Dublin) Trinity College (Dublin.

A catalogue of graduates who have proceeded to degrees in the University of Dublin, from the earliest recorded commencements to July, 1866: with supplement to December l6, l868 online

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no effect except a majority of that body concur in it. And even
then the supplication for the Degree must be made three times,
and three times refused (the third time to be deferred to a sub-
sequent meeting). The vote of the Caput is a different thing, as
the veto of an individual member can hinder the Degree being

tutes of Charles I. it has been finally these words :—" Inter hos septem

confirmed. The Junior Fellows were (quos solos proprio nomine Sociorum

at first termed Socii Prohationarii ; in Charta fundationis accipiendos de-

and were included by Provost Bedell cernimus) cooptentur," &c., and in

in the statutable rank of the Scholars cap. v., headed — "De Scholaribus sive

of Elizabeth's Charter, evidently to DIscipulIs," we have " Reliquum Col-'

prevent the claim which the Junior legii Corpus scholaribus constat ; quo

Fellows then made, owing to their nomine, turn Discipuli, tum Socii

being called Fellows, of taking a part Juniores comprehenduntur." These

in the government of the College, Statutes were sanctioned about 1628.
making Statutes, &c. In Bedell's * Miller, Exmnin., p. 26.

College Statutes (cap. vi.) we have


proposed to the rest of the Senate for that time. But it will be ob-
vious how strongly these regulations tend to repress all sudden
actions from heat or prejudice, and at the same time to draw
out the feeling of the University, if any such exists, against the
admission of any objectionable Graduate into their society. Who
will say that the Charter or Royal Statutes prohibit the Provost
and Senior Fellows from fortifying themselves by this additional
security, of obtaining the consent of the Senate, rather than run
the risk of proposing an improper person for a Degree?*

* We may notice here some of
Dr. Miller's minor objections against
the University Statutes : — i. He finds
fault with the 4th chapter of these Sta-
tutes because it limits the admission of
students in the case of ad eundem De-
grees to those who had previously gra-
duated at Cambridge," tbatUniversity
having the same Statutes and the same
time for conferring Degrees, "whereas
the Charter of Elizabeth directs that
the two Universities of England should
be indifferently adopted, so far as
mightbe suitable for the circumstances
of Dublin (p. 2). But the Charter
of Elizabeth says that the Provost
and Fellows of Dublin may select
rules from either of the English
Universities, ex alterutra Academia,
Ca7itabrigiensi aut Oxoniensi. They
were not bound by this enactment to
choose Statutes fi-om both the Eng-
lish Universities ; and in the case of
ad eundem degrees they naturally
preferred the usages of Cambridge,
the University with which they were
familiar, their founders and earlier
Provosts having been all from Cam-
bridge. 2. The Vice- Chancellor is
given a control over the House
of Congregation which is denied

to the Provost. But this a ridi-
culous objection. The Vice-Chan-
cellor, in the absence of the Chan-
cellor, is the head of the University,
the chairman of its meetings, and
therefore the natural person to have
control over its members, and to en -
force good order (p. 26). 3. The
statement of Dr. Miller that the "ex-
clusive power of conferring Degrees
has been vested in the Board " is a
mistake. No such power is vested
in the Board, who only have the
power of prescribing the acts and
exercises required for the several
Degrees, and of presenting to the
Senate those who have performed
the exercises required. 4. Another
objection is a quibble on the election
of the Senior Master Non-Regent,
who is proposed to the Senate by the
Vice-Chancellor and the Provost.
Dr. Miller thinks that this language
gives the Senate no right of rejecting
the person so proposed. But common
sense would say that he is proposed
that it may be seen whether the Se-
nate approves of the nomination or
not. If not, the process can be re-
peated. His being "the Senior Non-
Regent Master resident in the Cul-


The University Statutes of Sir William Temple are princi-
pally devoted to what not even Dr. Miller can deny was the
chartered duty of the Provost and Senior Fellows, viz. to fix the
proper time to be spent in study, the tempus idoneum for the se-
veral Degrees; and also to prescribe the acts and exercises.
Thus, cap. vi., it is enacted that the student shall be of four
years' standingfrom his matriculation, and not less than that stand-

lege" would seem to designate him
sufficiently without any election. He
is presumed to be well known to all
present; and it is evident that no
election is intended, only an assent
on the part of the Senate, or at least
the absence of any objection. 5.
Again it seems that the title page of
the various editions of the University
Statutes has been altered, from which
Dr. Miller infers "a proof of the un-
certainty of opinion in regard to their
natui-e and authority."— The MS,
copy, which we have called Taylor's,
gives them simply the title of Statuta
Universitatis ; and the first printed
edition, " Nunc ■primum edita^'' Dub-
lin. 1738, and some later reprints,
have Statuta seu RegulcB Universi-
tatis pro solenniori graduum colla-
tione ; in other editions the title is
Consuetudines seu Regulce Universi-
tatis ; but there is no doubt ex-
pressed in any of the changes of title,
as to the authority of these Statutes,
rules, or customs of the University:
these words all virtually mean the
same, and the objection is without
force. I suspect the whole matter is
no more than this ; the Charter of
Charles I. commanded that the power
of making Statutes should thenceforth
be reserved to the Crown, and that

the College should in future be go-
verned by the new Statutes, and no
other. " Mandantes prsedictis Praepo-
sito, &c. hisce Statutis nostris, et non
aliis, per omne sevum obedire, &c."
Hence it was deemed necessary to
erase the word from the title of the
University Statutes, lest it should
seem that the College continued to
claim the power of making Statutes
notwithstanding the repeal of that
power by Charles I. This caution,
however, was unnecessary, because
the power of which they were de-
prived was the power of mak-
ing Statutes for the College, not
the power of making Statutes for
the University. It is curious that
the title of the Old Statutes of the
University of Paris is "RegulaB seu
Consuetudines, aut Statuta observata
ab anti quo tempore ;" D'Acherii Spi-
ci;7.,iii. 735.6. The words were then
(137 1) evidently synonymous. Dr.
Miller seems to think that the addition
of the words ,pro solenniori graduum
collatione made in some editions,
"plainly implies that these statutes
were not considered as possessed of
the operative character of Statutes
but merely as composing an academic
pageant, fitted to maintain the pomp
of an University." But if we open



exercises are to be a public disputation " de qujestionibus Philo-
sophicis," viz. two respondencies and two opponencies (one pri-
vately in the College, as the Provost and Senior Fellows shall
appoint, and one publicly in the Schools) ; also one Decla-
mation. Then each Candidate is to appear in the Hall for three
days (from 8 to lo, and 2 to 4 each day), to be examined, by
Examiners appointed by the Vice-Chancellor and the Proctors,
in Greek, Hebrew, and the liberal Arts (Latin seems taken for
granted). If the Candidates perform their exercises satis-
factorily, and have received the consent of the Provost and
Senior Fellows, together with that of the Senate and of the Yice-
Chancellor, they are admitted to the degree of B. A.,'' otherwise
they are rejected for a year, or if hopelessly ignorant, removed
from the College altogether. The Books prescribed for the
Examination are, in Greek, the New Testament, to be rendered
into Latin ; and in Hebrew, the Grammar, with the first two
Psalms, also to be translated into Latin {cap. vii.).

the book we see little or nothing of scribed : for the next clause, in which
pomp or pageant ; the statutes it the exercises are described, begins
enacts are all of them meant as a se- with these words : — " Sed qui futuri
curity that the prescribed acts and sunt Baccalaurei, &c."
exercises have been performed, and ** "Acquotquot judicioExaminato-
that no unfit persons are promoted rum digni comperiuntur qui gradu et
to Degrees. It is ridiculous to sup- titulo Baccalaurei ornentur, ii, inter-
pose that a modern addition, made in cedente consensu Pra3positi et Socio-
the title page, can alter the character rum scniorum Collegii in quo Candi-
and intention of a book, although no dati degunt, deinde majoris partis
alteration has been made in the book Senatus Academic! prsesentis, cum
itself. suffragio Pro-Cancellarii, &c." In
* " Si quis e studentibus a ma- this passage there is an allusion (not
triculationis tempore quadriennium the only one in Temple's Statutes) to
compleverit, licebit ei Baccalaureatum other Colleges in the University,
in artibus suscipere, ac non ante ex- The Candidates are to have the .

pletum id tempus." This seems to of the Provost and Senior Fellows
apply to those who had completed (not of Trinity College, but) of the
the four years before these Statutes College in which they live. This is
were drawn up, and who were not fatal to Dr. Miller's theory of a "pa-
considered liable to the exercises pre- ramount " College.


For the Degree of Master in Arts, the Candidate is to deliver
from the pulpit in the Hall, six public Lectures.^ The Vice-Chan-
cellor and Proctor are to prescribe the portions of these sciences on
which he is to prelect. The Candidate is also to respond once, a
Master of Arts being his opponent. When he has obtained the full
degree of M. A., he is to give a caution that within a year, from
taking the Degree, he will publicly treat some question of Phi-
losophy, and once dispyte, a Bachelor, if possible of the third
year, being respondent. He is also in his own class (in grege
suo), to respond twice, to oppose twice, to declaim once, and to
deliver one sermon or Common-place. In Hebrew and Greek he
is to have knowledge, sufficient to prelect on each language, once.
In Hebrew, on certain chapters of Ecclesiastes, prescribed by the
Vice-Chancellor ; in Greek, on such portions of the first book of
the Odyssey as shall be appointed by the Vice-Chancellor and
the Proctor. The standing for the degree of A. M. is to be three
years after taking the degree of A. B. It is also defined in this
statute that a Master of Arts is to be a Kegent for five years,
according to the custom of Cambridge, as it is expressly said.*'

A Bachelor in Theology was to deliver three prelections on

* The six Lectures are as follows :
viz. I. in Logic, 2. in Arithmetic, 3.
in Geometry, 4. in Astronomy, 5. in
Natural Philosophy, 6, "in Politics."

b This may possibly shew the ad-
vocates of Dr. Miller's views that the
word Non-Regent Master was left
Bnexplained in our Statutes because
it was well known both here and in
Cambridge. The words of the old
statute are as follows: — "Nullis
Bacchalaureis ante perfectus gradus
Magisterii concedatur, quam trien-
nium a suscepto in artibus Bacchalau-
reatu coropleverint. Consecuti vero
perfectum Magisterii Gradum, volu-
mus, ut secundum Cantabrigiensis
Academise consuetudinem, pro ma-

gistris regentibus censeantur et re-
gentiaB suae munus obeant per quin-
quennium, frequentantes scil. Acade-
micos conventus quoties a Provice-
cancellario indicantur, idque induti
habitu Academico, sub poena trium
solidorum." Cap. viii. The Domus
Regentium, or Regent House, al-
though not mentioned or defined,
because it was so well known, is not
even yet altogether forgotten in the
College. The term "Board" also,
now commonly used to signify the
Provost and Senior Fellows in their
legislative capacity, is not defined,
nor so much as mentioned in the


each of three selected passages of the New and Old Testament :
two responsions and two opponencies in Theology, and two ser-
mons, one ad clerum in Latin, and one ad popidum (cap. ix.).

For the Doctorate in Theology, in addition to the foregoing
exercises, the Candidate is to deliver three preelections on the
errors of the Roman Catholic religion ; he is to act as Mode-
rator twice, in a disputation on Theological questions, a Bachelor
in Divinity being disputant, or if such cannot be had, those stu-
dents whom he may be able to engage.

A Bachelor in Theology to be M.A. of seven years' standing;
a Doctor in Theology to be five years a Bachelor in that Faculty.

The Candidate for the Degree of Doctor in Laws, cap. xii.,
must be Master in Arts of seven years' standing, and have spent
that time in the Study of Law ; he must read six prgelections in
Law " in schola, Jure-consultorum ; " he must respond three
times, and oppose three times, " si copia detur eorum quibus in
disputationis arenam descendat."*

The Doctor in Medicine must be of the same standing as a
Doctor in Law ; that is, he must be seven years a diligent stu-
dent in Medicine, after having taken the degree of Master in
Arts. He must read six Lectures in the Medical School. He
must be present at the dissection of three " Anatomies," or human
subjects. He must complete the cure of four different diseases:
and must make himself well acquainted with the simple and
compound medicines of the Pharmacopoeia, by constantly fre-
quenting the Laboratories. He must respond thrice, and oppose
twice in his Faculty : and if a difficulty should occur from any
cause, the Caput is to decide, as in the case of Doctors in Laws
(cap. 13).

This summary of the standing and exercises required for the
several Degrees, will show, that from the earliest times, the es-

* This is in allusion to the small there is no opportunity of holding a

number of Students in Law then in disputation, " propter defectum aut

the University : for the Statutes say, paucitatem eorum, qui legibus dant

" Graduum vero in Juris et Medicinje operam," the Caput shall determine

Studiosos collatio est adhuc apud nos what is to be done,
paulo rarior." It is added that if


sential forms were observed, taken from the usages of Cambridge,
in conferring Degrees. The ceremonies, properly so called,
prescribed by these Statutes, are but few. There was, however,
a public and solemn Meeting of the University held annually on
the Monday and Tuesday next following the last day of Trinity
Term, at which ceremonies were appointed after the model of the
Great Commencements held at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Aug. 17
and 18, i6if, when James Ussher took his D. D. Degree. On
these occasions the Commencements occupied four hours each
day, from 8 to 10, A. M., and from 2 to 4, P. M. On the forenoon,
of the first day {cap. xi.), the ceremonies began by a sermon
ad clerum. Then the Proctor delivered an address explaining
the reasons of the present assembly, the usefulness of Letters?
and an exhortation to cultivate them, and to maintain the dig-
nity of the University. A philosophical disputation, conducted
by Masters in Arts, followed the Proctor's address, and the meeting
was dismissed. On the afternoon of the same day, the Proctor
opened the proceedings by a speech ; a philosophical disputation
of Bachelors followed, and the acts of the day were concluded by
a speech from some Bachelor of Arts distinguished for his elo-
quence. A performance of Music followed. On the morning of
the second day, the Yice-Chancellor, if he should think fit, de-
livered an address ; or this was delivered by the Doctor Cathedrce,
or Moderator of the Theological disputations, if the Vice-Chancel-
lor should not do it himself. The Doctor Cathedrce first offered
prayer; then addressed the meeting ; then turning to his " sons,."
the Candidates for degrees in Theology, he commended them to
those present, and proceeded to create them Doctors. If there were
no Candidate Doctors, he addressed his senior "son"^ andrequired
him to give proof of his progress in Theology by a disputation
on some Theological question. The Moderator then proceeds
to the " determination", which was followed by Music, " Deter-
minationem excipiat Musica ad reficiendum auditorum mentes."

* That is, as I suppose, the Senior presenting'Canclidates in their several
Candidate for the degree of Bache- faculties, still call them " hosce meos-
lor in Theology. The Professors, in filios."


The Candidates are then presented, each "father" exhorting
his "sons," in a somewhat long speech from the pulpit, and be-
fore presenting them "unoquoque patre ante inchoatam prsesen-
tationem e suggest© filios suos longiuscula oratione cohortante."
The Bedell then recites the names of those who have taken
Degrees at the present Commencements, according to the order
of seniority. The Proctor in a set speech declares, " by the
authority committed to him," that the Candidates are now per-
fect Graduates, and dismisses the assembly.

There seems to have been no special business assigned in
these statutes to the University Senate, except listening to these
speeches and exercises, and giving their votes for or against the
Candidates for Degrees, and it seems to have been a very rare
occurrence then, as it is now, to have a Degree stopped, either by
the veto of any member of the Caput, or by a majority of the Senate.

This is, no doubt, a healthy sign. It proves that the Candi-
dates proposed for Degrees, who must have all received the private
grace of the Provost and Senior FelloAvs, have in general been
approved also by the Senate, and that there has been practically
no collision between the two bodies. It is a great mistake to sup-
pose that the powers as to Degrees, committed to the Senate,
were intended " as a check " upon the Provost and Senior Fel-
lows; the Senate itself, as well as the powers entrusted to it, have
been the creation of the Provost and Fellows under the Charter
of Queen Elizabeth ; and it is strange that they should have in-
tended the Senate as a check upon themselves.^

* The late Dublin University Com- Fellows, and that by the Charter of
missioners (1853) in their Report the foundation ; and have not been de-
(p. 9), have said: — "The power of fined by Royal Statute: therefore the
the University Senate, if intended as Senate was not intended as a check
a check on those of the Provost and upon the Board.] The Commission-
Senior Fellows, should not have ers go on to say: — "The power of
been left entirely under their con- negativing Degrees is so rarely exer-
trol, but shovdd have been defined by cised, that the authority of the Senate
Royal Statute." [But the powers of in this respect might be dispensed
the Senate have been left entirely to with, and the absolute power of con-
the control of the Provost and Senior ferring Degrees left with the Provost


There is extant a paper,^ not dated, containing an account of
the Commencements held for the purpose of receiving the Mar-
quis, afterwards Duke of Ormonde, reappointed Lord Lieute-
nant of Ireland, and of restoring him to his former office of
Chancellor of the University. He was created Duke of Ormonde
in the Peerage of Ireland, 30th March, 1661, and Lord Lieu-
tenant, November 4, of the same year.^ He arrived in Dublin
27th July, 1662, and it was probably before the end of that year
that the University received him in state, as described in the
following document. It is remarkable as retaining the same
ceremonial in conferring Degrees, which was enacted by Temple's

and Senior Fellows." In other words,
the choice of Candidates made by
the Board is so very rarely reversed,
that the power of reversing it might
as well be abolished, and an absolute
power left with the Provost and Se-
nior Fellows. It seems to have been
forgotten that the thing here objected
to, a rare exercise of the extreme
power granted to the Senate, is the
best proof that the machinery of the
University works well, and needs no
such extreme measure as the Com-
missioners recommend, for they add :
"As the Senate itself would then
have no real duties, it is our opinion
that it might advantageously be abo-
lished." But has the Senate no real
duties, except the duty of negativing
Degrees ? Is it not their duty to re-
ward the promising and deserving
student ? Is it not their duty to cen-
sure the irregular and immoral by
suspension or deprivation of his De-
gree ? Is it not their duty to hear
well written poems or essays read be-
fore them ? Is it not their duty, if
occasion arise, to address the Vice-

roy, from respect to his person or his
office, and thereby to give the weight
of the University to the support of
loyalty and public order P Is it not
their duty, in case Her Majesty should
visit this part of her Kingdom, to at-
tend upon Her with every possible
mark of respect? Is it not their
duty, on any remarkable public event,
to offer Prizes to the students for the
best scholastic exercise on the sub-
ject proposed ?

It should be said, that when the
College remonstrated against the
abolition of the Senate and of all
University rules or ancient customs,
the Commissioners, with the courtesy
which characterized their whole deal-
ings with the College, made no oppo-
sition, and permitted the original
power of making rules for the Uni-
versity to be confirmed by Royal
Statute (20 & 21 Vict.).

a It is preserved in the MS. room
of the Library, F. i. 21.

^ See University Calendar, Zist
of Chancellors, and notes.


Statutes, and which had probably been in use since the foundation
of" the University. The power of the Senate is recognized by
collecting their Placets. The Domiis Regentiiim is also mentioned,
which recognizes the authority of the Regent Masters. The
office of Bedell seems to have had more dignity than at present,
and he is directed to speak words of which ^'- ad scrutinium' is
now the only relic in existence. It is also to be observed, that if
the date we have assigned to the paper be correct, these Com-
mencements were held 27 years after the Statutes of Charles I.
And yet the Provost and Senior Fellows do not appear to have
supposed that by retaining the old University Statutes'they were
in any way acting inconsistently with their new constitution, or
rendering themselves liable to the serious accusations which Dr.
Miller brings against them, of violating their Charter, transferring
the powers given them by that Charter to another body, and
enacting a code of statutes, rules, or consuetudines, in vain imi-
tation of Cambridge, without any authority from the Crown.

The Paper* is as follows : —

" I. All the Doctors and Masters of the University are to
meet here [i. e. in the College], hence to go formally in hoods

* There are difficulties, chiefly chro- 5th Jan., 1681. The difficulty is that

nological, in the Paper, which for theVice- Chancellor and the Bishop of

some years led me to doubt its Meath are not spoken of as the same ;

authenticity. I allude principally to the mention of a Pro-Yice-Chancel-

the mention of the Bishop of Meath lor is probably a mistake. Another

and the Earl of Ossory. If Henry difficulty is that no Earl of Ossory

Jones was the Bishop of Meath al- appeal's in our books, as having taken

luded to, he had been but just trans- a Degi-ee at Dublin, until 168 1. The

lated to that see (1661, as Ware tells Paper, however, is evidently in a coe-

us), and Jeremy Taylor could not val hand, and the difficulties alluded

have succeeded as Vice- Chancellor in to may be accounted for by errors,

1660 (so dated in the University Ca- arising probably from carelessness,

lendar), for he was not consecrated This carelessness is evident from its

until 27th January, i66i. But be may being without date of day or year,

have been made Vicc-Chancellor im- The Lord Lieutenant, too, is not

mediately afterwards. Henry Jones named, nor is the Degree to which

had been Bishop of Clogher, and died Lord Ossory was admitted mentioneiL


and caps to the Castle, thence to attend his Lordship ; soe as the
Bedel may go first, after him all the candidates bare, the Juniors
first, then the Sword and my Lord's personal attendance, after
them my Lord himself, then the Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Pro-
vost, after them the Lords of the Council, then the Doctors in
their Scarlet, then the two Proctors, the Senior carrying his
Book;* after them the Bachelors of Divinity, and Masters ac-