E. M. (Elwood Morris) Wherry.

A comprehensive commentary on the Qurán; comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, with additional notes and emendations; together with a complete index to the text, preliminary discourse, and notes (Volume 2) online

. (page 42 of 42)
Online LibraryE. M. (Elwood Morris) WherryA comprehensive commentary on the Qurán; comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, with additional notes and emendations; together with a complete index to the text, preliminary discourse, and notes (Volume 2) → online text (page 42 of 42)
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(21) Who join, &c. "By believing in all the prophets without
exception, and joining thereto the continual practice of their duty,
both towards God and man." Sale, Jaldluddln.

(23) Their wives. This is one of five passages in the Quran dis-
tinctly asserting that women as well as men shall enter the joys of
the Muslim Paradise. The other passages are chaps, ix. 73, xxxvi.
56, xl. 8, xliii. 70.

" Gibbon characteristically observes that ' Mahomet has not speci-
fied the male companions of the female elect, lest he should either
alarm the jealousy of their former husbands, or disturb their felicity
by the suspicion of an everlasting marriage." The remark, made in
raillery, is pregnant with reason, and aims a fatal blow (if any were
needed) at the Paradise of Islam. Faithful women will renew their
youth in heaven as well as faithful men ; why should not their good
works merit an equal and analogous reward ? But Mahomet shrunk
from this legitimate conclusion." Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii.
p. 143.

The expression gardens of eternal abode is translated by Rod-
well " gardens of Eden." But the commentators do not take the
word Eden in the sense which it bears in Hebrew. See note on
chap. ix. 73.



SIPARA XIII.] ( 403 ) [CHAP. XIII.

angels shall go in unto them by every gate, (24) saying, Peace
be upon you, because ye have endured with patience:
how excellent a reward is paradise! (25) But as for
those who violate the covenant of God after the estab-
lishment thereof, and who cut in sunder that which God
hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the
earth, on them shall a curse fall, and they shall have a
miserable dwelling in hell. (26) God giveth provision in
abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto
whom he pleaseth. Those of Makkah rejoice in the present
life, although the present life, in respect of the future, is
but a precarious provision.

|| (27) The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down Xt 10'
unto him from his Lord, we will not believe. Answer,
Verily, God will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and
will direct unto himself him who repenteth, (28) and those
who believe, and whose hearts rest securely in the medi-
tation of God ; shall not men's hearts rest securely in the
meditation of God ? They who believe and do that which
is right shall enjoy blessedness and partake of a happy
resurrection. (29) Thus have we sent thee to a nation
which other nations have preceded unto whom prophets
have likewise been sent, that thou mayest rehearse unto
them that which we have revealed unto thee, even while
they believe not in the merciful God. Say unto them, He
is my Lord ; there is no God but he : in him do I trust,
and unto him must I return. (30) Though a Quran were



(24) Cut in sunder, <&c, i.e., by dislocating the faith of all the
prophets. Tafstr-i-Eaufi. This is "just what Muhammad and his
followers have done.

(27) The infidels say, &c. See notes on ver. 8 above.

(28) They who believe, &c, i.e., who believe in Islam and perform
the duties required by it.

(29) Say unto them, dec. This, says the Tafsir-i- liaufi, Avas said in
reply to the Quraish at the treaty made at Hadaibiya. Muhammad
had directed the treaty to be headed by the words " Bisinillah ir
Rahman-ar-Rahim," when the Quraish asked, "Who is Rahman?''
The story is apparently a pure invention to explain the allusion of
the text.



CHAP. XIII.] ( 404 ) [SIPARA XIII.

revealed by which mountains should be removed, or the
earth cleaved in sunder, or the dead be caused to speak, it
would be in vain. But the matter belongeth wholly unto
God. Do not, therefore, the believers know, that if God
pleased, he would certainly direct all men ? (31) Adver-
sity shall not cease to afflict the unbelievers for that which
they have committed, or to sit down near their habitations,
until God's promise come ; for God is not contrary to the
promise.
-tfc 1 1 ' || (32) Apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn ;
and I permitted the infidels to enjoy a long and happy
life ; but afterwards I punished them ; and how severe was
the punishment which I inflicted on them ! (33) Who is
it, therefore, that standeth over every soul, to observe that

(30) By which mountains, dec. "These are miracles which the
Quraish required of Muhammad, demanding that he would, hy the
power of his Quran, either remove the mountains from about
Makkah, that they might have delicious gardens in their room ; or
that he would oblige the Mind to transport them, with their mer-
chandise, to Syria (according to which tradition, the words here
translated ' or the earth cleaved in sunder,' should be rendered ' or
the earth be travelled over' in an instant) ; or else raise to life
Kusai Ibn Kalab, and others of their ancestors, to bear witness to
him ; whereupon this passage was revealed." Sale. See also chap,
viii. 23, and note.

(31) Their habitations. " It is supposed by some that these words
are spoken to Muhammad, and then they must be translated in the
second person, ' Nor shalt thou cease to sit down,' &c. For they say
this verse relates to the idolaters of Makkah, who were afflicted with
a series of misfortunes for their ill-usage of the Prophet, and were
also continually annoyed and harassed by his parties, which fre-
quently plundered their caravans and drove off their cattle, himself
sitting down with his whole army near the city in the expedition of
al Hudaibiya." Sale, Baidhdwi.

Until God's promise come, i.e., " till death and the day of judgment
overtake them ; or, according to the exposition in the preceding note,
until the taking of Makkah." Sale, Baidhdwi.

The interpretation making this verse refer to the expedition to
Hudaibiya is founded upon the imagination of the commentators.
It is certainly better to regard the passage as Makkan, and to make
the verse allude to some calamity perhaps the famine of chap. xi.
11 whicli had overtaken the people, and which Muhammad used to
give point to his threatenings.



SIPARA XIII.] ( 405 ) [CHAP. XIII.

which it committeth ? They attribute companions unto
God. Say, Name them : will ye declare unto him that
which he knoweth not in the earth ? or will ye name them
in outward speech only ? But the deceitful procedure of
the infidels was prepared for them, and they are turned
aside from the right path ; for he whom God shall cause
to err shall have no director. (34) They shall suffer
a punishment in this life, but the punishment of the next
shall be more grievous ; and there shall be none to protect
them against God. (35) This is the description of para-
dise which is promised to the pious. It is watered by
rivers ; its food is perpetual, and its shade also : this shall
be the reward of those who fear God. But the reward of
the infidels shall be hell-fire. (36) Those to whom we
have given the scriptures, rejoice at what hath been
revealed unto thee. Yet there are some of the con-



(33) Outward speech only. " That is, calling them the companions
of God, without being able to assign any reason, or give any proof
why the} 7 deserve to be sharers in the honour and worship due from
mankind to him." Sale, Baidhawi.

Whom God shall cause to err, &c. The idea is that God having
given them over to final destruction, they have become judicially
blind, and are therefore hopelessly lost. This points to the latter
years of Muhammad's career as preacher at Makkah.

(36) Those . . . rejoice, &c, viz., " the first proselytes to Muham-
inadanism from Judaism and Christianity ; or the Jews and Chris-
tians in general, who were pleased to find the Quran so consonant to
their own Scriptures." See also notes on chaps, iii. 199, and vi. 20.

" The confidence with which Mahomet refers to the testimony of
the Jews and of their Scripture is very remarkable. It leaves us no
room to doubt that some amongst the Jews, possessed probably of an
imperfect and superficial acquaintance with their own books and
traditions, encouraged Mahomet in the idea that he might be, or

gositively affirmed that he was, ' that prophet whom the Lord their
rod should raise up unto them of their brethren.' " Muir's Life of
Mahomet, vol. ii. pp. 183, 184. Compare chaps, xxxiv. 6, x. 93,
vi. 20, xxviii. 52, and xvii. 108.

The confederates who deny. " That is, such of them as had entered
into a confederacy to oppose Muhammad, as did K&b Ibn al Ashraf,
and the Jews who followed him, and Sayad al Najrani. al Akib, and
several other Christians, who denied such parts of the Quran as con-
tradicted their corrupt doctrines and traditions.'' Sale.



CHAP. XIII.] ( 406 ) [SIPARA XIII.

federates who deny part thereof. Say unto them, Verily
I am commanded to worship God alone ; and to him give
no companion : upon him do I call, and unto him shall I
return. (37) To this purpose have we sent down the
Quran, a rule of judgment, in the Arabic language. And
verily, if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge
which hath been given thee, there shall be none to defend
or protect thee against God.
R iV II (38) We have formerly sent apostles before thee, and

bestowed on them wives and children ; and no apostle had
the power to come with a sign, unless by the permission of
God. Every age hath its book of revelation. (39) God
shall abolish and shall confirm what he pleaseth. With
him is the original of the book. (40) Moreover, whether
we cause thee to see any part of that punishment where-
with we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee
to die before it be inflicted on them, verily unto thee be-
longeth preaching only, but unto us inquisition. (41) Do
they not see that we come into their land, and straiten

(37) If thou follow their desires, dbc. This probably refers to Mu-
hammad's temporary lapse in making a compromise with idolatry.
For an account of it see Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. chap. v.

(38) Wives and children. "As we have on thee. This passage
was revealed in answer to the reproaches which were cast on Mu-
hammad on account of the great number of his wives. For the Jews
said that if he was a true prophet his care and attention would be
employed about something else than women and the getting of chil-
dren. It may be observed that it is a maxim of the Jews that
nothing is more repugnant to prophecy than carnality " (Maimon.,
More Nev., part ii. c. 36, &c Sale, Jaldluddin, Yahya.

Every age hath its book. See chap. ii. 4, note.

(39) Abolish, dec. See notes on chap. ii. 105.

The original book. " Literally, the mother of the book, by which is
meant the Preserved Table, from which all the written revelations
which have been from time to time published to mankind, according
to the several ilispensations, are transcripts." Sale.

(40) Unto thee belongeth preaching only. See above on ver. 8.

(41) We came into their land, dec. This passage is of Madina
origin, and refers to the encroachments of the Muslims on their
idolatrous neighbours. It is probably an addition, made either by
Muhammad himself or by the compilers after his death.



SIPARA XIII.] ( 407 ) [CHAP. XIII.

the borders thereof by the conquests of the true believers ?
When God judgeth, there is none to reverse his judgment ;
and he will be swift in taking an account. (42) Their
predecessors formerly devised subtle plots against their
prophets, but God is master of every subtle device. He
knoweth that which every soul deserveth ; and the infi-
dels shall surely know whose will be the reward of Para-
dise. (43) The unbelievers will say, Thou art not sent of
God. Answer, God is a sufficient witness between me and
you, and he who understandeth the scriptures.

(43) Thou art not sent. " The persons intended in this passage, it
is said, were the Jewish doctors." Sale, Baidhdwi.

He who understandeth the Scriptures. See notes on chap. vi. 20 and
above on ver. 36.



END OF VOL. II.



Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co.
Edinburgh and London



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY

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Online LibraryE. M. (Elwood Morris) WherryA comprehensive commentary on the Qurán; comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, with additional notes and emendations; together with a complete index to the text, preliminary discourse, and notes (Volume 2) → online text (page 42 of 42)