William Smith.

Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (Volume 1) online

. (page 41 of 299)
Online LibraryWilliam SmithDictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 41 of 299)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Epistle of St. Antony. [A. J. C.]

AMMO'NAS ('Auuwvas) or AMOUN (' A/ioGz/),
founder of one of the most celebrated monastic
communities in Egypt. Obliged by his relations
to marry, he persuaded his bride to perpetual con-
tinence (Sozom. Hist. Eccl. i. 14) by the authority
of St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. (Socr.
Hist. Eccl. iv. 23.) They lived together thus for
18 years, when at her wish, for greater perfection,
they parted, and he retired to Scetis and Mt.
Nitria, to the south of Lake Mareotis, where he
lived 22 years, visiting his sister-wife twice in the


year. (Ibid, and Pallad. flitf. Laus. c. 7 ; Ruffin.
nt.Putr. c. 29.) He died before St. Antony (from
whom there is an epistle to him, S. Athan. Opp. vol.
i. pt. 2, p. 959, ed. Bened.), i. e. before A. D. 365,
for the latter asserted that he beheld the soul of
Amoun bonie by angels to heaven ( Vit. S. Antonii a
S. Athanas. 60), and as St. Athanasius's history
of St. Antony preserves the order of time, he died
perhaps about A. D. 320. There are seventeen or
nineteen Rules of Asceticism ((>aAcua) ascribed to
him ; the Greek original exists in MS. (Lambecius,
Biblioth. Vindol. lib. iv. cod. 156, No. 6) ; thev are
published in the Latin version of Gerhard Vossius
in the Biblioth. PP. Ascetica, vol. ii. p. 484, Paris.
1661. TiL'enty-tico Ascetic Institutions of the same
Amoun, or one bearing the same name, exist also
in MS. (Lambec. I.e. Cod. 155, No. 2.) [A. J.C.]

AMMO'NIA ('AjUfuarfo), a surname of Hera,
tinder which she was worshipped in Elis. The
inhabitants of Elis had from the earliest times
been in the habit of consulting the oracle of Zeus
Ammon in Libya. (Paus. v. 15. 7.) [L. S.]

AMMONIA'NUS ('A^a^at/os), a Greek
grammarian, who lived in the fifth century after
Christ. He was a relation and a friend of the phi-
losopher Syrianus, and devoted his attention to
the study of the Greek poets. It is recorded of
him that he had an ass, which became so fond of
poetry from listening to its master, that it neglect-
ed its food. (Damascius, ap. Phot. p. 339, a., ed.
Bekker ; Suid. s. v. 'AU/J.UVIO.VUS and "Ovos \upas.)

AMMO'NIUS, a favourite of ALEXANDER
Balas, king of Syria, to whom Alexander entrust-
ed the entire management of public affairs. Am-
monius was avaricious and cruel ; he put to death
numerous friends of the king, the queen Laodice,
and Antigonus, the son of Demetrius. Being de-
tected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Phi-
lometor, about B. c. 147, the latter required
Alexander to surrender Ammonius to him; but
though Alexander refused to do this, Ammonius
was put to death by the inhabitants of Antioch,
whom Ptolemy had induced to espouse his cause.
(Liv. Epit. 50 ; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 4. 5 ; Diod.
Exc. 29, p. 628, ed. Wess.)

the son of Ammonius, was a pupil of Alexander,
and one of the chief teachers in the grammatical
school founded by Aristarchus. (Suid. s. v. 'Au-
uunfios.) He wrote commentaries upon Homer,
Pindar, and Aristophanes, none of which are ex-
tant. (Fabric. BM. Grace, v. p. 712; Matter,
Essais historiaues sur V icole d* Alexandre^ i. pp.

Presbyter and Oeconomus of the Church in that
city, and an Egyptian by birth, A. D. 458. He
subscribed the Epistle sent by the clergy of Egypt
to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Council of
Chalcedon. (Concilia, ed. Labbei, vol. iv. p. 897,
b.) He wrote (in Greek) On the Difference
beticeen Nature and Person, against the Mono-
physite heresy of Eutyches and Dioscorus (not
extant) ; an E^rjtosition of the Book of Acts (ap.
Catena Graec. Pair, in Act. SS. Apostolorum, 8vo.,
Oxon. 1838, ed. Cramer) ; a Commentary on
the. Psalms (used by Nicetas in his Catena ; se.
Cod. 189, Biblioth. Coislin., ed. Montfauc. p
244) ; On tlie Hcaatmeron (no remains) ; On St.
John's Gosjiel, which exists in the Catena Grae-
corum Patrum in S. Joan. ed. Corderii, fol.,




Antw. 1C 30. He is quoted in the Catenae on the
History of Susannah and on Daniel. (Nova Col-
lect. Script. Vet. ab Angelo Maio, p. 166, c.vol. i.
A. n. 1825.) [A. J. C.]

professor of grammar at Alexandria, with Helladius,
at the close of the 4th century. He was also priest
of the Egyptian Ape. On the vigorous overthrow of
idolatry in Egypt by the bishop Theophilus A. D.
389- 3&1, Ammonius and Helladius tied to Con-
stantinople and there resumed their profession.
(Socr. Hist. Eccl. v. 16.) Ammonius wrote, in
Greek, On the Differences nf Words of like Significa-
tion (vrepi opoiuv Kal Sta^opcov Aeecci'), which is
appended to many lexicons, e.g. to that of Scapula.
It was edited b}' Valckneaer, 4to., Lugd. Bat. 1739,
and with further notes by Chr. Frid. Ammon,
8vo., Erlang. 1787- There is another work by
this Ammonius, irepl aKvpoXoyias, which has not
yet been printed. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. v.
p. 715.) The historian Socrates was a pupil of
Ammonius. (Hist. Eccl. v. 16.) [A. J. C.]

AMMONIUS ('AyUjUwvios), son of HERMEAS,
studied with his brother Heliodorus at Athens
under Proclus (who died A. D. 484), and was the
master of Simplicius, Asclepius Trallianus, John
Philoponus, and Damascius. His Commentaries (in
Greek) on Plato and Ptolemy are lost, as well as
many on Aristotle. His extant works are Com-
mentaries on the Isagoge of Porphyry, or tJie Five
Predicates, first published at Venice in 1500, and
On the Categories of Aristotle, and De Interpre-
tation?, first published at Venice in 1503. See too
ap. Alexand. Aphrodis. De Fato, p. 180, Bvo.
Lond. 1658. The above-named Commentaries on
Aristotle are also published in the Scholia in
Ar:stot. ed. Brandis. In MS. are his Commentaries
on Aristotle's Topics and Metaphysics, and his
Methodus const rucndi Astrolabiunir (Fabric. Bibl.
Grace, vol. v. p. 707.) [A. J. C.]

AMMONIUS, of LAMPRAE, a village of
Attica, a Peripatetic philosopher, who lived in
the first century of the Christian aera. He was
the instructor of Plutarch, who praises his great
learning (Symp. iiL 1), and introduces him dis-
coursing on religion and sacred rites, (ix. 15.)
Corsini endeavours to shew (in vita Plutarchi, p. 6),
that Ammonius of Lamprae is really the same per-
son with Ammonius the Egyptian mentioned by
Eunapius, and concludes that it was from this
source Plutarch obtained the minute knowledge of
Egyptian worship which he has shewn in his trea-
tise on Isis and Osiris.

Ammonius of Lamprae is mentioned by Ammo-
nius, the author of the work De Dijferentiis Ver-
borum, under the word /3o>,uos, as having written a
treatise Ilepi Ba'/ucof, or as the fuller title is given
by Athenaeus, Tlfpl Eu/^.wv Kal vaiuiv. (xi. p.
476, f.) Whether the same Ammonius was the
author of another work, Ilepl T>V 'AOrjvrjcrii'
'EraipiSav, mentioned by Athenaes (xiii. p. 567,
a), is uncertain. [B. J.]

an eminent surgeon of Alexandria, mentioned by
Celsus (De Med. vii. Praef. p. 137), whose exact
date is not known, but who probably lived in the
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. c. 283247,
as his name occurs in Celsus together with those
of several other surgeons who lived at that time.
He is chiefly celebrated for having been the first
person who thought of breaking a stone within the


bladder when too large for extraction entire ; on
which account he received the cognomen of
\iQor6fjios. An account of his mode of operation,
as described by Celsus (De Med. vii. 26, p. 161),
is given in the Diet, of Ant. p. 220. Some medical
preparations used by a physician of the same name
occur also in Ae'tius and Paulus Aegineta, but
whether they all belong to the same person is un-
certain. [W. A. G.]

AMMO'NIUS, the MONK, nourished A.D. 372.
He was one of the Four Great Brothers (so called
from their height), disciples of Pambo, the monk
of Mt. Nitria ( Vitae Patrum, ii. 23 ; Pallad. Hist.
Laus. c. 12, ed. Rosweyd. p. 543.) He knew the
Bible by heart, and carefully studied Didymus, Ori-
gen, and the other ecclesiastical authors. In A. D.
339-341 he accompanied St. Athanasius to Rome.
In A. D. 371-3, Peter II. succeeded the latter, and
when he fled to Rome from his Arian persecutors,
Ammonius retired from Canopus into Palestine.
He witnessed the cruelties of the Saracens against
the monks of Mount Sinai A. D. 377, and received
intelligence of the sufferings of others near the Red
Sea. On his return to Egypt, he took up his
abode at Memphis, and described these distresses
in a book which he wrote in Egyptian. This
being found at Naucratis by a priest, named John,
was by him translated into Greek, and in that
form is extant, in Christi Martyrum Electi tri-
umphi (p. 88, ed. Combefis, 8vo., Par. 1660).
Ammonius is said to have cut off an ear to avoid
promotion to the episcopate. (Socr. iv. 23 ; Pallad.
Hist. Laus. c. 12.) [A. J. C.]

who wrote only a few poems and declamations.
He was a different person from Ammonius, the
teacher of Plotinus. (Longin. ap. Porphyr. in
Plotin. vit. c. 20 ; Philostr. ii. 27 ; Ruhnken, Diss.
de Longino.~)

AMMO'NIUS ('A/i/iwW), a Greek POET,
who lived in the reign of the emperor Theodosius II.
He wrote an epic poem on the insurrection of the
Goths under Gainas (A. D. 400), which he called
raivia, and is said to have read in A. D. 438 to the
emperor, who received it with great approbation.
(Socrat. Hist. Ecclcs. vi. 6 ; Nicephor. xii. 6.)
Who this Ammonius was, and whether the lines
quoted in the Etvmologicum Magnum (s.v.MivavTos)
from one Ammonius, and the two epigrams in the
Anthologia Graeca (iii. 3, p. 841, ed. Jacobs),
which bear the same name, belong to him, is un-
certain. [L. S.]

bassador of PTOLEMAEUS Auletes, who was sent
to Rome B. c. 56 to seek assistance against the
Alexandrians, who had opposed the king. (Cic.
ad Fam. i. 1.) He is perhaps the same person as
the Ammonius who is spoken of as one of the
agents of Cleopatra in B. c. 44. (Ad Alt. xv. 15.)
AMMO'NIUS, called SACCAS ('Awu&nos
2aKKas, i. e. 2a/cfco0op09), or sack-carrier, because
his official employment was carrying the corn, landed
at Alexandria, as a public porter (saccarius, see
Gothofred ad Cod. Theodos. 14, tit. 22), was born
of Christian parents. Porphyry asserts (lib. 3,
adv. Christian, ap. Euseb. //. E. vi. 19), Eusebius
(1. c.} and St. Jerome ( Vir. III. 55) deny, that
he apostatized from the faith. At any rate he
combined the study of philosophy with Christianity,
and is regarded by those who maintain his apostasy
as the founder of the later Platonic School.


Among his disciples are mentioned Longinus, He-
rennius, Plotinus (Amm. Marccll. xxii.), botli
Origens, and St. Heniclas. He died A. D. 243, at
the age of more than 80 years. A life of Aristo-
tle, prefixed to the Commentary of his namesake
on the Categories, has been ascribed to him, but it
is probably the work of John Philoponus. The
Pagan disciples of Ammonius held a kind of phi-
losophical theology. Faith was derived by in-
ward "perception ; God was threefold in essence,
intelligence, (viz. in knowledge of himself) and
power (viz. in activity), the two latter notions
being inferior to the first ; the care of the world
was entrusted to gods of an inferior race, below
those again were daemons, good and bad ; an
ascetic life and theurgy led to the knowledge of
the Infinite, who was worshipped by the vulgar,
only in their national deities. The Alexandrian
physics and psychology were in accordance with
these principles. If we are to consider him a
Christian, he was, besides his philosophy (which
would, of course, then be represented by Origen,
and not by the pagan Alexandrian school as above
described) noted for his writings (Euseb. If. E. vi.
ID), especially on the Scriptures. (Euseb. Epist.
ad Caspian, a Gallandi's Bill. Pair. vol. ii.) He
composed a Diatessaron, or Harmony of the Gospels,
which exists in the Latin version of Victor, bishop
of Capua (in the 6th cent., who wrongly ascribed
it to Tatian) and of Luscinius. (See Monumenta
Pair. Orthodoxographa, i. pt. 2, per Grynaeum, pp.
661-747, fol., Basil., 1569; E Graeco versa per
Ottomar. Luscinium. Aug. Vind. 4to., 1523; and
in German, Augsb., 8vo., 1524 ; the version of
Victor, Mogunt., 8vo., 1524; Colon., 8vo., 1532;
in Reg-Imp, et Consist. Monast. B. M. V. de
Salem, 8vo., 1774 ; Biblioth. Pair, a Galland., vol.
ii. p. 531, Venet., 1766 ; where vid. Prolcgom.)
Besides the Harmony, Ammonius wrote De Con-
sensu Mm/sis et Jesu (Euseb. H. E. vi. 19), which
is praised by St. Jerome ( Vir. Ittustr. 55), but
is lost. [A. J. C.]

AMNISI'ADES ^AfanfftdSes or 'A/mert'Sw),
the nymphs of the river Amnisus in Crete, who
are mentioned in connexion with the worship of
Artemis there. (Callim. Hymn, in Dian. 15, 162 ;
Apollon. Rhod. iii. 881.) [L. S.]

AMOME'TUS ('AjwfyojTos), a Greek writer of
uncertain date, who wrote a work on the people
called Attaci (Plin. H. N. vi. 17. s. 20), and
another entitled 'ArarrAous e/< MeV</>ews. (Antigon.
Caryst. Hist. Mir. c. 164 ; comp. Aelian, V. II .
xvii. 6.) We ought probably to read 'AJUW^TJTOS
instead of 'ArpoV^ros in Schol. ad Apoll. iii. 179,
and Eudoc. Viol. p. 248.

AMOMPHA'RETUS ('Auo^dp^os}, com-
mander of the Pitanatan lochus in the Spartan
army, who refused to march previously to the
battle of Plataea (B. c. 479) to a part of the plain
near the city, as Pausanias ordered, because he
thought that such a movement was equivalent to a
flight. He at length changed his mind when he
had been left by the other part of the army, and
set out to join Pausanias. He fell in the battle
which followed, after distinguishing himself by his
bravery, and was buried among the Irenes.
(Herod, ix. 5357, 71, 85; Plut. Aristid. 17.)
As to the meaning of the last word see Diet, of
Ant. s. v. Efyr)v, and Thirl wall, Hist, of Greece, ii.
p. 350.

AMOR, the god of love and harmony. He had


no place in the religion of the Romans, who know
and speak of him only from what they had heard
from the Greeks, and translate the Greek name
Eros into Amor. [Enos.] [L. S.]

AMORAEUS ('A,uo/)aroy), king of the Derbicae,
in a war against whom, according to Ctesias
(Persic, c. 6, ed. Lion), Cyrus, the first king of
Persia, fell.

AMORGES ('AjuJp7is). 1. A king of the
Sacae, according to Ctesias, whom Cyrus, king of
Persia, conquered in battle, but afterwards re-
leased, when he himself was vanquished and taken
prisoner by Spamithra, the wife of Amorges.
Ctesias represents Amorges as subsequently one of
the firmest allies of Cyrus. (Persic, cc. 3, 4, 7, 8,
ed. Lion.)

2. A Persian commander, killed in Caria, in
the revolt of the province, B. c. 498. (Herod, v.

3. The bastard son of Pissuthus, who revolted
in Caria about B. c. 413. The Peloponnesians
assisted Tissaphernes in putting down this revolt,
and took lasus, B. c. 412, which was held by
Amorges. The latter fell into their hands on the
capture of the place, and was surrendered by them
to Tissaphernes. (Thuc. viii. 5, 19, 28, 54.)

AMPE'LIUS. We possess a short tract bear-
ing the title Lucii Ampelii Liber Memoriulis. It
was first made known by Salmasius, in 1638, from
a MS. in the library of Juretus, and subsequent
editors following his example have generally ap-
pended it to editions of Florus. We conclude
from internal evidence (cc. 29, 47), that it must
have been composed after the reign of Trajan, and
before the final division of the Roman empire.
Himerius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Symmachus
make frequent mention of an Ampelius, who en-
joyed the high dignities of magister ofticiorum,
proconsul and praefectus urbi under Valentinian
and his immediate successors, and the name occurs
in connexion with thirteen laws of the Theodosian
code. Sidonius Apollinaris also (ix. 301) com-
memorates the learning of an Ampelius, but we
nowhere find any allusion which would enable us to
establish a connexion between the person or persons
spoken of by these writers and the compiler of the
Liber Memorialis. On the contrary Glaser has
adduced reasons (in RbeiniscJies Museum for 1842,
p. 145), which render it probable that the author
of the Liber Memorialis lived at an earlier time
than the above-mentioned persons. It is stated

in c. 18 of this book, " Sulla primus

invasit imperium, solusque deposuit" Now as
Diocletian and Maximianus resigned the govern-
ment in A. D. 305, and this event is spoken of by
all the historians who treat of that period, the
Liber Memorialis would seem to have been com-
posed at least before that year.

This work, which is dedicated to a certain Ma-
crinus or Marinus, equally unknown with the
author himself, is a sort of common-place-book,
containing within a short compass a condensed and
meagre summary, collected from various sources, of
the most striking objects and phaenomena of the
material universe and the most remarkable events
in the history of the world, the whole classified
systematically under proper heads, and divided
into fifty chapters. It is of little value in any
point of view. Nearly all the facts recorded are
to be found elsewhere in a more detailed and satis-
factory form, and truth is so blended with false-

L 2



hood, and the blunders committed so numerous,
that it cannot be used with safety for reference.
The style, where it is not a mere catalogue of
names, is simple and unaffected, but both in the
construction of the sentences and in the use of
particular words, we can detect many traces of
corrupted latinity. The commentaries and criti-
cisms of Salmasius, Muretus, Freinsheim, Hein-
sius, Perizonius and other scholars will be found
in the edition of Duker at the end of his Floras.
(Lug. Bat. 1722 1744, and reprinted at Leips.
1832.) Ampelius was first published in a separate
form, with very useful prolegomena, by Tzschucke
(Leips. 1793), and subsequently by Pockwitz
(Llinenb. 1823), and F. A. Beck. (Leips.
1826.) [W. R.]

AMPHl'ANAX ('A/x</naz/a), a king of Lycia.
When Proetus was expelled from Argos by his
twin-brother Acrisius, Amphianax received him at
his court, gave him his daughter Anteia (some call
her Stheneboea) in marriage, and afterwards led
him back to Argolis, where his share in the go-
vernment and Tiryns were restored to him. Some
traditions called this Lycian king lobates. (Apol-
lod. ii. 2. 1; Horn. II. vi. 157, &c.) [L. S.J

AMPHIA'NUS, a Greek tragic poet at Alex-
andria. (Schol. ad German. Arat. 332, p. 78, ed.

AMPHIARAI'DES, a patronymic from Am-
phiaraus, by which Ovid (Fast. ii. 43) calls his
son Alcmaeon. [L. S.]

AMPHIARA'US ('A/x^iapaos), a son of Oicles
and Hypermnestra, the daughter of Thestius.
(Horn. Qd. xv. 244 ; Apollod. i. 8. 2 ; Hygin.
Fab. 73 ; Pans, ii. 21. 2.) On his father's side
he was descended from the famous seer Melampus.
(Pans. vi. 17. 4.) Some traditions represented
him as a son of Apollo by Hypermnestra, which,
however, is merely a poetical expression to de-
scribe him as a seer and prophet. (Hygin. Fab.
70.) Amphiaraus is renowned in ancient story as
a brave hero : he is mentioned among the hunters
of the Calydonian boar, which he is said to have
deprived of one eye, and also as one of the Argo-
nauts. (Apollod. i. 8. 2, 9. 16.) For a time
he reigned at Argos in common with Adrastus ;
but, in a feud which broke out between them,
Adrastus took to flight. Afterwards, however, he
became reconciled with Amphiaraus, and gave him
his sister Eriphyle in marriage [ADRASTUS], by
whom Amphiaraus became the father of Alcmaeon,
Amphilochus, Eurydice, and Demonassa. On
marrying Eriphyle, Amphiaraus had sworn, that
he would abide by the decision of Eriphyle on any
point in which he should diifer in opinion from
Adrastus. When, therefore, the latter called upon
him to join the expedition of the Seven against
Thebes, Amphiaraus, although he foresaw its un-
fortunate issue and at first refused to take any
part in it, was nevertheless persuaded by his wife
to join his friends, for Eriphyle had been enticed
to induce her husband by the necklace of Harmonia
which Polyneices had given her. Amphiaraus on
leaving Argos enjoined his sons to avenge his
death on their heartless mother. (Apollod. iii. 6.
2; Hygin. Fab. 73; Diod. iv. 65; Horn. Od.
xv. 247, &c.) On their way to Thebes the heroes
instituted the Nemean games, and Amphiaraus
won the victory in the chariot-race and in throwing
the discus. (Apollod. iii. 6. 4.) During the
war against Thebes, Amphiaraus fought bravely


(Pind. Ol. vi. 26, &c.), but still he could not sup-
press his anger at the whole undertaking, and
when Tydeus, whom he regarded as the originator
of the expedition, was severely wounded by Mela-
nippus, and Athena was hastening to render him
immortal, Amphiaraus cut off the head of Mela-
nippus, who had in the mean time been slain, and
gave Tydeus his brains to drink, and Athena, struck
with horror at the sight, withdrew. (Apollod. iii.
6. 8.) When Adrastus and Amphiaraus were
the only heroes who survived, the latter was pur-
sued by Periclymenus, and fled towards the river
Ismenius. Here the earth opened before he was
overtaken by his enemy, and swallowed up Am-
phiaraus together with his chariot, but Zeus made
him immortal, (Pind. Nem. ix. 57, Ol. vi. 21,
&c.; Plut. Parall. 6; Cic. de Divi?i. i. 40.)
Henceforth Amphiaraus was worshipped as a hero,
first at Oropus and afterwards in all Greece.
(Paus. i. 34. 2 ; Liv. xlv. 27.) He had a sanc-
tuary at Argos (Pans. ii. 23. 2), a statue at
Athens (i. 8. 3), and a heroum at Sparta.
(Miiller, Orcliom. pp. 146, 486.) The departure
of Amphiaraus from his home when he went to
Thebes, was represented on the chest of Cypselus.
(Paus. v. 17. 4.) Respecting some extant works
of art, of which Amphiaraus is the subject, see
Griineisen, Die, alt griechische Bronze des Tux'scJien
Kabinetsin Tubingen, Stuttg. and Tubing. 1835.

The prophetic power, which Amphiaraus was
believed to possess, was accounted for by his de-
scent from Melampus or Apollo, though there was
also a local tradition at Phlius, according to which
he had acquired them in a night which he spent in
the prophetic house (olKOs pavriKos} of Phlius.
(Paus. ii. 13. 6; comp. i. 34. 3.) He was,
like all seers, a favourite of Zeus and Apollo
(Horn. Od. xv. 245.) Respecting the oracle of
Amphiaraus see Diet, of Ant. s. v. Oraculam. It
should be remarked here, that Virgil (Aen. vii. 671)
mentions three Greek heroes as contemporaries of
Aeneas, viz. Tiburtus, Catillus, and Coras, the first
of whom was believed to be the founder of Tibur,
and is described by Pliny (H. N. xvi. 87) as a son
of Amphiaraus. [L. S.]

AMPHICLEIA ('A/t^>iK\/a), the daughter of
Ariston, and the wife of the son of lamblichus, re-
ceived instruction in philosophy from Plotinus.
(Porphyr. vit. Plot in. c. 9.)

AMPHI'CRATES ('A/*<f/cpaT^), king of Sa-
mos in ancient times, in whose reign the Samians
invaded Aegina. (Herod, iii. 59.)

AMPHI'CRATES ('A^/cp^s), a Greek
sophist and rhetorician of Athens. He was a
contemporary of Tigranes (B. c. 70), and being
exiled (we know not for what reason) from Athens,
he went to Seleuceia on the Tigris. The inhabitants
of this place requested him to teach rhetoric in
their city, but he haughtily refused, saying, that
the vessel was too small to contain a dolphin. He
then went to Cleopatra, the daughter of Mithri-
dates, who was married to Tigranes, and who
seems to have become attached to him. Amphi-
crates soon drew suspicions upon himself, and was
forbidden to have any intercourse with the Greeks,
whereupon he starved himself to death. (Plut.
Lucull. 22.) Longinus (de Sublim. p. 54, ed. Toup)
mentions him along with Hegesias and Matris,
and censures him for his affectation of sublimity.
Whether he is the same person as the Amphicrates
who wrote a work on celebrated men (irfpi cj


, Athen. xiii. p. 576; Diog. Laert. ii. 101),
is uncertain. [L. S.]

AMPHTCRATES, a Greek sculptor, probably
of Athens, since he was the maker of a statue
which -the Athenians erected in honour of a cour-
tezan, who having learnt from Harmodius and
Aristogeiton their conspiracy against Hippias and
Hipparchus, was tortured to death by the tyrants,
without disclosing the secret. Her name was
Leana (a lioness) : and the Athenians, unwilling
openly to honour a courtezan, had the statue made
in the form of a lioness; and, to point out the act

Online LibraryWilliam SmithDictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (Volume 1) → online text (page 41 of 299)