E. G Betty.

A critical examination of the teeth of several races, including one hundred and fifty moundbuilders, selected from the collection of the Army Medical Museum at Washington, D. C online

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Online LibraryE. G BettyA critical examination of the teeth of several races, including one hundred and fifty moundbuilders, selected from the collection of the Army Medical Museum at Washington, D. C → online text (page 1 of 12)
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Bolt-Court, Fleet-Street,




This Work is intended to be a com-
plete illustration of the Limuean system of
Botany ; and, that the subject may be
more attractive, the Botanical examples
which have been selected for ihat purpose
are, as far as a conformity to the system
would permit, such as are connected
with Poetry, History, or some branch of
useful knowledge.

The Work contains at least one British
Plant of each Class and Order, ex-
cept of such Orders as our indigenous
Botany does not afford examples. Of
the two Classes, Monandrta and Do-
DECANDRiA, there is one Species of
every Genus indigenous to Great Britain,
as the parts of fructification of those
Genera are more obscure or irregular
than those of any other Plants of the first
thirteen Classes. Of the Classes Monce-
CIA and DiCECiA, additional examples



arc also given to facilitate the knowledge
of several Orders in those Classes; and
of which the Editor was the more de-
sirous, as some writers, without sufficient
reason, have altogether rejected those

That this artificial svsteni of Linnasus
niaj be clearly understood it is only ne-
cessary to attend to two parts of the
flower, which are generally in the centre ;
they are the foundation of the whole
system, and in the language of Botany are
called Stamen^ and Pistillum. In the
common garden lily, and the Tulip, these
two parts are remarkably conspicuous,
the Pistillum being in the centre, with
six Stamina surrounding it. In the
second plate of this work are represented
one Stamen and one Pistillum,^ but the
inexperienced Botanist is not to con-

> The Plate which exhibits the Stamen and the
Pistillum, shi'ws how they are subdivided with their
respective botanical names. The Pistillum, into
three parts, Germen, Style, Stigma ; of these
parts, the Stigma, and the Germen which contains
the embrio seed, are indispensable ; but the Style is
often wanting, as in the Grass of Parnassus, Poppy,
&c. The Stamen is divided into two parts, Fila-


sider the form and appearance of these
examples, as necessarily applicable to.
plants in general ; their character, in dif-
ferent Genera, is infinitely various. In the
Iris^ the stigmata are like three petals;
in the Sarracema'' the stigma is like the
top of an umbrella, while the pistilla
of the Wild oaf^ are like two feathers.
In the Stamen there is an equal diversity
of character as may be seen in the
Spring Crocus, the Globe-Thistle, and
the Yew."

MHNT and Anthera ; but that on which the fer-
tilizing of the seed depends, is an apparently fine
dust, or powder, contained in the Anthera, called
Pollen, which, by falling on the Stigma of the
Pistillum, causes complete fructification.

Linnaeus has thus expressed his opinion on this
subject: " While plants are in flower, the pollen
falls from the anthera?, and is dispersed abroad. At
the same time that the pollen is scattered, the stigma
is then in its highest vigour, and for a portion of
the day at least is moistened with a fine dew. The
pollen easily finds access to the stigma, where it ad-
heres, and being mixed with the fluid of the stiirma
IS conveyed to the rudiments of the seed.''

^ See Class til. Order 1.

' Class Xm. Order 1.

^ See Plate 4 in this Vol. exhibiting the different
kinds of Pistilla in difterent plants.

"= See Plate 3 which exhibits the different kinds '
i»f Stamina in diflerent plants.


This system of Bolanical arrangement
which, although founded upon a distinc-
tion in nature, so far as it regards the
Stamina and Pistiila, does not other-
■vvise imply any natural affinity ; conse-
quently arranging plants together by
thesecharacters, is to be regarded in
the economy of nature, as purely arti-
ficial, and in the course of the work
examples are introduced to shew this
fact. The Elm tree and the slender
Buffonia^ have no common character; or
if the Elm be put in the cUiss Pentan-
dria digynia, it lias as little affinity with
the common parsleyofourgardens, which
is of that Class and Order. An Apple-
tree and the Meadow-sweet,^ and the
Oak and the common Arrow-head'" are
equally ren)ote from any natural alliance.
The Classes of Linnaeus are twenty-
four, twenty-three of which have their
distinctions founded on the number and
situation or arrangement of the Stamina;
and the twenty-fourth is made to include

' See Class IV. Order G. ? Class XII. Order 2.

h Class XXL Order 7.


all those plants which, from the obscurity
or uncertainty of their fructification did
not allow of being included in either of
the preceding Classes.

The first eleven classes depend entirely
upon the number of the Stamina; as
Class I. one Stamen; Class II. two Sta-
mina; Class III. three Stamina, &c. .

Class XII. depends upon the number,
with the additional circumstance of their
growing out of the Calyx,

Class XIII. depends on the number,
and their growing out of the Recepta-

Class XIV. and XV. depend on the
relation of the Stamina among themselves.
The first of these has four Stamina, two
of which are long, and two short ; and the
second has six Stamina, of which four
are long, and two short.

Class XYI. XVII. XVIII. depend
upon the Stamina being more or less
united; as, in Class XVI. all the Sta-
mina are united together in one sheath ;
in Class XVII. the Stamina are di-
vided into two quantities ; and in Class
XVIII. into more than two.


Class XIX. has the upper part of the
Stamina, usually the Anlheree, united into
a lube, and the lower part or filaments

Class XX. has the Stamina growing
on the Pistillum, These last seven classes
are illustrated b}^ plates prefixed to each
class respectively.

Class XXI. comprehends those plants
"where the Stamina grow in separate
flowers from those which produce the seed,
yet both sorts growing at the same time
on the same plant, as in the common

Class XXII. includes those plants
w here the flowers which bear the Stamina
grow on separate plants from those which
produce the seed, as in the Yew and

Class XXIII. comprehends those
plants the Stamina of which grow some-
times on separate plants^ sometimes in
separate flowers on the same plant, and
sometimes in the same flower with the

* See Class XXII. Order 8.


Class XXIV. includes Ferns, Mosses,
Liverworts, Flags, and various kinds of
sea-weeds, and Fungi.

The Linncean Names of these Classes are,

I. Monandria. XIII. Polyandria.

II. Diandria. XIV. Didynamia.
III. Triandria. XV. Tetradynaraia.

IV. Tetrandria. XVI. Monadelphia.

V. Pentandria. XVII. Diadelphia.

VI, Hexandria. XVI II. Polyadelphiu.
Vll. Heptandria. XIX. Syngenesia.

VIII. Octandria. XX. Gynandria.

IX. Enneandria. XXI. Moncecia.

X. Decandria. XXII. Dicecia.

XI. Dodpcandria. XXIII. Polygamla.

XII. Icosandiia. XXIV. Cryplogamia.

Besides these divisions, Linnaeus made
a secondary artificial arrangement or sub-
division of these Classes into Orders.

The Orders of the first thirteen Classes
are established upon the number of the
Pistilla or Stigmata.

The Orders of Class XIV. and XV.
are characterized by the manner of pro-
ducing their seed, as shewn in the tvvo
plates prefixed to those Classes.

The Orders of Class XVI. XVII. and
XVIII. are founded on the number of


Stamina, tliat is, on the characters of the
first thirteen Classes.

The Orders of Class XIX. are marked
by the united or separated, barren, fertile,
or abortive nature of the florets, which are

1. Pohjgamia ceqtialis. Florets all perfect
or united, that is, each furnished with
perfect Stamina, a Pistillum, and one

2. Polygamia sHperjiua. Florets of the
disk with Stamina and a Pistillum ;
those of the radius with Pistilla only,
but each, of both kinds, forming per-
fect Seed.

3. Polygamia frustranea. Florets of the
disk as in the last ; those of the radius
with merely an abortive Pistillum, or
without even the rudiments of any.''

4. Polygamia necessaria. Florets of the
disk with Stamina only; those of the
radius with Pistilla only.

.5. Polygamia segre gat a. Several flowers,
either simple or compound, but wdth
united antherae, and with a proper
calyx, included in one common calyx.

^ Sir J. Ed, Smith saj3 this is not a good Order.


The Orders of Class XX. XXI. and
XXII. are almost eniirely distinguished
by the number of their Stamina.

The Orders of Class XXIII. are dis-
tinguished upon the principles of the two
preceding classes, and being three, are
called Monoecia, Dioecia, Trioecia.

1. MonoBcia has flowers with Stamina
and Pistilla on the same plant with
others which have only Pistilla, or only
Stamina ; or perhaps all these three
kinds of blossoms occur; but whatever
the different kinds may be, they are
confined to one plant.
'2. Dicecla has the two or three kinds of

flowers on two separate plants.
3. Trioecia has them on three separate
plants, of which the Fig is the only real
example, and in that the structure of
the flowers is alike in all.
The Orders of Class XXIV. are pro-
fessedly natural, and are four; Ferns,
Mosses, Flags, and Fungi.

1. Filices. Ferns, whose fructification is
obscure, and grows either on the back,
summit, or near the base of the leaf,
thence denominated a frond.


2. Musci. Mosses, which have real sepa-
rate leaves, and often a stem; a hood*
like corolla, or calyptra, bearing the
style, and concealing the capsula,
which a I length rises on a slalk with
the caiyptra, and opens by a lid.

3. Alga. Flags, whose herb is likewise
a frond, and whose seeds are imbedded,
either in its very substance, or in the
disk of some appropriate recepta-

4. Fungi, Mushrooms, destitute of
herbage, bearing their fructification in
a fleshy substance.

To these four Orders modern Bo-
tanists haveadded a fifth called Hepaticae,
which by Linna3us was included in his
Order Aigce,

Besides this system, which is little
olher than a Dictionary where a distinct
place is allotted to each plant, and where
each may be readily found, Linnaeus
adopted a principle of investigation to
determine the Genera and Species of
plants founded entirely in nature. He
laid it down as a rule, not to be dej^arted


from, thai the Genus should depend upon
some constant, peculiar, and determinate
character, in what he denominates the
parts of fructification, which he distin-
guishes into seven kinds. The Calyx,'
Corolla, Stamen, Pislillum, Pericar-

^ That part which surrounds the flower is distin-
guished in tlie language of Botany by the general
term Pc/ianthium, and the word Calyx may be
considered as only having a more precise and
technical meaning, under which head Linnaeus has
distinguished seven kinds; 1, Calyx, properly so
called, as in the Clove-pink. This kind of Calyx,
which by English writers oa Botany is commonly
called cup^ by scientific writers is denominated Pe-
rianthium by way of pre-eminence; C, Inyo lu-
crum; 3, Amentum; 4, Spatiia; 5, Gluma ;
6, Perich^tium ; 7, Volva. See examples of all
these seven kinds in Class X. V. VII. XVI. II,
XXIV. The colour of the calyx is usually green;
nevertheless, in some plants it is of other colours,
as in the l^^uchsia, Class VUI. Order 1, and in the
Geum, Class XII. Order 3.

The Corolla is that part which is familiarly
known, and commonly called the flower: in the
Rose, in its wild and uncultivated state, it consists
of i> petal> ; see Class XII. Order 3.

In the centre of the Corolla there are two parts
on which the fructification and reproduction of the
species more particularly depend, which are called
i\\e Stamen and Pistillimi. The Pistillum produces
the seed at the base : and the Stamen serves to per-


piura,"' Seed, and Receptaculum; and
these he calls his natural characters.

feet that seed. These parts are shewn in the intro-
ductory plates, and may be seen in many others
throughout the work.

"* The word Pericarpnim or seed-vessel expresses
whatever surrounds the seed, from a similar ety-
mology with the wordPerianthiuin, and the scientific
name of this part is, Capsula : Capsula, therefore,
may be considered as a generic term : under this head
Liunsus has arranged seven kinds of coverings by
these names :

1 Capsula, properly so called, a dry seed vessel
of a woody coriaceous or membranous texture, as
the fruit of the common Poppy, <kc.

2 Siligua, or Pod.

3 Legumen (no Enghsh synonyme.)

4 Drupa, Stone fruit.

5 PoMUM, Apple.

6 Bacca, Berry.

7 Strobilus, Cone.

See examples : Illustration of the Orders of
Class XIV. Class XV. XVII. V. XII. XXII.

SEED is too well known to require any ex-

The Receptaculum isoften wanting, but where
it exists it is the part which connects the Seed or the
Pericarpium with the stem of the plant; it is pointed
out in the cushion-like base of the Dandelion, to
which the seeds are attached, in the plate to illus-
trate Class XIX. The Strawberry is a pulpy Re-
ceptaculum ; and what is familiarly known as the
Artichoke-bottom is the Receptaculum of the Arti-
choke flower.


All vegetables, therefore, which agree
in these parts of fructification are to be
put together under one Genus, and all
such as differ in these parts are to be
separated. The characteristic mark of
each Genus is fixed by the number,
fip-ure, proportion, and situation of all
these parts ; and the more constant any
partof the fructification be found through-
out the several species of any Genus, the
more it is to be relied on with certainty as
a characteristic mark of that Genus. A
variation in any one of these parts, if the
variation be found always to exist, is held
to be sufficient to constitute a separate
Genus," and in many cases this principle
has been extended to very minute parti-
culars. Between the common garden Pea
and theS weet-Pea,the on ly variation in the
parts of fructification is in the style, which
has been thought sufficient to divide them

» This principle, although it be established as a
rule, ought to be acted upon with caution, for, by
too strict a conformity to it, the strongest natural
affinities would sometimes be destroyed. Of the
Genus Phytolacca, by a strict conformity to this rule,
there would be nearly as many genera as there are
. species.


into two Genera; in like manner the
Genus Maiva and Lavatera are sepa-
rated by a slight variation in the Calyx,
and the Agave and the Allow, from the
Stamina of the one, growing out of the
Calyx, and of the other, out of the Re-
ceptaculum. But, if in these parts of
fructification there should benodijBference
between two or more plants, however un-
like they may be in their general ap-
pearance, they are to be considered as
of the same Genus : in different species
of the Euphorbia, at first sight it would
be impossible to suppose that they
were at all allied in nature, but the parts
of fructification being the same, instead
of their being classed as separate genera
they are considered only as distinct spe-
cies of one and the same Genus. The
common Spurge, Euphorbia helioscopiaf"
which grows spontaneously every where
in the garden as a weed, or the Euphorbia
stricta represented in Class XI. Order 3,
of this work, contrasted with the Eiiphor^

" See Sowerby's English Botany, plate 883.


bia meloformis'^ will fully serve to illustrate
this fact.

The different 5j?ecze5 of the same Genus
are distinguished by a variation in the
other parts of the plant ; as in the leaves,
stem, or root, or any other invariably
permanent character, not essential to the
character of the Genus. In three species
of the Genus Reseda, given in Class XI.
Order 3, the specific distinctions very
much depend on a difference in their
leaves. The Beseda odorata has its
leaves three-lobed ; the Reseda lutea,
trifid and pinnated ; and the Reseda luteola
lance-shaped. The specific distinctions
of the very numerous species of the Genus
Geranium or Pelargonium, areprincipally
characterized by a difference in their
leaves : as the Ivy-leaved, Telargonium
lateripes; the Gooseberry-leaved, Pe/ar-
gonium grossularioides ; the Oak-leaved,
Felai'gonium qiiercifoUum, &c.

For the use of those who study English
Botany, at the end of each Class a Bo-

" See Andr. Hep. plate 6 1 7.


tanical description is given of each Bri-
tish Genus agreeably to characters found-
ed in nature, which Linnoeus estabhshed
as the basis of Generic distinction; but
a plant is subject to so much diversity
of character from soil, climate, and latent
causes of which we are ignorant, that the
most circumstantial description of it,
conformably to any rules hitherto laid
down, will seldom be found to be scru-
pulously correct ; hence precise accu-
racy is not in the nature of the subject
to be expected : all botanical descrip-
tions and definitions must therefore be
received with due allowance for such

At the head of each description is
the Essential character of the Genus and
of the Species, if there be more than one
species of the Genus. This Essential
generic character is a selection of those
facts which are found to be most cha-
racteristic of the Genus.

In the nomenclatu re of Linnaeus
every plant has two names ; the first is
called the Generic, and the second, which


defines the species, is called the Specific

So far as this Work is an illustra-
tion ofthe Classes AND Orders of
LiNN^us it was not necessary to have
inserted any Botanical descriptions; but,
considering Botany as a branch of na-
tural knowledge, such descriptions may
be useful to those who are commencins:
the study upon the principles of Nature.

This Work was originally begun as
an amusement, and it has gradually in-
creased to its present size; the Editor
has no collection of Botanical books, and

p This rule is extended to plants, of which the
Genus consists of only one known species, rather to
preserve an uniformity in the nomenclature than for
any Botanical advantage; and indeed, in all those
instances where only one species of a Genus is known^
it is more than probable, that if any other species
were discovered, the present Specific distinction
Avould require to be altered; as temiifolia, might be
no distinction between theBuffonia now known and
one which might be discovered ; nor umbcllatus, for
theButomus; nor Eiiropcca, forSibthorpia. Neither
in reality, are these sjsecific distinctions of any conse-
quence; the generic name being sufficient so long as
there are not two or more species to create any am-



it has been chiefly compiled in occasional
and accidental visits to private libraries,
except as to two parts. Erom his own
experiments and the assistance of practi-
cal men he has given his opinion in
Class XII. on the laws of vegejation as
to the reproduction of new plants ; and
to investiojate the Lotus of the Ancients
was a favourite object, which led him to
read every author ancient or modern that
could throw any light on that subject;
those extracts therefore in Class V. and
XIII. are not without their interest.


The Name and Number of the Linnaan Orders ar-

ranged under each Class,

Class I.

2 Orders.

1 Monogynia

2 Digynia

Class II.

3 Orders.

1 Monogynia

2 Digynia

3 Trigynia

Class III.
3 Orders.

1 Monogynia

2 Digynia
5 Trigynia

Class IV.


3 Ordas.

1 Monogynia

2 Digynia

3 Tetragynia

Class V.
7 Orders.
I Monogynia
z Digynia

3 Trigynia

4 Tetragynia

5 Pentagynia
^ Hexagynia
7 Polygynia

Class VI.
6 Orders.
1 Monogynia
a Digynia

3 Trigynia

4 Tetragynia

5 Hexagynia

6 Polygynia

Class VII.


4 Orden,

1 Monogynia

2 Digynia

3 Tetragynia

4 Heptagynia

Class VIII.
4 Orders.

Class IX.

3 Orders.

; Trii


3 Hexagynia

Class X.
5 Orders.
I Monogynia


i Digynia

3 Trigynia

4 Pentagynia

5 Decagynia

Class XI.

6 Orders,

Class XII.
3 Orders.

Class XIII.

7 Orders.
7 Polygynia

Class XIV.


z Orders.

1 Gymnospermia

2 Angiospermia

Class XV.


2 Orders.

1 Siliculosa

2 Siliquosa


Class XVI.

8 Orders.

1 Triandria

2 Pentandria

3 Heptandria

4 Octandria

5 Decandria

6 Endecandria

7 Dodecandria

8 Polyandria

Class XVII.
4 Orders.

Class XVIII.

3 Orders.

Class XIX.
5 Orders.
Polygamia aequalis
Polygamia superflua
Polygamia frustranea
Polygamia neccssaria
Polygamia segregata

Class XX.


7 Orders.

1 Monandria

2 Diandria

3 Triandrii

4 Tetrandria

5 Pentand,ria


€ Hcxandria
7 Octandria

Class XXr.

8 Orders.
1 Monandria

S Monadelphia

Class XXII.
8 Orders.


4 Tetrandria

5 Pentandria

6 Hexandria

7 Polyandria

8 Monadelphia

Class XXIII.

3 Orders.

1 Ntonoicia

2 Dicecia

3 Trioecia

Caass XXIV.

4 Orders.

1 Fil ces

2 Musci

3 Algae

4 Fungi



Of all the Plants in this Work, serving to illustrate
the Classes and Orders of LinncEus.


Order Page

Class I.

1 Hippuris vulgaris i

- Salicornia annua 4

— Chara translucens. 5

— Zostera marina

2 Callitriche aquatica 6

Class II.

1 Circsea lutetiana 13

— Veronica chamedrys 14

— Lemna gibba 15

2 Anthoxanthum odoratum . . 19
" Bromus diandrus 20

3 Piper nigrum 21

Class III.

1 Cyperus papyrus 29

- Scirpus lacustris 36

— Crocus officinalis 37

— Irisfcelidissima 38

2 Saccharuni officinarnm . . . . 59

— Alopecurus pratensis 42

- Agrostis stolonifera 43

— Festuca vivipera 47

3 Holostcum umbe'.latum . . . . 51

— Montia fontana —

— Polycarpon tctraphyllum .. 52

— Tellaea muscosa '. —

Class IV.

I Scabiosa succisa 61

.- Exacum filiforme 62

— Cornus sanguinea 63

— Centunculus minimus -*

Order Page

2 Buffonia tenuifolia 6 J

— Ulmus campestris 68

3 Ilex aquifoliuni 69

- Moenchia quaternella .... 71

— Ruppia maritima 72

Class V.

1 Rhamnus Lotus 79

— Azalea pontica 91

- Nicotiana tabacum 96

— CofFea arabica loj

— Solanum dulcamara 107

— Atropa bella-donna io8

- Viola tricolor no

2 Cicutavirosa 113

— j^ithusa cynapium 116

— Crithmum maritimum . . 1 iS
- Gentiana verna 1 ip

— Stapclia hirsuta

3 Passi flora casrulca 122

— Corrigiola litteralis 1 24

— Viburnum lantana —

— Sambucus ebulus 12^

4 Parnassia palustris iz6

5 Linum usitatissimum . . . 1^7

— Statice armiria 129

— Sibbaldia procumbens ...

6 Drosera anglica 131

7 Myosurus minimus 132

Class VI.

I Berberis vulgaris 143

— Hyacinthus non-scriptus 14^
~ Allium oltraceum. ,,, ,. 153


Order Page

1 Juncus Glaucus 152

~ Juncus conglomeratus 153

2 Oryza sativa 155

3 Colchicum autumnale <: 156

- Tofieldia palustris 158

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Online LibraryE. G BettyA critical examination of the teeth of several races, including one hundred and fifty moundbuilders, selected from the collection of the Army Medical Museum at Washington, D. C → online text (page 1 of 12)