E. M. (Elwood Morris) Wherry.

A comprehensive commentary on the Qurán; comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, with additional notes and emendations; together with a complete index to the text, preliminary discourse, and notes (Volume 4) online

. (page 1 of 27)
Online LibraryE. M. (Elwood Morris) WherryA comprehensive commentary on the Qurán; comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, with additional notes and emendations; together with a complete index to the text, preliminary discourse, and notes (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 27)
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A COMPREHENSI



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THE QURAN:

COMPRISING SALE'S TRANSLATION

AND

PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE,

WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES AND EMENDATIONS.



TOGETHER WITU



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atrtt j&ates,



By the Eev. E. M. WHERRY, M.A.



VOL. IV. : : , *



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\cf\

v.4-



CONTENTS.



CHAP. PAOB

XLI. Entitled Subat al Fussilat (Explanation). i
XLII. Entitled Surat al Shori (Consultation) . u
XLIII. Entitled Surat al Zukhrap (The Orna-
ments op Gold) 20

XL1V. Entitled Surat al Dukhax (Smoke) . . 31

XLV. Entitled Surat al Jasiyah (Kneeling) . 37

XLVI. Entitled Surat al Ahqaf (The Sandhill) . 42

XLVII. Entitled Sdrat Muhammad . . . . 51

XL VIII. Entitled Surat al ( Fatah (Victory) . . 58

XLIX. Entitled Surat al Hujrat (The Inner

Apartments) 68

L. Entitled Surat al Qap (Q.) .... 73
LI. Entitled Surat al Zariyat (The Disper-
sing) 79

LII. Entitled Surat al Tcr (The Mountain) . 84

LIII. Entitled Surat al Najm (The Star) . . 89

LIV. Entitled Surat al Qamr (The Moon) . . 95

LV. Entitled Surat al Rahman (The Merciful) 102

LVI. Entitled Surat al Waqia (The Inevitable) 108

LVII. Entitled Surat al Had^d (Iron) . . .115

LVI 1 1. Entitled Surat al Mujadalah (She who

Disputed) 122

LIX. Entitled Surat al Hashr (The Emigra-
tion) 128



432553



vi CONTENTS.

CHAP. PAOB

LX. Entitled Surat al Mumtahina (She who

is Tried) 134

LXI. Entitled Surat al Saf (Battle- Array) . 140
LXII. Entitled Surat al Juma (The Assembly) 144
LXIII. Entitled Surat al Munafiqcn (The Hy-
pocrites) 147

LXIV. Entitled Surat al Taghabun (Mutual

Deceit) 150

LXV. Entitled Surat al Talaq (Divorce) . 154
LXVI. Entitled Surat al TahrLm (Prohibition) 158
LXVII. Entitled Surat al Mulk (The Kingdom) 164
LXVIII. Entitled Surat al Qalam (The Pen) . 168
LXIX. Entitled Surat al Haqqat (The Infal-
lible) 174

LXX. Entitled Surat al Maarij (The Steps). 178
LXXI. Entitled Surat N(Jh (Noah) . . .182

LXXII. Entitled Surat al Jinn (The Genii) . 186
LXXIII. Entitled Surat al Muzzammil (Wrapped

Up) 190

LXXIV. Entitled Surat al Muddassir (The

Covered) 194

LXXV. Entitled Surat al Qiyamat (The Re-
surrection) ...... 199

LXXVI. Entitled Surat al Insan (Man) . . 205
LXXVII. Entitled Surat al Mursalat (The Mes-
sengers) 207

LXXVIII. Entitled Surat al Naba (The News) . 211
LXXIX. Entitled Surat al Naziat (Those who

Tear Forth) 214

LXXX. Entitled Surat al Abas (He Frowned) . 218
LXXXI. Entitled Sukat al TakwIr (The Folding

Up) 221

LXXXII. Entitled Surat al Jnfitar (The Cleav-
ing in Sunder) 224



CONTENTS. vii

CHAP PAOK

LXXXIII. Entitled Surat al Tatfif (Those who

Give Short Measure) .... 226
LXXXIV. Entitled Surat al Inshiqaq (The Rend-
ing in Sunder) 230

LXXXV. Entitled Surat al Buruj (The Celestial

Signs) 232

LXXXVL Entitled Surat al Tariq (The Star

which Appeared by Night) . . . 235
LXXXTII. Entitled Surat al AlA (The Most High) 237
LXXXVIII. Entitled Surat al Ghashiya (The Over-
whelming) 239

LXXXIX. Entitled Surat al Fajr (The Daybreak) 242
XC. Entitled Surat al Balad (The Terri-
tory) 246

XCI. Entitled Surat al Shams (The Sun) . 249

XCII. Entitled Surat al Lail (The Night) . 251

XCIII. Entitled Surat al Zuha(The Brightness) 253
XCIV. Entitled Surat al Inshirah (Have we

not Opened?) 255

XCV. Entitled Surat al Tin (The Fig) . . 257
XCVL Entitled Surat al Alaq (The Congealed

Blood) 259

XCVII. Entitled Surat al Qadr (Night of Power) 263
XCVIII. Entitled Surat al Baiyana (The Evi-
dence) 265

XCIX Entitled Surat al Zilzal (The Earth-
quake) 268

C. Entitled Surat al Adiyat (The War-
Horses which Run Swiftly) . . . 270
CI. Entitled Surat al Qaria (The Striking) 272
OIL Entitled Surat al Takasur (The Emulous

Desire of Multiplying) .... 274

CIII. Entitled Surat al Asar (The Afternoon) 276

CIV. Entitled Surat al Hamza (The Slanderer) 277



iii CONTENTS.

CHAP. PAO*

CV. Entitled Surat al Fil (The Elephant) . 279



CVI. Entitled Surat al Qdraish (The Quraish)
CVII. Entitled Sukat al Maun (Necessaries)
CVIII. Entitled Surat al Kauthar (Abundance)
CIX. Entitled Surat al Kafirun (The Unbe

lievers)

CX. Entitled Surat al Nasr (Assistance)
CXI. Entitled Surat al Abu Lahab
CXII. Entitled Surat al Ikhlas (Declaration op

God's Unity)

CXIII. Entitled Surat al Falaq (The Daybreak)
CXIV. Entitled Surat al Nas (Men)



282
284
286

288
290
292

294
296
299



Index 301



THE QURAN.


CHAPTER XLI.

ENTITLED SURAT AL FUSSILAT (EXPLANATION).

Revealed at Mikkah , ,



INTRODUCTION.

In some manuscripts this chapter is entitled Worship or Adoration,
" because," says Sale, " the infidels are herein commanded to forsake
the worship of idols and to worship God ; hut the thirty-second
chapter bearing the same title, that which we have here prefixed is,
for distinction, generally used."

According to Hisham, 186 (Coussin de Perc, i. 375 seq.), the design
of Muhammad in enunciating the revelations of this chapter was the
conversion of Utba bin Rabia to Islam. This story accords well
enough with the teaching of the chapter, but there is nothing in it
to bar the idea of a more general application.

There is little in this chapter to distinguish it from other Makkan
Suras, unless it be the vehemence with which Muhammad asserts his
own prophetic claims and the inspired character of the Quran. The
Quran is declared to be the Word of God (vers. 1-3, 41, 42), which
has been revealed in the Arabic language (vers. 2 and 44) in order
that the Quraish might have no good excuse for rejecting it (ver.
44). The Quraish are, however, charged with having rejected it
(vers. 3 and 4) ; but this was not to be regarded as affording any
evidence of the falsity of its claims, but rather of the contrary, inas-
much as the writings of Moses had met with similar treatment (ver.
45). The unbelievers are therefore threatened with the fate of the

VOL. IV. A



CHAP. XLI.] ( 2 ) [IXTROD.

Adites and of the Thamudites (vers. 13-15), while believers are as-
sured of protection in this life and of glorious rewards in Paradise
(vers. 17 and 30-32). The folly of the worship of the idolaters is
exposed by reference to the fact that God is the Creator of all things,
especially of the objects of Makkan worship.

Throughout the chapter Muhammad appears as a prophet of God ?
yet a simple preacher of Islam, a " warner " of the people of Arabia.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

Granting that this chapter was written in order to convert Utba
bin Rabia to Islam, yet, as Noeldeke points out, this gives us no cer-
tain data wherewith to fix the date of the writing of it. True, Ibn
Hisham gives the narrative of this attempt at conversion imme-
diately after that of the conversion of Hamza, yet, when we remem-
ber that, in relating the events prior to the Hijra, this writer pays
little attention to exact chronological order, we cannot infer that this
attempt was really made at that time ; moreover, nothing certain is
known as to the time of Hamza's conversion. It therefore follows
that nothing certain can.be learned from tradition as to the date of
this chapter. . ',' ; . > ! !

.Having regard,, however, to the style and contents of the chapter,
\\ i i.uiy ;fix : the 1 date approximately at about b.h. 8, a time when
there was offered to the Muslims a sturdy opposition at Makkah, but
as yet without violence to the person of the Prophet or his followers.

Principal Subjects.

VER-SK.S

The Quran declared to be given by inspiration . . . 1-3

The people generally reject it 3, 4

Muhammad only a man, yet a prophet 5

The woe of the wicked and the blessedness of the righteous 6, 7

God's power manifested in the creation of earth and heaven 8-1 1

The Quraish are threatened with the fate of Ad and Thamud 12-16

Believers among the Adites and Thamudites were saved . 1 7
In the judgment the unbelievers shall be condemned by

the members of their own bodies 18-22

The fate of the genii to befall the infidels . . . . 23, 24
Unbelievers counsel blasphemous levity their punishment 25-2S
False teachers to be trodden under foot by their own fol-
lowers in hell 29

The glorious rewards of the faithful 30-32

The consistent Muslim commended ... '33

Evil to be turned away by good 34, 35

God the refuge of the Prophet against Satan's suggestions 36



INTROD.] ( 3 ) [CHAP. XLI.

nam

God's works testify to himself as alone worthy of worship . 37-39

Unbelievers shall not escape in the resurrection ... 40

The Quran a revelation of God 4ii42

The infidels offer no new objections to Muhammad and the

Quran 43

Why the Quran was revealed in the Arabic language . . 44

The books of Moses at first rejected by his people . . 45

God rewardeth according to works 46

The hour of the judgment known only to God ... 47

The false gods will desert their worshippers in the judgment 47, 48

The perfidy of hypocrites 49~5i

Rejecters of God's Word exposed to awful punishment . 52-54



IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.

|| (1) H. M. This is a revelation from the most Merci- suls.
ful ; (2) a book the verses whereof are distinctly explained, {^ ^
an Arabic Quran, for the instruction of people who under-
stand ; (3) bearing good tidings and denouncing threats ;
but the greater part of them turn aside, and hearken not
thereto. (4) And they say, Our hearts are veiled from the
doctrine to which thou invitest us ; and there is a deafness
in our ears, and a curtain between us and thee : where-
fore act thou as thou shalt think fit; for we shall act
according to our own sentiments. (5) Say, Verily I am
only a man like you. It is revealed unto me that your
God is one God : wherefore direct your way straight unto
him ; and ask pardon of him for what is past. And woe
he to the idolaters ; (6) who give not the appointed alms,
and believe not in the life to come ! (7) But as to those
who believe and work righteousness, they shall receive an
everlasting reward.

(1) H. M. See Prelim. Disc, pp. 100-102.

(2, 3) See notes on chap. xi. 2 and 3.

Arabic Quran. This is said in order to prove to the Arabs that
Muhammad is their Prophet and his Quran the Word of God. See
chap. xiv. 4. Observe the wide sense in which the word Quran is
here used.

(6) Alms. See notes on chap. ii. 42, 219, and ix. 60.



CHAP. XLI.] ( 4 ) [SIPARA XXIV.

R i^T' II W Say, Do ye indeed disbelieve in him who created
the earth in two days ; and do ye set up equals unto him ?
He is the Lord of all creatures. (9) And he placed in the
earth mountains firmly rooted, rising above the same : and
he blessed it ; and provided therein the food of the creatures
designed to be the inhabitants thereof, in four days ; equally,
for those who ask. (10) Then he set his mind to the crear
tion of heaven, and it was smoke; and he said unto it,
and to the earth, Come, either obediently, or against your
will. They answered, We come, obedient to thy command.
(11) And he formed them into seven heavens, in two days ;
and revealed unto every heaven its office. And we adorned
the lower heaven with lights, and placed therein a guard
of angels. This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise
Qod. (12) If the Makkans withdraw from these instruc-
tions, say, I denounce unto you a sudden destruction, like
the destruction of Ad and Thamud. (13) When the
apostles came unto them before them and behind them,

(8) Two days. " The two first days of the week." Sale, Jald-
luddln. Comp. chaps, vii. 55, x. 3, and xi. 8.

(9) Mountain* firmly rooted. See chaps, xv. 19, and xvi. 15 notes.
Four days. " That is, including the two former days wherein the

earth was created." Sale. I would say, with the two former days
making six days. The two of ver. 1 1 are only reckoned among the
six to escape the discrepancy otherwise apparent.

For those who ask. " For all, in proportion to the necessity of each,
and as their several appetites require. Some refer the word sawdan,
here translated equally, and which also signifies completely, to the four
days ; and suppose the meaning to be, that God created these things
in just so many entire and complete days." Sale, Jaldluddln.

(10) Smoke. " Or darkness. Al Zamakhshari says this smoke
proceeded from the waters under the throne of God (which throne
was one of the things created before the heavens and the earth), and
rose above the water ; that the water being dried up, the earth was
formed out of it, and the heavens out of the smoke which had
mounted aloft." Sale.

(11) Two days, viz., " On the fifth and sixth days of the week.
It is said the heavens were created on Thursday, and the sun, moon,
and stars on Friday ; in the evening of which last day Adam was
made." Sale, Baidhdwi, Jaldluddin.

See note above on ver. 9.

A guard of angels. See note on chap. xv. 17.

(13) A])ostles . . . be/ore and beliind. " That is, on every side, per-



SIPARA XXIV.] ( 5 ) [CHAP. XLI.

saying, Worship God alone ; they answered, If our Lord
had been pleased to send messengers, he had surely sent
angels ; and we believe not the message with which ye are
sent. (14) As to the tribe of Ad, they behaved insolently
in the earth, without reason, and said, Who is more mighty
than we in strength ? Did they not see that God, who had
created them, was more mighty than they in strength?
And they knowingly rejected our signs. (15) Wherefore
we sent against them a piercing wind, on days of ill luck,
that we might make them taste the punishment of shame
in this world : but the punishment of the life to come will
be more shameful ; and they shall not be protected there-
from. (16) And as to Thamtid, we directed them : but they
loved blindness better than the true direction: wherefore
the terrible noise of an ignominious punishment assailed
them, for that which they had deserved ; (17) but we deli-
vered those who believed and feared God.

|| (18) And warn them of the day on which the enemies li 17
of God shall be gathered together unto hell-fas, and shall
march in distinct bands ; (19) until, when they shall arrive
thereat, their ears, and their eyes, and their skins shall
bear witness against them of that which they shall have
wrought. (20) And they shall say unto their skins,
Wherefore do ye bear witness against us ? They shall
answer, God hath caused us to speak, who giveth speech
unto all things : he created you the first time ; and unto



Buading and urging them continually, and by arguments drawn from
past examples and the expectation of future rewards and punish-
ments." Sale.

(14) A'd. See Prelim. Disc, pp. 20-22, and notes on chaps, vii.
66. and xi. 50-60.

(15) Days of ill luck. " It is said that this wind continued from
Wednesday to Wednesday inclusive, being the latter end of the
month Shawwdl ; and that a Wednesday is the day whereon God
sends down his judgments on a wicked people." Sale, Baidhdvri.

(16) Thamtid. See Prelim. Disc, p. 22 seq., and notes on chap. xi.
61-68.

(18) Distinct bands. Comp. chap, xxxix. 71.



CHAP. XLI.] ( 6 ) [SIPARA XXIV.

him are ye returned. (21) Ye did not hide yourselves
while ye sinned, so that your ears, and your eyes, and your
skins could not bear witness against you ; but ye thought
that God was ignorant of many things which ye did.

(22) This was your opinion, which ye imagined of your
Lord : it hath ruined you, and ye are become lost people.

(23) Whether they bear their torment, TieH-fire shall be their
abode ; or whether they beg for favour, they shall not
obtain favour. (24) And we will give them the devils to
be their companions ; for they dressed up for them the false
notions which they entertained of this present world, and
of that which is to come : and the sentence justly fitteth
them, which was formerly pronounced on the nations of
genii and men who were before them ; for they perished.

R ~i$ ' " (^) The unbelievers say, Hearken not unto this
Quran, but use vain discourse during the reading thereof ;
that ye may overcome the voice of the reader by your scoffs
and laughter. (26) Wherefore we will surely cause the
unbelievers to taste a grievous punishment, (27) and
we will certainly reward them for the evils which they
shall have wrought. (28) This shall be the reward of the
enemies of God, namely, hell-five; therein is prepared for
them an everlasting abode, as a reward for that they have
wittingly rejected our signs. (29) And the infidels shall
say in hell, Lokd, show us the two that seduced us, of
the genii and men, and we will cast them under our feet,



(21) i.e., " Ye hid your crimes from men, little thinking that your
very members, from which you could not hide them, would rise up
as witnesses against you." Sale. See note on chap, xxxvi. 65.

(24) Companions. See notes on chaps, vii. 39, 180, and x. 19, &c.

(25) Vain discourse. " Or loud talk." Sale. The practice here
animadverted on is very common among modern Muslims whenever
the Gospel is preached among them.

(29) The two, dkc, i.e., "Those of either species who drew us
into sin and ruin. Some suppose that the two more particularly
intended here are Iblis and Cain, the two authors of infidelity and
murder." Sale, Baidhdwi.

By the two is probably meant the false god and the human teacher.
See chaps, x. 29-31, and xxv. 18-20, &c.



SIPARA XXIV.J ( 7 ) [CHAP. XLI.

that they may become most base and despicable. (30)
As for those who say, Our Lord is God, and who behave
uprightly ; the angels shall descend unto them, and shall
say, Fear not, neither be ye grieved; but rejoice in the
hopes of Paradise which ye have been promised. (31)
We are your friends in this life, and in that which is to
come : therein shall ye have that which your souls shall
desire, and therein shall ye obtain whatever ye shall ask
for ; (32) as a gift from a gracious and merciful God.

|| (33) Who speaketh better than he who inviteth unto K i"9 '
God, and worketh righteousness, and saith, I am a Muslim ?
(34) Good and evil shall not be held equal. Turn away
evil with that which is better ; and behold, the man be-
tween whom and thyself there was enmity shall become,
as it were, thy warmest friend : (35) but none shall attain
to this perfection except they who are patient ; nor shall
any attain thereto except he who is endued with a great
happiness of temper. (36) And if a malicious suggestion
be offered unto thee from Satan, have recourse unto God ;
for it is he who heareth and knoweth. (37) Among the
signs of his poiver are the night and the day, and the sun
and the moon. Worship not the sun, neither the moon :
but worship God, who hath created them; if ye serve
him. (38) But if they proudly disdain his service, verily
the angels, who are with thy Lord, praise him night and



(30) The angels shall descend. " Either while they are living on
earth, to dispose their minds to good, to preserve them from tempta-
tions, and to comfort them ; or at the hour of death, to support them
in their last agony ; or at their coming forth from their graves at
the resurrection." Sale, Jaldluddin.

Comp. Ps. xxxiv. 7, and Heb. i. 14.

(35) Endued with a great happiness of temper. Rod well translates
the most highly favoured.

(36) See chap. cxiv.

(37) Worship God. Comp. Rev. xix. 10. Passages like this
illustrate the superiority of Muhammad over his countrymen as well
as his power as a preacher.

(38) Comp. Rev. iv. 8.



M



CHAP. XLI.] ( 8 ) [SIPARA XXIV.

day, and are not wearied. (39) And among his signs
another is, that thou seest the land waste ; but when we
send down rain thereon, it is stirred and fermenteth.
And he who quickeneth the earth will surely quicken the
dead; for he is almighty. (40) Verily those who im-
piously wrong our signs are not concealed from us. Is he,
therefore, better who shall be cast into hell-fire, or he who
shall appear secure on the day of resurrection ? Work
that which ye will: he certainly beholdeth whatever ye
do. (41) Verily they who believe not in the admonition
of the Quran, after it hath come unto them, shall one day
be discovered. It is certainly a book of infinite value :
(42) vanity shall not approach it, either from before it, or
from behind it : it is a revelation from a wise God, whose
praise is justly to be celebrated. (43) No other is said
unto thee by the infidels of Maklcah than what hath been
formerly said unto the apostles before thee: verily thy
Lord is inclined to forgiveness, and is also able to chastise
severely. (44) If we had revealed the Qurdn in a foreign
language, they had surely said, Unless the signs thereof
be distinctly explained, we will not receive the same : is the
book written in a foreign tongue, and the person unto whom
it is directed an Arabian ? Answer, It is, unto those who
believe, a sure guide, and a remedy for doubt and uncer-
tainty : but unto those who believe not, it is a thickness
of hearing in their ears, and it is a darkness which covereth
them ; these are as they who are called unto from a distant
place.

|| (45) We heretofore gave the book of the law unto

(42) Either from before, dec. " That is, it shall not he prevailed
against, or frustrated by any means or in any respect whatever."
Sale.

(44) See note on chap. xvi. 105.

A sure guide. See chap. xvii. 84, 85.

These are as they, &c. " Being so far off that they hear not, or
understand not the voice of him who calls to them." Sale.

(45) Here again we see Muhammad likening himself to the former
prophets. See Introd. chap. xi. The allusion probably is to the
unbelief of the Israelites in the wilderness.



SIPARA XXV.] ( 9 ) [CHAP. XL1.

Moses; and a dispute arose concerning the same: and if
a previous decree had not proceeded from thy Lord, to
respite the opposers of that revelation, verily the matter had
been decided between them by the destruction of the in-
fidels ; for they were in a very great doubt as to the same.
(46) He who doth right, doth it to the advantage of his
own soul ; and he who doth evil, doth it against the same :
for thy Lord is not unjust towards his servants. (47)
Unto him is reserved the knowledge of the hour of judg- twentt
ment : and no fruit cometh forth from the knops which sipara.
involve it ; neither doth any female conceive in her womb,
nor is she delivered of her burden, but with his knowledge.
On the day whereon he shall call them to him, saying,
Where are my companions which ye ascribed unto me?
they shall answer, We assure thee there is no witness of
this matter among us : (48) and the idols which they called
on before shall withdraw themselves from them ; and they
shall perceive that there will be no way to escape. (49)
Man is not wearied with asking good ; but if evil befall
him, he despondeth and despaireth. (50) And if we
cause him to taste mercy from us after affliction hath
touched him, he surely saith, This is due to me on account
of my deserts : I do not think the hour of judgment will
ever come : and if I be brought before my Lord, I shall
surely attain, with him, the most excellent condition.
But we will then declare unto those who shall not have
believed that which they have wrought; and we will
surely cause them to taste a most severe punishment.
(51) When we confer favours on man, he turneth aside,



Online LibraryE. M. (Elwood Morris) WherryA comprehensive commentary on the Qurán; comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, with additional notes and emendations; together with a complete index to the text, preliminary discourse, and notes (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 27)