c., ed. Westermann ; and
Richter's Introduction to his edition of the Frag-
ments.) [L. S.]

BERYLLUS (BepuAAo's), bishop of Bostra in
Arabia, A. D. 230, maintained that the Son of God
had no distinct personal existence before the birth
of Christ, and that Christ was only divine as hav-
ing the divinity of the Father residing in him,
communicated to him at his birth as a ray or
emanation from the Father. At a council held at
Bostra (A. D. 244) he was convinced by Origen of
the error of his doctrine, and returned to the
Catholic faith. He wrote Hymns, Poems, and
Letters, several of the latter to Origen, thanking
him for having reclaimed him. A work was ex-
tant in the time of Eusebius and of Jerome, in
which was an account of the questions discussed
between Beryllus and Origen. None of his works
are extant. (Euseb. H. E. vi. 20, 33 ; Hieron. de
Vir. Illustr. c. 60 ; Socrates, H. E. iii. 7.) [P. S.]

BER Y'TIUS, a surname given to several writers
from their being natives of Berytus. See AXATO-
LIUS, HERMIPPUS, LUPERCUS, TAURUS.

BESANTl'NUS (B^ow-m/ofr). The Vatican
MS. of the Greek Anthology attributes to an author
of this name two epigrams, of which one is also
ascribed to Pallas (Anal. ii. p. 435, No. 134 ; Ja-
cobs, iii. p. 142), and the other (Jacobs, Paral. ex
Cod. Vat. 42, xiii. p. 651) is included among the
epigrams of Theognis. (Vv. 527, 528, Bekk.) This
latter epigram is quoted by Stobaeus as of "Theog-
nis or Besantinus." (Tit. cxvi. 11.) The " Egg"
of Simmias (Anal. i. p. 207, Jacobs, i. p. 140) bears
the following title in the Vatican MS. : Brjo-aiTtVou
'PoSiou <aov r\ Awcndfta "ft Si/u.utou, au^orepot ydp
'PoSioi. Hence we may infer that Besantinus was
a Rhodian.

An author of this name is repeatedly quoted in
the Etymologicum Magnum (pp. 608, 1. 57, 685,
L 56, Sylb.), whom Fabricius (Bibl. Grace, x 772)
rightly identifies with the Helladius Besantinus
of Photius. [HELLADIUS.] The name is also spelt
Bisantinus. (Bxravr'ii'os, Etym. Mag. p. 212. 49;
Fabric. Bibl. Graec. iv. p. 467.) [P. S.]

BESSUS (Bfjacros}, was satrap of Bactria in
the time of Dareius III. (Codomannus), who saw
reason to suspect him of treachery soon after the
battle of Issus, and summoned him accordingly
from his satrapy to Babylon, where he was col-
lecting forces for the continuance of the war.
(Curt. iv. 6. 1.) At the battle of Arbela, B. c.
331, Bessus commanded the left wing of the Per-
sian army, and was thus directly opposed to Alex-



BESTIA.



48.5



ander himself. (Curt. iv. 12. 6 ; AIT. Anab.
iii. p. 59, e.) After this battle, when the fortunes
of Dareius seemed hopelessly ruined, Bessus
formed a plot with Nabarzanes and others to seize
the king, and either to put him to death and make
themselves masters of the empire, or to deliver
him up to Alexander, according to circumstances.
Soon after the flight of Dareius from Ecbatana
(where, after the battle of Arbela, he had taken
refuge), the conspirators, who had the Bactrian
troops at their command, succeeded in possessing
themselves of the king's person, and placed him in
chains. But, being closely pressed in pursuit by
Alexander, and having in vain urged Dareius to
mount a horse and continue his flight with them,
they filled up by his murder the measure of their
treason, B. c. 330. (Curt. v. 9 13; Arr. Anab.
iii. pp. 68, 69 ; Diod. xvii. 73 ; Pint, Alex. 42.)
After this deed Bessus fled into Bactria, where he
collected a considerable force, and assumed the
name and insignia of royalty, with the title of
Artaxerxes. (Curt. vi. 6. 13 ; Arr. Anab. iii.
p. 71, d.) On the approach of Alexander, he fled
from him beyond the Oxus, but was at length be-
trayed by two of his followers, and fell into the
hands of Ptolemy, whom Alexander had sent for-
ward to receive him. (Curt. vii. 5 ; Arr. Anab. iii.
p. 75 ; cornp. Strab. xi. p. 513.) He was brought
naked before the conqueror, and, having been
scourged, was sent to Zariaspa, the capital of
Bactria (Strab. xi. p. 514) : here, a council being
afterwards held upon him, he was sentenced to
suffer mutilation of his nose and ears, and was de-
livered for execution to Oxathres, the brother of
Dareius, who put him to a cruel death. The mode
of it is variously related, and Plutarch even makes
Alexander himself the author of the shocking
barbarity which he describes. (Curt. vii. 5, 10;
Arr. Anab. iv. p. 82, d. ; Ptolem. and Aiistobul.
ap. Arr. Anab. iii. ad Jin. ; Diod. xvii. 83 ; Plut.
Alex. 43; Just. xii. 5.) [E. E,]

BESTES (Be(rTrJs), perhaps Vestes, surnamed
Conostaulus, a Greek interpreter of the Novells,
filled the office of judex veli, and probably lived
soon after the age of Justinian. He is cited by
Harmenopulus (Promptuarium, p. 426, ed. 1587),
and mentioned by Nic. Comnenus Papadopoli.
(Praenotat. Mystagog. p. 372.) [J. T. G.J

BE'STIA, the name of a family of the plebeian
Calpurnia gens.

1. L. CALPURNIUS BESTIA, tribune of the
plebs, B. c. 121, obtained in his tribuneship the
recall of P. Popillius Laenas, who had been
banished through the efforts of C. Gracchus in 123.
(Cic. Brut. 34 ; comp. Veil. Pat. ii. 7 ; Plut. C.
Gracch. 4.) This made him popular with the
aristocratical party, who then had the chief power
in the state ; and it was through their influence
doubtless that he obtained the consulship in 111.
The war against Jugurtha was assigned to him.
He prosecuted it at first with the greatest vigour ;
but when Jugurtha offered him and his legate, M.
Scaurus, large sums of money, he concluded a
peace with the Numidian without consulting the
senate, and returned to Rome to hold the comitia.
His conduct excited the greatest indignation at
Rome, and the aristocracy was obliged to yield to
the wishes of the people, and allow an investigation
into the whole matter. A bill was introduced for
the purpose by C. Mamilius Limetanus, and three
commissioners or judges (quaesitorcs) appointed, one



486



BIANOR.



of whom Scaurus contrived to be chosen. Many men
of high rank were condemned, and Bestia among
the rest, B. c. 11 0. The nature of Bestia's punish-
ment is not mentioned ; but he was living at Rome
in B. c. 90, in which 3- ear he went voluntarily into
exile, after the passing of the Varia lex, by which
all were to be brought to trial who had been en-
gaged in exciting the Italians to revolt.

Bestia possessed many good qualities ; he was
prudent, active, and capable of enduring fatigue, not
ignorant of warfare, and undismayed by danger ;
but his greediness of gain spoilt all. (Cic. I. e. ;
Sail. Jug. 2729, 40, 65 ; Appian, B. C. i. 37 ;
Val. Max. viii. 6. 4.)

2. L. CALPURMUS BESTIA, probably a grand-
son of the preceding, was one of the Catilinarian
conspirators, and is mentioned by Sallust as tri-
bune of the plebs in the year in which the con-
spiracy was detected, B. c. 63. It appears, how-
ever, that he was then only tribune designatus ;
and that he held the office in the following year,
B. c. 62, though he entered upon it, as usual, on
the 10th of December, 63. It was agreed among
the conspirators, that Bestia should make an attack
upon Cicero in the popular assembly, and that this



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