E Neil.

The everyday cook and recipe book : containing more than two thousand practical recipes for cooking every kind of meat, fish, poultry, game, soups, broths, vegetables and salads : also for making all kinds of plain and fancy breads, pastries, puddings, cakes, creams, ices, jellies, preserves, marmal online

. (page 1 of 21)
Online LibraryE NeilThe everyday cook and recipe book : containing more than two thousand practical recipes for cooking every kind of meat, fish, poultry, game, soups, broths, vegetables and salads : also for making all kinds of plain and fancy breads, pastries, puddings, cakes, creams, ices, jellies, preserves, marmal → online text (page 1 of 21)
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i



THE A & P

EVERYDAY COOK



AND



RECIPE BOOK



Containing more than Tiro Thousand Practical Recipes for Cooking
every kind of Meat, Fish, Poultry, Game, Soups, Broths, Vege-
tables and Salads. Also for making all kinds of Plain and
Fancy Breads, Pastries, Puddings, Cakes, Creams, Ices,
Jellies, Preserves, Marmalades, etc., together with
Various Miscellaneous Recipes for Preparation
of Food and Attention to Invalids, cdl care-
fully prepared and practically tested.



By MISS E. NEIL.



Copyright by J. S. Ogilvie.



THE GREAT ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC TEA CO.,

publishers:
3(5 & 37 VESEY STREET,

NEW YORK.

200 Stores in the United States,



THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOi-



Op all the arts upon which the physical well-beir
man, in his social state, is dependent, none has been more
neglected than that of cookery, though none is more im-
portant, for it supplies the very fountain of life. The
preparation of human food, so a3 to make it at once
wholesome, nutritive, and agreeable to the palate, has
hitherto been beset by imaginary difficulties and strong
prejudices.

Many persons associate the idea of wealth with culinary
perfection ; others consider unwholesome, as well as ex-
pensive, everything that goes beyond the categoric
boiling, roasting, and the gridiron. All are aware that
wholesome and luxurious cookery is by no means incom-
patible with limited pecuniary means; whilst in roasted,
boiled, and broiled meats which constitute what is termed
true American fare, much that is nutritive and agree,
often lost for want of skill in preparing them. Food of
every description is wholesome and digestible in prop :
as it approaches nearer to the state of complete digc
or, in other words, to that state termed chyr 36 the

chyle or milky juice that afterwards forms blood is absorbed,
:>nveyed to the heart. Now nothing is further from
this state than raw meat and raw vegetables. Fire is there-
fore necessary to soften them, and thereby begin that elab-
oration which is consummated in the stomach. The pre-



8 THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK.

paratory process, which forms the cook's art, is more or less
perfect in proportion as the aliment is softened, without
losing any of its juices or flavor — for flavor is not only an
agreeable but a necessary accompaniment to wholesome food.
Hence it follows, that meat very much underdone, whether
roasted or boiled, is not so wholesome as meat well done
but retaining all it3 juices. And here comes the necessity
for the cook's skill, which is so often at fault even in these
simple modes of preparing human nourishment.

Pork, veal, lamb, and all young meats, when not thor-
oughly cooked, are absolute poison to the stomach; and if
half-raw beef or mutton are often eaten with impunity, it
must not be inferred that they are unwholesome in their semi-
crude state, but only less wholesome than the young meats.

Vegetables, also, half done, which is the state in which
they are often sent to the table, are productive of great
gastric derangement, often of a predisposition to cholera.

A great variety of relishing, nutritive, and even elegant
dishes, may be prepared from the most homely materials,
which may not only be rendered more nourishing, but be
made to go much farther in a large family than they usually
do. The great secret of all cookery, except in roasting and
broiliDg, is a judicious use of butter, floar, and herbs, and
the application of a very slow fire — for good cooking re-
quires only gentle simmering, but no boiliDg up, which only
renders the meat hard. Good roasting can only be acquired
by practice, and the perfection lies in cooking the whole
joint thoroughly without drying up the juice of any part
of it. This is also the case with broiling; while a joint un-
der process of broiling, as wo have said, should be alio .
to simmer gently.

With regard to made dishes, as the horrible imitations
of French cookery prevalent in America are termed, we
must admit that they are very unwholesome. All the
juices are boiled out of the meat which is swimming in a



THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK. 9

«•
heterogeneous compound, disgusting to the sight, and sea-
soned so strongly with spice and Cayenne pepper enough to
inflame the stomach of an ostrich.

French cookery is generally mild in seasoning, and free
from grease; it is formed upon the above-stated principle
of reducing the aliment as near to the state of chyme as
possible, without injury to its nutritive qualities, rendering
it at once easy of digestion and pleasant to the taste.

HINTS ON MARKETING.

In the first place, the housewife ought, where it is pos-
sible, to do her marketing herself, and pay ready money for
everything she purchases. This is the only way in which she
can be sure of getting the best goods at the lowest price.
We repeat that this is the only way compatible with
economy; because, if a servant be entrusted with the buy-
ing, she will, if she is not a good judge of the quality of
articles, bring home those she can get for the least money
(and these are seldom the cheapest); and even if she is a
good judge, it is ten to one against her taking the trouble
to make a careful selection.

When the ready-money system is found inconvenient, and
an account is run with a dealer, the mistress of the house
ought to have a pass-book in which she should write down
all the orders herself, leaving the dealer to fill in only the
prices. Where this is not done, and the mistress neglects
to compare the pass-book with the goods ordered every
time they are brought in, it sometimes happens, either by
mistake, or the dishonesty of the dealer, or the servant,
that goods are entered which were never ordered, perhaps
never had, and that those which were ordered are over-
charged; and if these errors are not detected at the time,
they are sure to be difficult of adjustment afterwards. For
these and other economic reasons, the housewife should
avoid running accounts, and pay ready money.



10 THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK.

RULES FOR EATING.

Dr. Hall, on this important subject, gives the following
advice:

1. Never sit down to table with an anxious or disturbed
mind; better a hundred times intermit that meal, for there
will then be that much more food in the world for hungrier
stomachs than yours; and besides, eating under such cir-
cumstances can only, and will always, prolong and aggra-
vate the condition of things.

2. Never sit down to a meal after any intense mental
effort, for physical and mental injury are inevitable, and no
one has a right to deliberately injure body, mind, or
estate,

3. Never go to a full table during bodily exhaustion —
designated by some as being worn out, tired to death, used
up, over done, and the like. The wisest thing to be done
under such circumstances is to take a cracker and a cup of
warm tea, either black or green, and no more. In ten min-
utes you will feel a degree of refreshment and liveliness
which will be pleasantly surprising to you; not of tho tran-
sient kind which a glass of liquor affords, but permanent;
but the tea gives present stimulus and a little strength, and
before it subsides, nutriment begins to draw from the sugar,
and cream, and bread, thus allowing the body gradually,
and by safe degrees, to regain its usual vigor. Then, in a
couple of hours, a full meal may be taken, provided that it
does not bring it later than two hours before sundown; if later,
then take nothing for that day in addition to the cracker
and tea, and the next day you will feel a freshness and vigor
not recently known.

No lady will require to be advised a second time, who
will conform to the above rules; while it is a fact of no
unusual observation among intelligent physicians, that eat-
ing heartily and under bodily exhaustion, is not unfre-



THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK. 11

quently toe cause of alarming and painful illness, and
sometimes sudden death. These thiDgs being so, let every
family make it a point to assemble around the table with
kindly feelings — with a cheerful humor, and a courteous
spirit; and let that member of it be sent from it in disgrace
who presumes to mar the reunion by sullen silence, or im-
patient look, or angry tone, or complaining tongue. Eat
ever in thankful gladness, or away with you to the kitchen,
you "ill-tempered thing, that you are." There was good
philosophy in the old-time custom of having a buffoon or
music at the dinner-table.

HOW TO CHOOSE MEAT.

Ox-beef, when it is young, will have a fine open grain,
and a good red color; the fat should be white, for when it
is of a deep yellow color, the meat is seldom very good.
The grain of cow-beef is closer, the fat whiter, and the
lean scarcely so red as that of ox-beef. When you see
beef, of which the fat is hard and skinny, and the lean of a
deep red, you may be sure that it is of an inferior kind; and
when the meat is old, you may know it by a line of horny
texture running through the meat of the ribs.

Mutton must be chosen by the firmness and fineness of
the grain, its good color, and firm white fat. It is not con-
sidered prime until the sheep is about five years old.

Lamb will not keep long after it is killed. It can be dis-
covered by the neck end in the fore-quarter if it has been
killed too long, the veins in the neck being bluish when the
meat is fresh, but green when it is stale. In the hind
quarter, the same discovery may be made by examining the
kidney and the knuckle, for the former has a slight smell,
and the knuckle is not firm when the meat has been killed
too long.

Pobk should have a thin rind; and when it is fresh, the



12 THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK,

meat is smooth and cool; but, when it looks flabby, and is
clammy to the touch, it is not good; and pork, above all
meat, is disagreeable when it is stale. If you perceive many
enlarged glands, or, as they are usually termed, kernels, in
the fat of the pork, you may conclude that the pork cannot
be wholesome.

Veal is generally preferred of a delicate whiteness, but
it is more juicy and well -flavored when of a deeper color.
Butchers bleed calves profusely in order to produce this
white meat; but this practice must certainly deprive the
meat of some of its nourishment and flavor. When you
choose veal, endeavor to look at the loin, which affords the
best means of judging of the veal generally, for if the kid-
ney, which may be found on the under side of one end of
the loin, be deeply enveloped in white and firm-looking fat,
the meat will certainly be good; and the same appearance
will enable you to judge if it has been recently killed. The
kidney is the part which changes the first; and then the
suet around it becomes soft, and the meat flabby and
spotted.

Bacon, like pork, should have a thin rind; the fat should
be firm, and inclined to a reddish color; and the lean
should firmly adhere to the bone, and have no yellow streak
in it. When you are purchasing a ham, have a knife stuck
into it to the bone, which, if the ham be well cured, may be
drawn out again without having any oi the meat adhering
to it, and without your perceiving any disagreeable smelL
A. short ham is reckoned the best.



THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK. 13



HOW TO CHOOSE FISH.

Turbot, which is in season the greater part of the yea I
should have the underside of a yellowish white, for when it
is very transparent, blue, or thin, it is not good; the whole
fish should be thick and firm.

Salmon should have a fine red flesh and gills; the scales
should be bright, and the whole fish firm. Many persons
think that salmon is improved by keeping a day or two.

Cod should be judged by the redness of the gills, the
whiteness, stiffness, and firmness of the flesh, and the clear
freshness of the eyes; these are the infallible proofs of its
being good. The whole fish should be thick and firm.

White-Fish may be had good almost throughout the
year; but the time in which they are in their prime is
early in the year. The white-fish is light and delicate, and
in choosing it you must examine whether the fins and flesh
be firm.

Fresh-TV ater Fish may be chosen by similar observations
respecting the firmness of the flesh, and the clear appear-
ance of the eyes, as salt-water fish.

In a Lobster lately caught, you may put the claws in
motion by pressing the eyes; but when it has been long
caught, the muscular action is not excited. The freshness
of boiled lobsters may be determined by the elasticity of
the tail, which is flaccid when they have lost any of their
wholesomeness. Their goodness, independent of freshness,
is determined by their weight.

Crabs, too, must be judged of by their weight, for when
they prove light, the flesh'is generally found to be wasted
and watery. If in perfection, the joints of the legs will be
stiff, and the body will have an agreeable smell. The eyes,
by a dull appearance, betray that the crab has been long
caught



14 TBE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOR.

HOW TO CHOOSE POULTRY.

In the choice of poultry the age of the bird is the chief
point to which you should attend.

A young Turkey has a smooth black leg; in an old one
the legs are rough and reddish. If the bird be fresh killed
the eyes will be full and fresh, and the feet moist.

Fowls, when they are young, the combs and the legs will
be smooth, and rough when they are old.

In Geese, when they are young, the bills and the feet are
yellow and have a few hairs upon them, but they are red if
the bird be old. The feet of a goose are pliable when the
bird is fresh killed, and dry and stiff when it has been killed
some time. Geese are called green till they are two or
three months old.

Ducks should be chosen by their feet, which should be
supple; and they should also have a plump and hard breast.
The feet of a tame duck are yellowish, those of a wild cue,
reddish.

Pigeons should always be eaten while they are fresh;
when they look flabby and discolored'about the under part,
they have been kept too- long. The feet, like thcBe oi
poultry, show the age of the bird ; when they are supple, it
is young; when stiff, it is old. Tame pigeon are larger
than wild ones.

HOW TO CHOOSE GAME.

Venison, when young, will have the fat clear and bright,
and this ought also to be of a considerable thickness.
When you do not wish to have it in a very high state, a
knife plunged into either haunch or the shoulder, and
drawn out, will by the smell enable you to judge if the veni-
son is sufficiently fresh.

Yv T ith regard to. venison, which, as it is not an every-day



THE E VERYDA Y COOK- BOOK. 15

article of diet, it may bo convenient to keep for some time
after it has begun to get high or tainted, it is useful to
know that the animal putrefaction is checked by fresh
burnt charcoal; by means of which, therefore, the venison
may be prevented from getting worse, although it cannot be
restored to its original freshness. The meat should be placed
in a hollow dish, and the charcoal powder strewed over it
until it covers tbe joint to the thickness of half an inch.

Hares and Rabbits, when the ears are dry and tough, the
haunch thick, and the claws blunt and rugged, they are old.
Smooth and sharp claws, ears that readily tear, and a nar-
row cleft in the lip, are the marks of a young hare. Hares
may be kept for some time after they have been killed; in-
deed, many people think they are not fit for the table until
the inside begins to turn a little. Care, however, should be
taken to prevent the inside from becoming musty, which
would spoil the flavor of the stuffing.

Partridges have yellow legs and a dark-colored bill when
young. They are not in season till after the first of
September.

HOW TO CHOOSE EGGS.

In putting the hand round the egg, and presenting to the
light, the end which is not covered, it should be transparent.
If you can detect some tiny spots, it is not newly laid, but
may be very good for all ordinary purposes except boiling
6oft. If you see a large spot near the shell, it is bad, and
should not be used on any account. The white of a newly-
laid egg boiled soft is like milk; that of an egg a day old,
is like rice boiled in milk ; and that of an old egg, compact,
tough, and difficult to digest. A cook ought not to give
eggs two or three days old to people who really -care for
fresh eggs, under the delusion that they will not find any
difference; for an amateur will find it out in a moment, not
only by the appearance, but also by the taste.



16 THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK.



CARVING.

The seat for the carver should be somewhat elevated
above the other chairs; it is extremely ungraceful to carve
standings and it is rarely done by any person accustomed to
the business. Carving depends more on skill than on
strength. We have seen very small women carve admirably
sitting down; and very tall men who knew not how to cut a
piece of beefsteak without rising on their feet to do it.

The carving-knife should be very sharp, and not heavy;
and it should be held firmly in the hand; also the dish
should not be too far from the carver. It is customary to
help the fish with a fish-trowel, and not with a knife. The
middle part of a fish is generally considered the best. In
helping it, avoid breaking the flakes, as that will give it a
mangled appearance.

In carving ribs or sirloin of beef begin by cutting thin
slices off the side next to you. Afterwards you may cut
from the tenderloin, or cross-part near the lower end. Do
not send anyone the outside piece, unless you know they
particularly wish it.

In helping beefsteak put none of the bone on the plate.
In cutting a round of corned beef begin at the top; but lay
aside the first cut or outside piece, and send it to no one, as
it is always dry and hard. In a round of beefa-la mode the
outside is frequently preferred.

A leg of mutton begin across the middle, cutting the
slices quite down to the bone. The same with a leg of pork
or a ham. The latter should be cut in very thin slices, as
its flavor is spoiled when cut thick.

To taste well, tongue should be cut crossways in round
slices. Cutting it lengthwise (though the practice at many
tables) injures the flavor. The middle part of the tongue



THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK. 17

is the best. Do not help anyone to a piece of the root;
that, being by no means a favored part, is generally left in
the dish.

In earring a fore-quarter of lamb first separate the
shoulder part from the breast and ribs by passing the knife
under, and then divide the ribs. If the lamb is large, have
another dish brought to put the shoulder in.

For a loin of veal begin near the smallest end, and sepa-
rate the ribs; helping a part of the kidney (as far as it will
go) with each piece. Carve a loin of pork or mutton in the
same manner.

In carving a fillet of veal begin at the top. Many per-
sons prefer the first cut or outside piece. Help a portion of
the stuffing with each slice.

In a breast of veal there are two parts very different in
quality, the ribs and the brisket. You will easily perceive
the division; enter your knife at it and cut through, which
will separate the two parts. Ask the person you are going
to help whether they prefer a rib or a piece of the brisket.

For a haunch of vension first make a deep incision by
passing your knife all along the side, cutting quite down to
the bone. This is to let out the gravy. Then turn the
brx a 1 end of the haunch toward you, and cut it as deep
as you can in thin slices, allowing some of the fat to each
person.

For a saddle of venison, or of mutton, cut from the tail
to the other end on each side of the backbone, making very
thin slices, and sending some fat with each. Venison and
roast mutton chill very soon. Currant jelley is an indis-
pensable appendage to venison, and to roast mutton, and
to ducks.

A young pig is most generally divided before it comes to
table, in which case it is not customary to send in the head,
as to many persons it is a revolting spectacle after it is cut
oil When served up whole, first separate the head from



18 THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK.

the shoulders, then cut off the limbs, and then divide the
ribs. Help some of the stuffing with each piece.

To carve a fowl, begin by sticking your fork in the pin-
ion, and draw it towards the leg; and then passing your
knife underneath take off the wing at the joint. Next, slip
your knife between the leg and the body, to cut through the
joint; and with the fork turn the leg back, and the joint
will give way. Then take off the other wing and leg. If
"the fowl has been trussed (as it ought to be) with the liver
and gizzard, help the liver with one wing, and the gizzard
with the other. The liver-wing is considered the best.
After the limbs are taken off enter your knife into the top
of the breast, and cut under the merry-thought, so as to
loosen it, lifting it with your fork. Afterwards cut slices
from both sides of the breast. Next take off the collar-
bones, which lie on each side of the merry-thought, and
then separate the side-bones from the back. The breast
and wing3 are considered the most delicate part of the fowl;
the back, as the least desirable, is generally left in the dish.
Some persons, in carving a fowl, find it more convenient to
take it on a plate, and as they separate it return each part
to the dish, but this is not the usual way.

A turkey is carved in the same manner a3 a fowl; except
that the legs and wings, being larger, are separated at the
lower joint. The lower part of the leg (or drum-stick, as it
is called), being hard, tough, and stringy, is never helped
to any one, but allowed to remain in the dish. First cut off
the wing, leg, and breast from one side; then turn the
turkey over, and cut them off from the other.

To carve a goose, separate the leg from the body, by put-
ting the fork into the small end of the limb; pressing it
close to the body, and then passing the knife under, and
turning the leg back, as you cut through the joint. To take
off the wing, put your fork into the small end of the pinion,
and press it closely to the body; then slip the knife under,



THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK. 19

and separate the joint. Next cut under the merry-thought,
and take it off; and then cut slices from the breast. Then
turn the goose, and dismember the other side. Take oft
the two upper side-bones that are next to the wings, and
then the two lower side-bones. The breast and legs of a
goose afford the finest pieces. If a goose is old there is no
fowl so tough; and, if difficult to carve, it will be still more
difficult to eat

Partridges, pheasants, grouse, etc., are carved in the same
manner as fowls. Quails, woodcocks, and snipes are merely
split down the back; so also are pigeons, giving a half to
each person.

In helping any one to gravy, or to melted butter, do not
pour it over their meat, fowl, or fish, but put it to one side
on a vacant part of the plate, that they may use just as
much of it as they like. In filling a plate never heap one
thing on another.

In helping vegetables, do not plunge the spoon down to
the bottom of the dish, in case they should not have been
perfectly well drained, and the water should have settled
there.

By observing carefully how it is done you may acquire a
knowledge of the joints, and of the process of carving,
which a little daily practice will soon convert into dexterity.
If a young lady is ignorant of this useful art, it will be well
for her to take lessons of her father, or her brother, and a
married lady can easily learn from her husband. Domestics
who wait at table may soon, from looking on daily, become
so expert that, when necessary, they can take a dish to the
side-table and carve it perfectly well.

At a dinner-party, if the hostess is quite young, she is
frequently glad to be relieved of the trouble of carving by
the gentleman who sits nearest to her; but if she is familiar
with the business she usually prefers doing it herselt



X THE EVERYDAY COOK-BOOK,



SOUPS.

GENERAL REMARKS.

Be careful to proportion the quantity of water to that of
the meat. Somewhat less than a quart of water to a pound
of meat is a good rule for common soups. Rich soups, in-
tended for company, may have a still smaller allowance of
water.

Soup should always be made entirely of fresh meat that
has not been previously cooked. An exception to this rule
may sometimes be made in favor of the remains of a piece
of roast beef that has been very much under-done in roast-
ing. This may be added to a good piece of raw meat.
Cold ham, also, may be occasionally put into white soups.

Soup, however, that has been originally made of raw


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Online LibraryE NeilThe everyday cook and recipe book : containing more than two thousand practical recipes for cooking every kind of meat, fish, poultry, game, soups, broths, vegetables and salads : also for making all kinds of plain and fancy breads, pastries, puddings, cakes, creams, ices, jellies, preserves, marmal → online text (page 1 of 21)