Dublin) Trinity College (Dublin.

A catalogue of graduates who have proceeded to degrees in the University of Dublin, from the earliest recorded commencements to July, 1866: with supplement to December l6, l868 online

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saient les preceptes de la charite
et de I'humilite chretiennes pour
s'abandonner au torrent de leurs
passions," &c. — Histoire de VUniver-
site, p. 85, cf p. 70. The earliest
Statutes of the University were made
in 1 2 15, to check the disorders of the
students, by Robert de Courceon,
Legate of Honorius III.

*> In the ancient statutes of the
University of Paris, compiled in 137 1,
the Bishop's Hall is spoken of as used
for theological Disputations. ' ' Item
nota, quod Bachalarii in Theologia
tenentur respondere de quaestione in
locis publicis aliis Bachulariis, quin-
quies ad minus, antequam licenci-
entur, scilicet in Aula Episeopi Pa-
risiensis, quando sit ibi aliquis novus
Magister in Theologia."— D'^c^em
Spicil, torn, iii., p. 735. (Eegulce
pro Theologis, n. xviii.)


In Paris, the College, as it was afterwards called, of Robert de
Sorbona, ultimately obtained great celebrity, but was at first quite
distinct from the University. Its founder did not call it a Col-
lege, but " the Congregation of poor Masters studying at Paris
in the Faculty of Theology."* He had been Provisor, or admi-
nistrator of the funds of the secular theological students, and in
1270 bequeathed all his property to their use, which bequest,
however, did not come into operation until 1452 or 1453 > ^^
long was it before the foundation of a College in connexion with
the University was fully developed. In fact, it has been fully
developed only at Oxford and Cambridge, a circumstance in a
great measure accidental, arisingfrom the powerful influence ofthe
Mendicant and Benedictine Orders, in the schools of the Uni-
versities, and the suppression ofthe monasteries in England at
the time ofthe Reformation.

But this is not the place to attempt anything like a history
of Universities. Enough has been said to show that the ancient
Universities existed for centuries without Colleges, and that
some of them have never had Colleges even to the present day. It
is not, however, denied that the English Universities owe much
of their excellent tone and efficiency, as seats of learning, to
their Colleges ; but it is clearly an ignorant and unworthy
prejudice to find fault with the University of Dublin, as if it
were no University, because it has but one College.** On the

° " Congregatio pauperum Ma- trick's Cathedral, and with its reve-

gistrorum Parisiis studentium in The- nues " to begin the foundation of two

ologica Facultate." Robert de Sor- Universities, and endow a couple of

bonne, so called from the place of Colleges in them with £1000 per annum

his birth, was of humble origin. His a piece.'' Here the plan was to have

Testament, written four years before only one College in each University :

his death, is published by D'Achery, but the scheme failed ; and the sup-

Spicil. ubisupr., p. 670. In 125 1, he pressed Monastery of All Hallows, or

became canon ofCambrai; in 1258, All Saints, was afterwards employed

canon of Paris ; his will is dated Mi- for the same purpose, or at least its

chaelmas day, 1270; hedied 15th Aug., dilapidated building, for its lands and

1274- endowments had long before passed

>> Sir John Perrot, Lord Deputy into other hands. See Introd. to Univ.

in 1584, proposed to suppress St. Pa- Calendar for 1833. Registr. Prioratus


contrary, Dublin, with the Scotch Universities,^ as well as those
of Germany, and of the continent of Europe generally, except such
as have suffered from the experiments of modern revolutionary
legislation, has much more nearly preserved the ancient con-
stitution of a studium generale, than the Universities of England,^
notwithstanding the superiority of these last in many respects.

]n the case of Dublin it was necessary that the College should
be founded before the University, because in Ireland there were
at that time no Doctors or Masters to conduct the schools, ex-
cept the few who had come to Ireland from the English Univer-
sities ; there were no students except such as could be supported
by Bursaries, or eleemosynary foundations ; therefore. Queen
Elizabeth, in her Charter of foundation, declares it to be her
will, " Ut eo melius ad bonas Artes percipiendas, colendamque
virtutem et religionem adjuventur [studiosi], quod de caetero sit,
et erit, Unum Collegium mater Universitatis, .... pro Edu-
catione, Institutione, et Instructione Juvenum et Studentium in
Artibus et Facultatibus, perpetuis futuris temporibus duratu-
rum." In other words, the College was to be the parent of the

Omnium Sanctorum juxta Dublin. a des ecoles publiques et generales

Ed. by Rev. Rich. Butler, (Irish Ar- dans le royaume, il n'etoit encore venu

chseol. Society). 1845. dans I'esprit de personne de croire

* See what Dollinger has said on qu'une Universite put ^tredivisee de

the English Universities, p. 25. On telle sorte qu'elle fut en partie dans

the Scotch Universities, ibid., p. 27. une ville, et en partie dans une autre.

Oflrelandhe makes no mention what- Au contraire, et les illustres fonda-

soever. teurs, a qui les Universites doivent leur

^ The modern Irish University, naissance, et les augustes protecteurs,

called " the Queen's University," i.e. a qui elles doivent leur conservation,

the University of our present gracious princes, rois, prelats, souverains pon-

Queen Victoria, violates altogether tifes, tous ont ete persuades qu' il etoit

a rule rigidly observed in all ancient essentiel a ces Universites, que cha-

Universities, and deemed essential, qu'une d'elles fiit toute entiere dans

viz., that the Colleges or schools of un seul et unique endroit."— T^-aj^e

the same University should be all in de V Expectative des gradues, des

the same town or city. " Depuis plus droits et privileges des Universites,

de huit cens ans," says the le;u-ned etc. Tom. i. p. 257. Paris, 1757.
Pioles, avocat au Parlement, " qui'l y


University, to bring up and nourish in all sound learning as a
mother gives nourishment to her children, those who were here-
after to become graduates and members of the University.*

^ Dr. Miller, in his " Examination
of the Charters and Statutes of Trin.
Coll." Bull. 1804, has suggested two
other significations of the phrase ilfa-
ter Universitatis. " The precise mean-
ing of these words (he says) is not
fully ascertained. They may either
be understood to mean, that this
College was designed to be the go-
verning body of the University then
formed, and consequently to be pa-
ramount to all other Colleges or Halls,
which might afterwards be erected
within the same University ; or merely
to signify, that in the establishment
of this College, that of a new Univer-
sity was begun, this being the mother
or original College of the Institution.
But either meaning must require that
the College, in its actual circum-
stances, should be considered as the
same with the University. Xo other
CoUege having been erected on the
same foundation, we must necessarily
consider that College, which, accord-
ing to the former meaning, was de-
signed to be, in all cases that might
occur, the paramount Corporation,
as, in its separate existence, invested
with supreme authority to regulate
all its own concerns ; or, according
to the latter, we must regard the ori-
ginal College, as constituting the
whole University, until some other
College should have been erected on
the same foundation, and a necessity
should have occurred for introducing
a new federal constitution, which

might comprehend both under the
authority of the Convocation of the
whole University." — pp. 8-9.

But this is surely a most confused
and unsatisfactory explanation of the
phrase. If Dr. Miller's first inter-
pretation be adopted, namely, that
the College was to be the governing
or paramount College of all future
Colleges, then it ought to have been
called, not mater Universitatis, but
mater Collegiorum postea eriffendo-
rum ; or, if the meaning be that
Queen Elizabeth's College was to be
mother or original College of an In-
stitution intended to consist of many
Colleges, then Trinity College has
never been in this sense (or only
for a few years) the mother of
an University. It is evident that
on both explanations Dr. Miller ta-
citly assumes the existence of more
than one College as essential to an
University, although he elsewhere
refutes unanswerably that great mis-
take. See his pamphlet, pp. lo-n.
He farther says, that "• in either
meaning" " the College, in its actual
circumstances," i. e., as being the
only College in the University,
"should be considered as the same
with the University." But is it not
a most strange mode of expressing
this, to say that the College is the
mother of the University ? Is a mo-
ther identical with her children ? Is
the mother College, in the sense of
being first founded, necessarily the


The Charter then proceeds to enact that the College shall be
a body corporate consisting of a Provost, Fellows, and Scholars,
with perpetual succession, and with power to hold and acquire
goods, chattels, lands, hereditaments, &c., for their sustentation
and support. They are granted permission to hold, purchase,
and possess property of whatsoever kind, notwithstanding the
Statutes of Mortmain, to sue and be sued, &c., under the corpo-
rate name of "the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of the College
of the Holy aiid Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near
Dublin." They are to have a Common Seal, and in the case of
vacancies in their body from death, resignation, deprivation, or
any other cause, they are to have power to elect fit persons into
the vacant places,* so as to continue and perpetuate the corpo-

But that with which we are here mainly concerned is the
relation defined in the Charter between the College and the
University. The University, as we have seen, is a body, to
which the College has given birth, and of which the College
was in some sort constituted the head. To the Provost and Fel-
lows Elizabeth gave the absolute power of making, from time to
time, laws, statutes, and ordinances for the pious and faithful
government of the College ; and also to select from the laws and
statutes of either of the English Universities such as they shall

same with that body of Colleges, ther " in its literal and common signi-

afterwards to be founded, which are fication. The College brings fortli,

to constitute a future University. It educates, nourishes, as a mother docs

is true Trinity College is the only her children, the future graduates of

College in the University ; but this the University. She is their Alma

does not make her the same with the Mater ; and although in England this

University, nor does it explain, in phrase is generally applied to the

either of the interpretations proposed University, and not to a College, yet

byDr. Miller, in what intelligible sense it evidently means the same as the

she is the " Mother ofthe University." Elizabethan Mater Univcrsitatis.

I am persuaded that the true sig- " This power, so far as the Provost-

nification of this phrase is the plain ship is concerned, has been repealed,

and obvious one that I have given. and the appointment of the Provost

We have only to take the word "Mo- reserved to the Crown.


deem fit and proper for their own University in Dublin.^ The two
cases are clearly distinguished. In the compilation of the College
Statutes the Provost and Fellows were left wholly free to follow
their own judgment; but in the case of the University Statutes,
they were to be guided by the constitutions and rules already in
force at Cambridge or Oxford."

' The clause relating to the Univer-
sity Statutes is this; — "Et ut quas-
cunque leges bene constitutas sense-
rintinalterutra nostra AcademiaCan-
tabrigiensi, aut Oxoniensi, modo sibi
aptas et accommodas judicaverint,
intra se stabiliant." Theywere also at
liberty, from time to time for ever, to
alter the statutes, made by them for
the College — " ut leges, statuta, et or-
dinationes, pro suo Collegio pie et
fideiiter gubernando, de tempore in
tempus, in perpetuura faciant, con-
stituant et confirraent." No power of
change was given them in regard to
the University Statutes, and it was
held that there was in that case no
possibility of altering what was once
enacted. This was, no doubt, one
reason why Sir William Temple was
empowered on going to England to
apply for a new Charter, authorizing
the Academical Senate to enact laws
for the University, and to change
from time to time what had turned
out to be inconvenient. See Miller's
Postscript, pp. 2, 3.

'' See what Dr. Miller has urged
against this view {Postscript, p. 13).
He reduces his argument to four
heads : — " i . Admitting that the Col-
lege has the power to make statutes for
the University, they were not justi-

fied in subjecting the exercise of their
own chartered privileges [of confer-
ring degrees] to the controuling nega-
tive of another body.'''' But the Charter
of Elizabeth does not give to the
College the power of conferring De-
grees, but only the power of pre-
scribing the Acts and scholastic exer-
cises for obtaining Degrees. The
College never did confer the Degree,
but only presented the candidate to
the Chancellor, or Vice- Chancellor,
who conferred the Degree by Royal
authority. They were perfectly j usti-
fied in imposing any lawful condition,
as a criterion of his fitness for a De-
gree, before presenting the candidate,
and the condition of being approved
by the University seems a very rea-
sonable one. " 2. The clause in the
Charter of Elizabeth [quoted -in last
note] cannot be maintained to relate
to the University ; it is merely a direc-
tion auxiliary to the formation of the
Statutes of the new College or Uni-
versity." But this is surely begging
the whole question. "3. The Fellows
did not consider the University Sta-
tutes as authorized by the Charter,
since they solicited for this purpose,
first a Charter and afterwards a
Patent." In the original the word is
Patents Bedell's Diary., March 16,


The clause granting to the Provost and Fellows this power
of making statutes for the University is followed immediately by
a clause prohibiting all persons in any other places (other than
the University) to profess or teach the liberal Arts within the

i6||. They desired a Patent for the
University to dispel the doubts fac-
tiously raised concerning the Univer-
sity Statutes, and sent a transcript of
those then in use ; they had a copy made
of the College Statutes also, that they
might let the King's advisers see all
that had been done about the Statutes
under the Charter, and the Patents
copied were probably the Patents of
Elizabeth and James I. (See Miller,
Examination, ^^c, p. 20). Bedell, in
a letter from London to the Fellows
(Apr. I, 1628), now among the Col-
lege papers, says — " mindful of the
business you committed to me, I have
made a draught of the University
Statutes." These were therefore not
the University Statutes " drawn " the
year before. "4. The Charter of
Charles seems to have withdrawn the
powerconveyed by the clause supposed
to relate to University Statutes, in-
clnding it with the other under the
uords hanc potestatem." But the
Charter of Charles quotes both
clauses, and then adds : — " Nos
hanc potestatem, Statuta et ordi-
nationes condendi et constituendi
prasfatis Prseposito et sociis ....
prius concessam .... nobismet
Ipsis .... modo reversari ....
volumus." Here the words of the first
clause, relating to the College Sta-
tutes, are recited, and nothing is said
of the second clause. It is evident,

therefore, that the words hanc potes-
tatem were intended to refer to the
first clause, and that the power really
withdrawn by the Charter of Char-
les, is the power of making statutes for
the College : the power of selectinfjj
statutes from the usages of the Univer-
sities of Cambridge or Oxford, re-
mains as Elizabeth had left it.

No better evidence of this can
be desired than the passage from
Carte's life of Ormonde, cited in
Dr. Miller's Postscript (p 14). We
are there told that in 1660 "Bp.
Jeremy Taylor was employed in
framing statutes for the University,
thereby finishing ichat the great Arch-
bishop Laud had left imperfect, hav-
ing oidy digested and established a
body of statutes fur the College.''^
But how could Taylor ^wi5A Laud's
work unless there had been a power
originally granted to make statutes
for the University, as well as for the
College; andifthe Charter of Charles,
in 1637, had repealed this power, as
Dr. Miller thinks, both in reference
to the College and the University, by
what authority did Taylor employ
himself, in 1660, in framing statutes
for the University ? Is it not clear
that Taylor must have believed that
the power of making statutes, as
granted in Elizabeth's Charter, still
remained, notwithstanding the Char-
ter of Charles, and that the Colk'ge


limits of the Queen's Kingdom of Ireland, without her special

The next clause of the Charter defines the privileges of stu-
dents, as members of the University, in reference to the right of
obtaining Degrees in all Arts and Faculties. The vs^ords are
important : " Cum gradus quosdam in Artibus et Facultatibus
constitui litcris fuisse adjumento compertum sit, ordinamus per
pra^sentes, ut studiosi in hoc Collegio sanctse et individuse Trini-
tatis Elizabethse Regin^ juxta Dublin, libertatem et facultatem
habeant, Gradus tam Baccalaureatiis, Magisterii, et Doctorattis,
juxta tenipus idoneum, in omnibus Artibus et Facultatibus obti-

Here it is to be observed, i. That the Queen, considering
the great benefit to letters of Academic degrees, grants, imme-
diately from Herself, v^ithout the mention of any subordinate
authority, the privilege of obtaining degrees, to the students of
the College, and to the students of the College only, including
the Fellows, as appears from the next clause, which limits the

Statutes, sanctioned by Laud, left Charles I., proving that the King did

the duty prescribed to the College not desire to impose upon the College

unfinished., so long as the University even his own Royal Statutes, without

Statutes were incomplete. It must the sanction of the Chancellor of the

be borne in mind that the Statutes University.

signed and corrected by Laud, as ^ " Et pr^sertim ne artes liberales
Chancellor of the University, are quispiam ullis aliis in locis publice
the Statutes of Charles. Carte says profiteatur, aut edoceat, intra regni
that Laud's work was incomplete, al- nostri Hibernise limites, sine licentia
though he had sanctioned the CoZZeg-e nostri speciali." The object of this
Statutes : but why incomplete ? Evi- clause seems to have been to secure
dently because the University Statutes what, as we have seen, was deemed
had not been similarly sanctioned, essential to an University — that there
although equally enjoined by the should be no public Professors of the
Charter. And accordingly Bishop liberal arts in more than one place,
Jeremy Taylor, on succeeding to the or except where the University had
Office of Vice -Chancellor, set himself jurisdiction; and that such instruction
tocomplcte the work which Laud had should be given only with special
left unfinished. It is an important licence from the Crown, and there-
fact that Laud, by the King's desire, fore not in opposition to the Univer-
signed every page of the Statutes of sity, or by disloyal persons.


duration of Fellowships to seven full years after taking the De-
gree of Master.

2. From this it follows that the students constitute a special
society, although not in the strictly legal sense a corporation ;
and that all students of the College, although not members of
the College Corporation (unless they be Fellows or Scholars of
the College), are members of the University, whether the Uni-
versity be a corporation or not : for it is by no means essential
to an University that it should be a corporate body, in the mo-
dern legal sense. It is in any case a Society ; and the privilege
of taking all Degrees, in all Arts and Faculties, which Elizabeth's
Charter grants to all students of Trinity College, binds them to-
gether, as belonging to that Society, and makes them ipso facto
on their matriculation members of the University.*

3. Again, it is to be observed that the students of the Col-
lege, who alone are concerned in the privilege granted, are em-
powered to take all the old Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and
Doctor, in all the old Studies, Arts, and Faculties, subject only

" This is the true ancient notion of lars of the University of Cambridge [or

an University. The University of Oxford]," which no doubt was taken

Paris never had a Charter, Kcgal or from their old designations, showing

Papal, although it has been recog- that their matriculated students, or

nised by both Sovereigns and Popes, Scholars, were members of the cor-

and has been granted many privileges poration of the University, and there

under the name of an University. is therefore no difficulty in supposing

*^ Ni les Diplomes des rois, ni les all students to be members of the Uni-

Biillesdes Papes, n'onterige formelle- versity of Dublin, although it is not a

ment les ecoles de Paris en corps de corporation. The Charter 21 "Vict, has

rUniversite. Cette compagnie est indeed incorporated, most uselessly,

formee d'elle meme par I'Association the Senate of the University, but not

de ses membres," &c. — Halmagrand, the University itself The style and

Origine de V Universite, p. 66. Oxford title of this new Corporation is, " The

and Cambridge were not incorporated Chancellor, Doctors, and Masters of

by an Act of Parliament, until 13 the University of Dublin." No men -

Eliz. c. 29, twenty one years only be- tion is made of the Scholars or ^^m-

fore the foundation of the University diosi ; and therefore not all members,

of Dublin. Their corporate title is but only the governing members of

" The Chancellor, Masters, and Scho- the University, are incorporated. It is


to the restriction that the Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and
Doctor be taken juxta tempiis idoneum, i. e., according to the
rules of time or standing, fixed by the usages of other Universi-
ties, and particularly Cambridge,^ which had been especially
followed in the times and rules for taking Degrees.

Then follows in the ordinary printed copies of Elizabeth's
Charter a clause (which ought to have been in a parenthesis),
defining the duration of Fellowships.*' With this we have no
concern at present ; but the words that immediately follow are
connected with the clause quoted p. xx, ending with the words,
"in omnibus artibus et facultatibus obtinendi." The real mean-
ing of the passage has been generally misunderstood.*^ It enacts
that the students spoken of as entitled to take Degrees, or
who have taken Degrees, are to have the power of electing
and creating the necessary University officers, with the excep-
tion of the Chancellor, the first Chancellor having been nomi-
nated in the Charter, and the Provost and Fellows empowered
to elect on all subsequent vacancies.'^

probable that the word " Scholars" bent, idemque tempus nobiscum ob-

in the Corporate title of Trin. Coll. servant in gradibus capessendis." —

Dublin was meant to have the same ^fac DonneWs edit., p. i66.
signification that it has in the Corpo- ^ Subsequently repealed by the

rate title of Cambridge and Oxford. Charter of Charles T. (Mac DonnelVs

They were, however, from the earliest edit., p. 14.)

time distinguished as " Scholares " It seems to have been misunder-

sumptibus Collegii sustentandi," and stood even in the Charter of Charles

were regarded as possessing many I. (Mac DonneWs edit., ]). 14); for it

corporate privileges which were de- is there passed over without notice,

nied to ordmarj Studiosi. The Scho- as if it had been consistent with the

lars who are members of the College new enactments of the Caroline Sta-

Corporation are called Discipuli or tutes.

Discipuli Scholares in the Statutes of "^ The whole passage is as follows: —
Charles I., because the Junior Fellows, " -E^ ut intra se \_Studiosi'\ -pro \m-
as members of the corporation, were jusmodi gradibus assequendis, Un-
considered as Scholares also. heant libertatem, omnia acta et scho-
See Regul(B seu Consuetudines lastica exercitia adimplendi, quemad-
ZTniversitatis^c.iv. — "ApudCantabri- modum Prjeposito et majori parti