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trines of that philosophy. This statement, which
is that of Laertius (ii. 16), is contradicted by the
assertion of Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom, i. p. 30),
that Anaxagoras ^Trijayev OTTO rfis 'iwias 'A6r>-
vate r-f]v Starpig^V, but the two may be reconciled
by supposing with Clinton (F. H. ii. p. 51), that
Archelaus was the first Athenian who did so. For
the fact that he was a native of Athens, is consi-
dered by Ritter as nearly established on the autho-
rity of Simplicius (in Phys. Arittot. fol. 6, b.), as it
was probably obtained by him from Theophrastus ;
and we therefore reject the statement of other
writers, that Archelaus was a Milesian. He was
the son of ApoJlodorus, or as some say, of Mydon,
Midon, (Suid.) or Myson, and is said to have
taught at Lampsacus before he established himself
at Athens. He is commonly reported to have
numbered Socrates and Euripides among his pupils.
If he was the instructor of the former, it is strange
that he is never mentioned by Xenophon, Plato,
or Aristotle ; and the tradition which connects him
with Euripides may have arisen from a confusion
with his namesake Archelaus, king of Macedonia,
the well-known patron of that poet.

The doctrine of Archelaus is remarkable, as



264



ARCHELAUS.



forming a point of transition from the older to the
newer form of philosophy in Greece. In the men-
tal history of all nations it is observable that scien-
tific inquiries are first confined to natural objects,
and afterwards pass into moral speculations ; and
so, among the Greeks, the lonians were occupied
with physics, the Socratic schools chiefly with
ethics. Archelaus is the union of the two : he \vas
the last recognized leader of the former (succeeding
Diogenes of Apollonia in that character), and added
to the physical system of his teacher, Anaxagoras,
some attempts at moral speculation. He held that
air and infinity (TO diretpov) are the principle of
all things, by which Plutarch (Plac. Phil. i. 3)
supposes that he meant infinite air ; and we are
told, that by this statement he intended to exclude
the operations of mind from the creation of the
world. (Stob. Ed. Pliys. i. 1, 2.) If so, he abandoned
the doctrine of Anaxagoras in its most important
point ; and it therefore seems safer to conclude
with Hitter, that while he wished to inculcate
the materialist notion that the mind is formed of
air, he still held infinite mind to be the cause of
all things. This explanation has the advantage of
agreeing very fairly with that of Simplicius (/. c.) ;
and as Anaxagoras himself did not accurately dis-
tinguish between mind and the animal soul, this
confusion may have given rise to his pupil's doc-
trine. Archelaus deduced motion from the opposi-
tion of heat and cold, caused of course, if we adopt
the above hypothesis, by the will of the material
mind. This opposition separated fire and water,
and produced a slimy mass of earth. While the
earth was hardening, the action of heat upon its
moisture gave birth to animals, which at first were
nourished by the mud from which they sprang,
and gradually acquired the power of propagating
their species. All these animals were endowed
with mind, but man separated from the others, and
established laws and societies. It was just from
this point of his physical theory that he seems to
have passed into ethical speculation, by the propo-
sition, that right and wrong are ou <>uVei dAAd v6/j.(p
a dogma probably suggested to him, in \tsform at
least, by the contemporary Sophists. But when we
consider the purely mechanical and materialistic
character of his physics, which make every thing
arise from the separation or distribution of the pri-
mary elements, we shall see that nothing, except
the original chaotic mass, is strictly by nature
((/>ucrei), and that Archelaus assigns the same origin
to right and wrong that he does to man. Now a
contemporaneous origin with that of the human
race is not very different from what a sound sys-
tem of philosophy would demand for these ideas,
though of course such a system would maintain
quite another origin of man ; and therefore, assum-
ing the Archelaic physical system, it does not ne-
cessarily follow, that his ethical principles are so
destructive of all goodness as they appear. This
view is made almost certain by the fact that De-
mocritus taught, that the ideas of sweet and bitter,
warm and cold, &c., are by VV/JLOS, which can be
accounted for only by a similar supposition.

Of the other doctrines of Archelaus we need
only mention, that he asserted the earth to have
the form of an egg, the sun being the largest of the
stars ; and that he correctly accounted for speech
by the motion of the air. For this, according to
Plutarch (Plac. Phil. iv. 19), he was indebted
to Anaxagoras.



ATICIIELAUS.

Archelaus flourished B. c. 450. In that year
Anaxagoras withdrew from Athens, and during
his absence Archelaus is said to have taught So-
crates. (Lae'rt. L e.) To the authorities given
above add Brucker, Hist. Grit. Phil. ii. 2, 1 ; Ritter,
Geschichte dcr Phil. iii. 9 ; Tennemann, Grundrit>s
der Gesch. der Phil. 107. [G. E. L. C.]

ARCHELA'US ('Apx^aos), a Greek POET, is
called an Egyptian, and is believed to have been
a native of a town in Egypt called Chersonesus, as
he is also called Chersonesita. (Antig. Caryst. 19 ;
Athen. xii. p. 554.) He wrote epigrams, some of
which are still extant in the Greek Anthology,
and Jacobs seems to infer from an epigram of his
on Alexander the Great (Anthol. Planud. 120)
that Archelaus lived in the time of Alexander and
Ptolemy Soter. Lobeck (Aglaopli. p. 749), on the
other hand, places him in the reign of Ptolemy
Euergetes II. But both of these opinions are
connected with chronological difficulties, and
Westermann has shewn that Archelaus in all pro-
bability flourished under Ptolemy Philadelphia, to
whom, according to Antigonus Carystius (L c.,
comp. 89), he narrated wonderful stories (irapo-
So|a) in epigrams. Besides this peculiar kind of
epigrams, Archelaus wrote a work called tSio^wj,
i. e. strange or peculiar animals (Athen. ix. p. 409;
Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 17), which seems to have likewise
been written in verse, and to have treated on
strange and paradoxical subjects, like his epigrams.
(Plin. Elench. lib. xxviii.; Schol. ad Nicand. Ther.
822 ; Artemid. Oneirocr. iv. 22. Compare Wester-
mann, Scriptor. Rer. mirabil. Graeci, p. xxii., &c.,
who has also collected the extant fragments of
Archelaus, p. 158, &c.) [L. S.]

ARCHELA'US ('Apxe'Aaos), a Greek RHETO-
RICIAN of uncertain date, who wrote on his pro-
fession ; whence he is called Texvoypd<pos pr/Tup.
(Diog. Laert. ii. 17.) [L. S.]

ARCHELA'US, a SCULPTOR of Priene, the son
of Apollonius, made the marble bas-reb'ef repre-
senting the Apotheosis of Homer, which formerly
belonged to the Colonna family at Rome, and is
now in the Townley Gallery of the British Museum
(Inscription on the work). The style of the bas-
relief, which is little, if at all, inferior to the best
remains of Grecian art, confirms the supposition
that Archelaus was the son of Apollonius of Rhodes
[APOLLONIUS], and that he flourished in the first
century of the Christian aera. From the circum-
stance of the "Apotheosis" having been found in
the palace of Claudius at Bovillae (now Frattocchi),
coupled with the known admiration of that emperor
for Homer (Suet. Claud .42), it is generally supposed
that the work was executed in his reign. A de-
scription of the bas-relief, and a list of the works
in which it is referred to, is given in The Townley
Gallery, in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge,
ii. p. 120. [P. S.]

ARCHELA'US ('ApxeAoos), king of SPARTA,
7th of the Agids, son of Agesilaus L, contempo-
rary with Charilaus, with whom he took Aegys, a
town on the Arcadian border, said to have revolt-
ed, but probably then first taken. (Paus. iii. 2 ;
Plut. Lye. 5 ; Euseb. Praep. v. 32.) [A. H. C.J

ARCHELA'US ('A PX e\aos\ son of THEODO-
RUS, was appointed by Alexander the Great the
military commander in Susiana, B. c. 300. (Arrian,
iii. 16 ; Curt. v. 2.) In the division of the provinces
in 323, Archelaus obtained Mesopotamia. (Dexipp.
ap. Phot. Cod, 82, p. 64, b., ed. Bekker.)



ARCHESTRATUS.

ARCHE'MACHUS ('Apx^*X0- There are
two mythical personages of this name, concerning
whom nothing of interest is known, the one a son
of Heracles and the other a son of Priam. (Apollod.
ii. 7. 8, iii. 12. 5.) [L. S.]

ARCHE'MACHUS ('ApxeVaX")> of Euboea,
wrote a work on his native country, which con-
sisted at least of three books. (Strab. x. p. 465;
Athen. vi. p. 264, a. ; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p.
327, a. ed. Paris, 1629 ; Harpocrat. s. v. KoruAcuoi/
opos ; Plut. de 7s. et Osir.j. 27.) Whether this
Archelaus was the author of the grammatical work
Ai Merwu/ifof (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv.
262), is uncertain.

ARCHEMO'RUS ('Apx^twpos), a son of the
Nemean king Lycurgus, and Eurydice. His real
name Avas Opheltes, which was said to have been
changed into Archemorus, that is, "the Forerunner
of death," on the following occasion. When the
Seven heroes on their expedition against Thebes
stopped at Nemea to take in water, the nurse of
the child Opheltes, while shewing the way to the
Seven, left the child alone. In the meantime, the
child was killed by a dragon, and buried by the
Seven. But as Amphiaraus saw in this accident
an omen boding destruction to him and his com-
panions, they called the child Archemorus, and
instituted the Nemean games in honour of him.
(Apollod. iii. 6. 4.) [L. S.]

ARCHE'NOR ('Apx^'o-'p), one of the Niobids
(Hygin. Fab. 11), and perhaps the same who is
called by Ovid (Met. vi. 248) Alphenor. The
names of the Niobids, however, differ very much
in the different lists. [L. S.]

ARCHESITA. [ARCESJLAUS, Artists, No. 4.]

ARCHE'STRATUS ('ApxeVrparos). 1. One
of the ten ffTparriyoi who were appointed to super-
sede Alcibiades in the command of the Athenian
fleet after the battle of Notium, B. c. 407. Xeno-
phon and Diodorus, who give us his name in this
list, say no more of him ; but we learn from Lysias
that he died at Mytilene, and he appears therefore
to have been with Conon when Callicratidas
chased the Athenian fleet thither from 'EKar6i>-
VT]<TOI (Xen. Hell. i. 5. 16 ; Diod. xiii. 74, 77,
78; Lys. 'AiroX. 5o>poS. p. 162; Schn. ad Xen.
Hell. i. 6. 16 ; Thirl wall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 1 19,
note 3.)

2. A member of the jSotAif at Athens, who
during the siege of the city after the battle of
Aegospotami, B. c. 405, was thrown into prison
for advising capitulation on the terms required by
the Spartans. (Xen. Hell. ii. 2. 15.)

3. The mover of the decree passed by the
Athenians at the instigation of Agnonides, that an
embassy should be sent to the Macedonian king
Arrhidaeus Philip, and the regent Polysperchon,
to accuse Phocion of treason, B. c. 318. (Plut.
Phoc. c. 33.) Schneider (ad Xen. Hell. ii. 2.
15), by a strange anachronism, identifies this
Archestratus with the one mentioned immediately
above. [E E ] "

^ ARCHE'STRATUS ('ApxeVrparos). ' 1.' Of
Gela or Syracuse (Athen. i. p. 4, d), but more
usually described as a native of Gela, appears to
have lived about the time of the younger Dio-
nysius. He travelled through various countries in
order to become accurately acquainted with every
thing which could be used for the table ; and gave
the results of his researches in an Epic poem on
the Art of Cookery, which was celebrated in an-



ARCHIAS.



265



tiquity, and is constantly referred to by Athenaeus.
In no part of the Hellenic world was the art of
good living carried to such an extent as in Sicily
(the Siculae dopes, Hor. Carm. iii. 1. 18, became
proverbial) ; and Terpsion, who is described as a
teacher of Archestratus, had already written a
work on the Art of Cookery. (Athen. viii. p. 337,
b.) The work of Archestratus is cited by the an-
cients under five different titles, FocrTpoAo-yfa,
ra<rrpoi'o j uia, 'OiJ/oTroii'a, AenrvoXoyia, and 'HSwrrd-
deia. Ennius wrote an imitation or translation of
this poem under the title ofCarmina Hedypathetica
or HedypatUca. (Apul. Apol. p. 484, Oudend.)
Archestratus delivered his precepts in the stylo
and with the gravity of the old gnomic poets,
whence he is called in joke the Hesiod or Theognis
of gluttons, and his work is referred to as the
" Golden Verses," like those of Pythagoras. (Athen.
vii. pp. 310,a. 320,f.) His description of the various
natural objects used for the table was so accurate,
that Aristotle made use of his work in giving an
account of the natural history of fishes. The ex-
tant fragments have been collected and explained
by Schneider, in his edition of Aristotle's Natural
History (vol. i. pp. Iv. Ixxv.), and also by Do-
menico Scina, under the title of " I frammenti
della Gastronomia di Archestrato raccolti e volga-
rizzati," Palermo, 1823, 8vo.

2. The author of a work Ilepl AV\TJT<SV (Athen.
xiv. p. 634, d.) seems to be a different person from
the one mentioned above.

ARCHETI'MUS ( 'Apxer^os ), of Syracuse,
wrote an account of the interview of Thales and
the other wise men of Greece with Cypseltis of
Corinth, at which Archetimus was present. (Diog.
Laert. i. 40.)

A'RCHIAS ('Apx'ias), of Corinth, the founder
of Syracuse, B. c. 734. He was a Heracleid, either
of the Bacchiad or the Temenid line, and of high
account at Corinth. In consequence of the death
of Actaeon [ACTAEON, No. 2] he resolved to leave
his country. He consulted the Delphic Oracle,
which directed him, says Pausanias, who gives the
three hexameters, " to an Ortygia in Trinacria,
where Arethusa and Alpheius reappeared." Ac-
cording to an account given in Strabo, Steph.
Byz., and at greater length, with the four verses
of the Oracle, by the Scholiast to Aristophanes,
he and Myscellus, the founder of Croton, were
inquiring together, and when the Pythoness asked
which they would choose, health or wealth,
Myscellus chose health, and Archias wealth ; a
decision with which, it was thought, the after-
fortunes of their colonies were connected. Archias
sailed in company, we are also told by Strabo,
with Chersicrates, his countryman, and left him at
Corcyra : as also Myscellus at Croton, in the
founding of which he assisted. Thence he pro-
ceeded to his destination. (Thuc. vi. 3 ; Plut.
Amat. Narr. p. 772 ; Diod. Eocc. ii. p. 288 ; Paus.
v. 7. 2 ; Strabo, vi. pp. 262, 269 ; Steph. Byz.
s. v. Si/racus. ; Schol. ad Arist. Eq. 1089. See
also Clinton, F. H. B. c. 734, and vol. ii. pp. 264,
265 ; Muller's Dor. i. 6. 7.) [A. H. C.]

ARCHIAS ('Apxias). 1. A Spartan, who fell
bravely in the Lacedaemonian attack upon Samos
in B. c. 525. Herodotus saw at Pitana in Laconia
his grandson Archias. (Herod, iii. 55.)

2. Of Thurii, originally an actor, Avas sent in
B. c. 322, after the battle of Cranon, to apprehend
the orators whom Antipater had demanded of the



266



ARCHIAS.



Athenians, and who had fled from Athens. He
seized Hyperides and others in the sanctuary of
Aeacus in Aegina, and transported them to Cleo-
nae in Argolis, where they were executed. He
also apprehended Demosthenes in the temple of
Poseidon in Calaureia. Archias, who was nick-
named </>i>7a8o077pas, the hunter of the exiles,
ended his life in great poverty and disgrace. (Plut.
Dem. 28, 29, Vit. X. Oral. p. 849 ; Arrian, ap.
Phot. p. 69, b. 41, ed. Bekker.)

3. The governor of Cyprus under Ptolemy, re-
ceived a bribe in order to betray the island to
Demetrius, B. c. 155, but being detected he hanged
himself. (Polyb. xxxiii. 3.)

4. An Alexandrine grammarian, probably lived
about the time of Augustus, as he was the teacher
of Epaphroditus. (Suidas, s. v. 'EiratypoSiros ;
Villoison, Proleg. ad A poll. Lex. Horn. p. xx.)

A'RCHIAS, A. LICI'NIUS, a Greek poet,
born at Antioch in Syria, about B. c. 120. His
name is known chiefly from the speech of Cicero *
in his defence, which is the only source of inform-
ation about him, and must therefore be very ques-
tionable evidence of his talent, considering that the
verses of Archias had been employed in celebrating
the part which that orator played in the conspiracy
of Catiline. He was on intimate terms with many
of the first families in Rome, particularly with the
Licinii, whose name he adopted. His reception
during a journey through Asia Minor and Greece
(pro Arch. c. 3), and afterwards in Grecian Italy,
where Tarentum, Rhegium, Naples, and Locri en-
rolled him on their registers, shews that his repu-
tation was, at least at that time, considerable. In
B. c. ] 02 he came to Rome, still young (though not
so young as the expression "praetextatus" (c. 3)
literally explained would lead us to suppose ; comp.
Clinton, F. PI. iii. p. 542), and was received in the
most friendly way by Lucullus (ad Aft. i. 16. 9),
Marius, then consul, Hortensius the father, Metel-
lus Pius, Q. Catulus, and Cicero. After a short
stay, he accompanied Lucullus to Sicily, and fol-
lowed him, in the banishment to which he was
sentenced for his management of the slave war in
that island, to Heraclea in Lucania, in which town,
as being a confederate town and having more pri-
vileges than Tarentum, he was enrolled as a citizen.
He was in the suite of L. Lucullus, in Asia under
Sulla, again in B. c. 76 in Africa, and again in the
third Mithridatic war. As he had sung the Cim-
bric war in honour of Marius, so now he wrote a
poem on this war, which he had witnessed (c. 9),
in honour of Lucullus. We do not hear whether
he finished his poem in honour of Cicero's consul-
ship (c. 1 1) ; in B. c. 61, when he was already old,
he had not begun it (ad Aft. i. 16); or whether
he ever published his intended Caeciliana, in ho-
nour of Metellus Pius. He wrote many epigrams :
it is still disputed, whether any of those preserved
under his name in the Anthologia were really his
writings. (Comp. Ilgen, Opuscula, ii. p. 46 ; Clin-
ton, iii. p. 452, note k.) These are all of little
merit. In B.C. 61, a charge was brought against
him, probably at the instigation of a party opposed
to his patrons, of assuming the citizenship ille-
gally, and the trial came on before Q. Cicero, who

* Schroeter has attacked the genuineness of this
oration (Gratio quae vulgo fertur pro ArcMa, &c.,
Lips. 1818), which is however as fully established
as that of any other of Cicero's speeches.



ARCHIDAMUS.

was praetor this year. (Schol. Bob. p. 354, ed.
Orelli.) Cicero pleaded his cause in the speech by
which the name of Archias has been preserved.
" If he had no legal right, yet the man who stood
so high as an author, whose talent had been em-
ployed in celebrating Lucullus, Marius, and him-
self, might well deserve to be a Roman citizen.
The register certainly, of Heraclea, in which his
name was enrolled, had been destroyed by fire in
the Marsian war; but their ambassadors and L.
Lucullus bore witness ihat he was enrolled there.
He had settled in Rome many years before he be-
came citizen, had given the usual notice before
Q. Metellus Pius, and if his property had never
been enrolled in the censor's register, it was be-
cause of his absence with Lucullus and that was
after all no proof of citizenship. He had made
wills, had been an heir (comp. Diet, of Ant. s.v.
Testamentum, Heres\ and his name was on the
civil list. But, after all, his chief claim was his
talent, and the cause to which he had applied it."
If we may believe Cicero (c. 8) and Quintilian
(x. 7. 19), Archias had the gift of making good
extempore verses in great numbers, and was re-
markable for the richness of his language and his
varied range of thought. [C. T. A.]

ARCHI'BIUS ('Apx'&os). 1. An Alexandrine
grammarian, the son or father of the grammarian
Apollonius [APOLLONIUS, No. 5, p. 238], wrote an
interpretation of the Epigrams of Callimachus.
(Suidas, s. v.)

2. Of Leucas or Alexandria, a grammarian, who
taught at Rome in the time of Trajan. (Suid. s. v.)
ARCHI'BIUS ('Apxiftos), a Greek surgeon, of
whom no particulars are known, but who must
have lived in or before the first century after
Christ, as he is quoted by Heliodorus (in Cocchi's
Graecor. Chirurg. Libri, <|fc., Flor. 1754, fol. p. 96)
and Galen. (De Antid. ii. 10, vol. xiv. p. 159 ; DC
Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 14, vol. xiii. p. 849.)
Pliny mentions (H. N. xviii. 70) a person of the
same name who wrote a foolish and superstitious
letter to Antiochus, king of Syria ; but it is un-
certain which king is meant, nor is it known that
this Archibius was a physician. [W. A. G.]

ARCH ID AM El A ( 'Apx'&fcew ). 1. The
priestess of Demeter, who, through love of Aristo-
menes, set him at liberty when he had been taken
prisoner. (Paus. iv. 17. 1.)

2. The grandmother of Agis IV., was put to
death, together with her grandson, in B. c. 240.
(Plut. Agis, 4, 20.)

3. A Spartan woman, who distinguished herself
by her heroic spirit when Sparta was nearly taken
by Pyrrhus in B. c. 272, and opposed the plan
which had been entertained of sending the women
to Crete. Plutarch (Pyrrh. 27) calls her 'ApX 1 '

^i'a, but Polyaenus (viii. 49) 'Apx^a/-"*. The
latter writer calls her the daughter of king Cleadas
(Cleomenes ?).

ARCHIDA'MUS I. ('ApxfSa/ios), king of
Sparta, 12th of the Eurypontids, son of Anaxi-
damus, contemporary with the Tegeatan war, which
followed soon after the end of the second Mes-
senian, in B. c. 668. (Paus. iii. 7. 6, comp. 3.
5.) [A. H. C.]

ARCHIDA'MUS II., king of Sparta, 17th of
the Eurypontids, son of Zeuxidamus, succeeded to
the throne on the banishment of his grandfather
Leotychides, B. c. 469. In the 4th or perhaps
rather the 5th year of his reign, his kingdom was



ARCHIDAMUS.

visited by the tremendous calamity of the great
earthquake, by which all Laconia was shaken, and
Sparta made a heap of ruins. On this occasion
his presence of mind is said to have saved his peo-
ple. Foreseeing the danger from the Helots, he
summoned, by sounding an alarm, the scattered
surviving Spartans, and collected them around him,
apparently at a distance from the ruins, in a body
sufficient to deter the assailants. To him, too,
rather than to Nicomedes, the guardian of his col-
league, Pleistb'anax, (Pleistarchus was probably
dead,) would be committed the conduct of the
contest with the revolted Messenians, which oc-
cupies this and the following nine years. In the
expeditions to Delphi and to Doris, and the hos-
tilities with Athens down to the 30 years' truce,
his name is not mentioned ; though in the discus-
sion at Sparta before the final dissolution of that
truce he comes forward as one who has had expe-
rience of many wars. Of the Peloponnesian war
itself we find the first 1 years sometimes styled
the Archidamian war ; the share, however, taken
in it by Archidamus was no more than the com-
mand of the first two expeditions into Attica ; in
the 3rd year, of the investment of Plataea ; and
again of the third expedition in the 4th year, 428
B. c. In 427 Cleomenes commanded ; in 426
Agis, son and now successor of Archidamus. His
death must therefore be placed before the beginning
of this, though probably after the beginning of that
under Cleomenes ; for had Agis already succeeded,
he, most likely, and not Cleomenes, would have
commanded ; in the 42nd year, therefore, of his
reign, B. c. 427. His views of this momentous
struggle, as represented by Thucydides, seem to
justify the character that historian gives him
of intelligence and temperance. His just estimate
of the comparative strength of the parties, and
his reluctance to enter without preparation on
a contest involving so much, deserve our admira-
tion ; though in his actual conduct of it he may
seem to have somewhat wasted Lacedaemon's
moral superiority. The opening of the siege of
Plataea displays something of the same deliberate
character ; the proposal to take the town and ter-
ritory in trust, however we may question the pro-
bable result, seems to breathe his just and temperate
spirit. He may at any rate be safely excluded
from all responsibility for the cruel treatment of
the besieged, on their surrender in the year of his
death. We may regard him as the happiest in-
stance of an accommodation of the Spartan character
to altered circumstances, and his death as a mis-
fortune to Sparta, the same in kind though not in
degree as that of Pericles was to Athens, with
whom he was connected by ties of hospitality and
whom in some points he seems to have resembled.
He left two sons and one daughter, Agis by his
first wife, Lampito or Lampido, his father's half-



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