Dublin) Trinity College (Dublin.

A catalogue of graduates who have proceeded to degrees in the University of Dublin, from the earliest recorded commencements to July, 1866: with supplement to December l6, l868 online

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gienses .... qui eadem statu ta ha- Sociorum visum fuerit ; ac ut on.nes


It may seem strange, and to modern ideas it is strange, that
the nomination and election of officers of such importance as
the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors should have been committed
to the general body of the University, consisting of all Gra-
duates, and even of matriculated Undergraduates. But this is
quite consistent with the ancient notion of an University,* and
is an evident proof that all matriculated students, as well as the
Graduates, were regarded as members of the University, in the
sense that has been explained.''

persona s pro hujusmodi rebus melius
promoiendis, eligere, creare, norni-
nare^ et ordinare posstnt, sive sit Pro-
Cancellarius, Procurator, aut Procu-
ratores, (nam Cancellarii dignitatem
.... Guilielmo Cecillio Domino Ba-
ronideBurghley .... delegatamap-
probamus), et ut pos'tliac idoneam hu-
jusmodi personam, cum defuerit, pro
hujus Collegii Cancellario Prajpositus
et major pars Sociorum eligant, or-
dinamus." The words given in Ita-
lics (if read by themselves) show the
construction of the passage, which is
obscure, not in itself, but because it is
complicated by parentheses. The
Studiosi are evidently those to whom
the election of Vice-Chancellor and
Proctors, &c., is committed.

In the University of Paris the
Rector, who was supreme governor
and chief president of all the facul-
ties, was chosen by the lowest of them
all, the faculty of Arts, which in-
cluded undergraduates. This at least
was the case from the year 1 249, when
the faculty of Arts had been divided

into four provinces or nations Hal-

magrand, Orig. de V Universife, p. 67.

*" In the beginning of the year

1885 soon after the new Charter

(21 Vict.) had incorporated the Uni-
versity Senate, a case was laid before
the eminent lawyer, F. A. Fitzgerald,
now second Baron of the Exchequer.
It is a great gratification to me to
find that in his opinion on this case
so high an authority has taken
nearly the same view that I have
been quite independently led to
adopt. I shall venture to quote a
portion of this valuable opinion,
which was privately printed, at the
time. Baron Fitzgerald says : —

" The English Universities were lay
corporations, having a distinct corpo-
rate existence from the several eleemo-
synary corpor.ations in them, called
Colleges. But the members of these
University Corporations were not
merely the proper members of the
several College Corporations, but in-
cluded the Chancellor, the Professors,
and every Graduate, and every ma-
triculated Undergraduate student in
each and every one of these Colleges.
I Kydd. 328, and Statute isEliz. c.
29. Every student in any College be-
came on matriculation, though not a
member of the College Corporation,
a member of the University Corpora-
tion,just as the freeman of a corporate


It is true that, by the Statutes of Charles I., this power of
electing the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors has been taken from

town, who may constitute no part of
the governing body of the corporation,
is yet a member of the corporation.

" To be, then, a member of the Uni-
versity Corporation, it was essential
that a student should belong to some
College in the University, but not that
he should be a member of the College
Corporation ; and upon matriculation,
though he did not become a member
of the College Corporation, he did
become a member of and free of the
University Corporation.

"Of course if there had happened to
be but one College in the University,
no student who had not been admit-
ted into that College could be a mem-
ber of the University, but on matri-
culation he would have been a mem-
ber of the University, though, by the
constitution of the College, he might
not be a member of it, qua Corpo-

'* Now what the Charter of Eliza-
beth does after constituting the Pro-
vost, Fellows, and Scholars a corpora-
tion, " matrem Universitatis," is to
give to all the Studiosi in the College
(including to be sure the members of
the corporation, in their individual
capacities, but comprehending also
every student to be admitted to the
College) the privilege of obtaining
Degrees, and for that purpose, of per-
forming all such acts and exercises
as the Provost and major part of the
Fellows of the College should think
fit, and of electing, creating, and ap-

pointing all proper officers for that
purpose, with the exception of a
Chancellor, whose first appointment
is made by the Charter itself, and
whose subsequent appointment is to
belong to the Provost and major part
of the Fellows.

" Nothing appears to be more clear
(nothwithstanding the singular mode
of punctuation adopted in the printed
form of the Statutes, which, I may
observe, is not followed, and indeed
could not well be in the recital of the
same Charter by Charles I.) than
that the only University privileges
mentioned were given, not to the Cor-
poration of the College, or to those
particular students who alone are
"members of the Corporation, but to
each and every student admitted to
the College as well.

"The consequence of this, of course,
would be, that, by the mere creation
of any other College in the Univer-
sity, each and every Studiosus admit-
ted to it, whether belonging to that
new College Corporation or not,
would become entitled to the Uni-
versity privileges.

" This is what I apprehend is meant
by Mater Universitatis ; every alum-
nus of the College, and not merely
the proper members of that corpora-
tion, became, by being such alumnus,
entitled to University privileges, and
a member of the University. The
College was Mater Universitatis be-
cause by the first foundation her


the University, and given to the Provost and Senior Fellows of
the College,^ who are now to have the sole power of the govern-
ment of the College, to elect all Fellows, Officers, Scholars, and
servants of the College, and to define and conclude the confer-
ring of Degrees. But Baron Fitzgerald gives it as his opinion
that there is nothing in the Charter or Statutes of Charles I., nor
in any other Charter, to deprive the Students and Graduates of
the privilege granted them by Elizabeth, and that they are now

children, and her children only, con-
stituted the University.

"But though so far the analogy of
the English Universities was carried
out, the enjoyment of those privi-
leges was not secured to the students
by making them, in conjunction with
the Chancellor and Professors, a cor-
poration (most probably, I should say,
because the constitution of other
Colleges in the University was con-
templated), but it was secured to
them by appointing a Chancellor to
exercise the Royal function of con-
ferring Degrees, and providing for
future appointments to that office by
the Provost and Fellows of the Col-
lege, and by giving to the Studiosi
themselves the power of electing
Proctors and all other necessary offi-
cers for the purpose.

" This is altered by the Charter of
Charles I., which gives, with the con-
sent of the College Corporation, to
the Provost and Senior Fellows the
right of appointing the Chancellor,
Proctors, and other necessary officers;
but there is nothing that I can find,
either in the Charter or Statutes of
Charles, or any other Statutes or
Charter, to take away further the

University privileges given by the
Charter of Elizabeth to the whole
body of students; and in my judg-
ment, each and every Graduate, and
each and every student admitted to
Trinity College, and matriculated,
was, antecedently to the Letter Patent
of the Queen [meaning the Letter
Patent of2istVict.],andisa member
of the University in the only sense
in which the University had or has
an existence.

" It is, I apprehend, in this sense that
the Letter Patent of James I. recites
that Trinity College is and is ac-
counted an University, and has the
privileges of an University, and that
the Charter of Charles describes it
as a College with the privileges of an
University; not that the privileges
belong to it qua corporation, but be-
cause the privileges do belong to its
alumni, and to its alumni only."

° See the Stat. Car. /., cap. iv

" Volumus, igitur, ut Praspositus et
horum Seniorum pars major (nempe
quatuor) Collegii regimen, electiones
omnes Sociorum, Officiariorum, Dis-
cipulorum, et Ministrorum Collegii,
graduumque coUationes, definiant et


as much and as fully members of the University as they were
before the Letters Patent of 21 Vict.

The words of the Statutes of Charles I. (cap. 4) just quoted —
"Graduumque collationes definiant et concludant," recognize the
power of the College to make regulations for conferring Degrees
as fully as the words of Elizabeth, that the Provost and Fellows
shall prescribe all Acts and scholastic exercises, as well as cere-
monial, for conferring Degrees, and it was admitted by all that
they had that power from Elizabeth. Accordingly, from the
earliest time, the Provost and Fellows made Statutes for the Uni-
versity. The Statutes for the College seem to have been com-
pleted and put in force about 1607 f the Statutes for the Uni-
versity, in or about 161 5. Of these last there is in existence the
copy signed by the Fellows, in Provost Temple's handwriting. It
wants, unfortunately, aleafwhich containedthe first four chapters.^
The date when these Statutes were subscribed by the Fellows
is acertained by the following considerations : — John Pikeman
has put his name to them. He was sworn a Fellow 21st October,
1 61 5; these Statutes are therefore later than that date. Again,
Kobt. Jones, B. Taylor, and Thos. Peyton were Senior Fellows
(as we know from their signatures to other papers), on 26th
June, i6i8, but they have not signed these Statutes, which were
therefore prior to 1618. We have thus two limiting dates of
2ist October, 1615, and 26th June, 1618, between which the

* In the College accounts for the Chaps. 6-ii inclusive, are subscribed

Quarter beginning September, 1609, byTempleandtheFellows, viz., John

there is the following entry: — "To Egerton, Edw. Warren, Jo. Piddocke,

the Beadle for copying out the College or (as he has also signed himself)

Statutes, o. 10. o." In the following Pinnocke, Robt. Ussher, and John

Quarter, 9th March, i6oi%, we have Pikeman. Hence it appears that

the first mention made of censures Dr. Miller is in error when he says

upon students for offending against " that the University Statutes do not

the Statutes. appear to have received any formal

^ Chaps. 5-", inclusive, are in ratification even from the Provost

Temple's hand, also probably chap. and Fellows." Exam. p. 20. Temple

17, except the concluding paragraph, has in no instance signed himself Pro-

which is in Bishop Bedell's hand. ros^, although his name is always first.


University Statutes must have been formally adopted by the Col-
lege : probably soon afterthe aythMay, i6i 7, on which day Provost
Temple returned from England, having been absent just a year.

Again, on Jan. 8, 161 3, it was enacted, in presence of the
Vice-Chancellor (Dr. Dun) and the Fellows, that there should
be but one public Commencements of the University, viz., on the
first Monday after the end of Trinity Term (i. e. after 8 July) . This
enactment occurs chap. x. of these Statutes, with this alteration,
that two days, viz., the Monday and Tuesday after the 8th of
July, are specified as days for the more solemn Commence-
ments ; and the Vice-Chancellor is empowered to change the
days for any others, if the prevalence of pestilence or any other
cause should render it impossible to hold the Commencements
at the usual time.*

In the I ith Chapter of Temple's Statutes'" there is an allusion
to the great Commencements held in St. Patrick's Cathedral,
Aug. 17 and 18, 16 14, at which the Lord Lieutenant and Officers
of State were present, and at which James Ussher, afterwards
the celebrated Archbishop, took his Degree of D. D.

These Commencements, with the ceremonies then observed at
conferring the Degrees, are proposed, in the Chapter referred to,

" " Statuimus igitur et ordinaraus, recent form of the University Sta-
ut magna ilia et publica Academiae tutes, in the Senior Proctor's book,
comitiaadperficiendamGraduatorum appoints but one day of annual
inaugurationem inchoentur et cele- Commencements (cap. 11), viz. the
brentur die Lunaj et Martis, qui fini- Tuesday next following the 8th of
turn in urbe Dubliniensi terminum July. These Statutes are generally
Trinitatis primus consequatur. Quo believed to have been drawn up by
tempore si Pestis, aut alia gravior Bishop Bedell, and corrected byBishop
causa obstiterit, quo minus consueti Jeremy Taylor, for which reason we
ritus et celebritates peragi possint, call them Taylor's : but they are
placet ut dies altera pro eo vice, ju- founded upon Provost Temple's Sta-
dice Vice-Cancellario, constituatur." tutes, and in many places retain a
— Temple's Statutes, cap. x. These verbal coincidence,
enactments relate to the one solemn '' This chapter is headed " Be Ex-
Commencements held annually, but ercitiis quae in Academiae solennibus
do not forbid less formal meetings comitiis prsestandfe sunt ; et quo die
for conferring Degrees. The more et ordine."


as the model to be observed on all other similar occasions ; from
which we are perhaps to infer that these ceremonies had never
before been so exactly observed.* From this passage, however,
it is certain that the Statutes extant in Temple's handwriting
were drawn up after the year 1614, although the substance of
them had probably been in use before that date. For many
years there was no fixed day for the annual Commencements'*
or Comitia ; the first on record was on Shrove Tuesday, 160^;
and we do not find any mention of another until August or Sep-
tember, 1608. Doubtless, however, there were others held in
the interval, and occasional Degrees were conferred on other
days, not regular Commencements, before 1600; but they are not
recorded even in the College accounts.*^ Shrove Tuesday, on which

" The words are " Cum in publica
et solenni graduatoriim inauguratione
quae Aug. 17 et 18, 16 14, in aede
Sancti Patricii celebrata est, et ea
exercitia prtestita sint, quae tantae
solemnitati maxime convenire vide-
bantur, et eo etiam ordine quo decuit :
placet ut ad prasdictae inaugurationis
legem, quod ad substantialia pertinet,
consequentium inaugurationum cele-
bratio instituatur." A contemporary
account of the ceremonies observed at
these Commencements, which should
be dated 1614 (i.e., i6i|, not 1612),
has been published by Dr. Elrington
in his Life of Archbishop Ussher, from
the Chronicle of Lord Chichester's
government of Ireland. (See the De-
siderata Curiosa Hibern., p. 136.)
Ussher's Works^YoX. i., Append. 11.,
p. xvii.

•> " Docuit multorum annorum usus

minus commode interdum huic Aca-

demiae in gradibus conferendis succes-

sisse, eo quod publicae et solenni gra-

. duatorum inaugurationi nullum adhuc

certum tempus praescriberetur." —
Temple's Stat., CSL]^. X. It was there-
fore about i6i6or 1617 that the Com-
mencements began to be held on a
fixed day annually. From that time
to about the end of Temple's Provost-
ship we find them very regularly ce-
lebrated on the Monday or Tuesday
following the 8th of July.

■= The accounts of these first Com-
mencements were kept by Dr. Chal-
loner, probably because he was then
Bursar, or Proctor ; he is then for
the first time styled " Mr. Doctor
Challoner,'' and therefore probably
took his degree of D. D. on this oc-
casion. His account of the expenses
incurred by the College is asfollows: —
" To Mr. Ware, for the College din-
ner, £18. 6. 8. For six gowns for
six Masters, £17. 10. o., and for three
gowns for Sophisters, £3. 6. o."
Hence it appears that the custom of
a College dinner at Commencements
was as old as 1 600. The dinner is en-
joined in Taylor's Statutes, cap. xi.


the Orst Commencements in i6o^ were held, has continued to the
present times to be one of the days of annual Commencements.

In the Statutes of Temple we find the original of some enact-
ments which still continue a part of the constitution of the
University Senate. I allude particularly to the institution of
the Caput, and to the necessity of a private grace from the Col-
lege, preparatory to the public grace from the University.*

These rules are of the greatest importance, as a security
against the possibility of unfit persons being admitted to De-
grees. The Proctors having examined the matter for them-
selves, are required to lay before the private meeting of the
Provost and Senior Fellows a list of the Candidates who have
duly performed all the prescribed acts and exercises for their
several Degrees, and whom they believe to be in other respects
qualified. If the moral character, the loyalty, or the religious
opinions of the Candidate be objected to, the accusation can be
enquired into before the Degree is brought before the Senate ;
witnesses, if necessary, maybe examined before the Provost and
Senior Fellows ; the Deans, the Tutors, the Proctors, and Pro-
fessors may be summoned to give their testimony, and the en-
quiry is conducted without unnecessary publicity. The cha-
racter of the Candidate, for any ordinary offence, is in no way
compromised, even though the result be unfavourable to him.

The University consisted in Temple's time, as it does now,
of the Chancellor, or Vice- Chancellor, with the congregation of
Doctors and Masters, who constitute the Senate ; and the Captit
Senatus Academici. Besides these, there is the general Assembly''
of the University, to which Undergraduates, and Bachelors of
Arts, who have no seat or vote in the Senate, are admissible.

• " Gratiam privatam dicimus earn partis SociorumSeniorimi, an tea com-

approbationem, quam a Collegio in mendato." — Taylor's Statutes, cefp.iv.
quo degit candidatus ante consequi- ^ This general Assembly, including

tur, quam ad petendam in Academia Undergraduates, is recognized when

gratiam, accedat." — lemple's Stat,, the University goes in procession, as

cap. 15. "Nemini publica Senatus to the funeral of some eminent mem -

Academici gratia concedatur, nisi ber, or to present an address to the

privata gratia Frsepositi et majoris Crown or to the Lord Lieutenant.


The Caput ^ormexly consisted of two individuals only— the
Vice-chancellor and the Provost of Trinity College— but now of
three members, the Senior Master Non-Regent having been
added to the original two,^ when the number of Masters in-
creased. Each member of the Caput has a veto upon every
grace for a Degree, to prohibit its being proposed to the rest of
the Senate ; or if proposed, to render it null and void.

This, it has been said, is a very extreme power, giving each
member of the Caput separately an irresponsible veto upon every
proposed grace for a Degree. Recent legislation, however,
has increased this power, and given a veto to each member
of the Caput, not only upon graces for Degrees, but also upon
every law, bye-law, or grace whatsoever, proposed to them by
the Provost and Senior Fellows ; and no grace for any purpose
whatsoever can be proposed to the Senate which has not first
been adopted by the Provost and Senior Fellows. — See the
Letters Patent, 21 Vict.

It should be remembered that a body like the University,
not bound by oath, or even by any promise to obey the Vice-
Chancellor, required some very strong measure to hold them to
their duty. What could be more effectual than a power given
to every individual member of the Caput of stopping all De-
grees and nullifying the proceedings — especially as the members of

» " Cum AcademisB apud nos con- separatim turn Pro-Cancellarii, turn

ventus paucis adhuc regentibus et Prsepositi impedire quo minus reliquo

non regentibus constet, minlme con- Senatui proponatur ; et si quando

sentaneum esse duximus in Capitis propositafuerit,voceneganteeandem.

numerum plures ascisscere quam Tpevimere.^^— Templets Stat., cap. 17.

duos, ne suffragiorum negantium Compare this with cap. 2 of the more

multitudo rebus gerendis obstet. Ca- recent Statutes that we have called

put igitur de Pro-Cancellario et Col- Taylor's. Temple distinguishes by

legii Trinitatis Praeposito constitutum the term "Full Degree," those De-

est. Capitis autem authoritas in grees which have been publicly con-

quavis Academica congregatione hu- ferred in the Senate, in contrast with

jusmodi existat : si qua petitio ad those which have received only the

gradum vel quid aliud consequendum Private Grace of the Provost and

ofFeratur, esto In potestate et arbitrio Fellows.


the Caput were not obliged to state any reasons for their veto,
which might have compromised the good name of the University?
These enactments have been censured as contradicting the
Royal Charters and Statutes. The Domus Congregationis, or the
members composing such an assembly, Dr. Miller says, have
not been defined; the Senior Master Non-Regent "is invested
with very high authority, although it is not determined in any
either of these Statutes of the University, or of the Royal
Charters and Statutes of the College, what is meant by the
distinction between the Regent and Non-Regent Masters."* Thus
" an arbitrary power of prohibiting Degrees is entrusted to three
distinct persons, one of whom is not even mentioned by the Royal
Charters and Statutes." But in all these cases the terms, com-
plained of as left undefined, are well known, and understood as
in use at all Universities. The House of Congregation is the
great congregation of the University, consisting of all graduates
above the Degree of A.B., and the Yice-Chancellor, as president,
is given the power of compelling their attendance by pecuniary
fines. So also the Regent-Masters were those whose duty it
was regere Scholas, according to the ancient method of teaching
by scholastic disputation : the Non- Regents were those who, by
their standing, were discharged from that duty. Moreover, the
Charter of Ehzabeth speaks of the Chancellor, Vice- Chancellor,
and Proctors, without defining the duties or functions of those
officers, assuming that they were sufficiently well known. But
the " grand incongruity," we are told, between the University
Statutes and those given by the Crown, is that a Degree, to
which the Provost and Senior Fellows'" had consented, might

' In Archbishop De Bicknor's Sta- pp. ix., x., from Alan's Regist.

tutes for the University of Dublin in *> The distinction between Senior

1320, the words Regent-Master fre- and Junior Fellows was first made in

quently occur, in such a manner as Temple's time, about 1610; and an

to show that no definition or explana- elaborate argument in defence of

was necessary. See Harris's Ware, it, in Temple's handwriting, exists

Aniiq. p. 243 ; De Burgo. Hib. Bom. among the College papers. In Be-

p. 190, viii. ; M&son, Hist, of St. Pa- dell's College Statutes this distinc-

tricK's Cathedral^ Append. No. vii., tion is continued, and in the Sta-


afterwards be stopped without any cause assigned ; and this in
two different ways, either by the interposition of any one of the
three members of the Caput, or by the votes of the majority of
the Academic Senate ; whereas the Charter and authentic Sta-
tutes, interpreting these Charters, refer the conclusive determi-
nation of such matters to the Board."^

In addition to the considerations already adduced to show
the futility of this " grand incongruity," it should be remarked
that the Provost and Senior Fellows have reserved to them-
selves the first veto upon Degrees, seeing that no Degree can be
proposed to the Caput or to the Senate, which has not first been
passed by them ; and so long as they retain this power, it is un-
just to censure them for transferring their privilege " of confer-
ring Degrees" to another body. They have done nothing of the
sort : the right of conferring Degrees is not given to the Senatus
Academicus, even if it ever belonged to the Board: if the Pro-
vost and Senior Fellows withdraw from the meeting or withhold
their consent, there is no power in their absence of conferring
Degrees in the Senate, or transacting any other business. In no
case can the Senate do more than express their dissent, which has