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BR 121 .T42 1895
Tenney, E. P. 1835-1916.
The triumphs of the cross




JESUS CHRIST FAINTING UNDER THE WEIGHT OF THE CROSS- - RAPHAEU
The Museum of the Prado, Madrid.



THE

Triumphs of the Cross



OR,



THE SUPREMACY OF CHRISTIANITY AS AN UPLIFTING FORCE

IN THE HOME, THE SCHOOL, AND THE NATION, IN

LITERATURE AND ART, IN PHILANTHROPIC AND

EVANGELISTIC ORGANIZATION. SHOWN BY

THE FACTS IN THE YESTERDAY AND

TO-DAY OF THE WORLD.



BY

Ex-President E. p. TENNEY, A.M.,

Author of "Coronation," "Constance of Acadia," "The New West," Etc.

WITH SPECIAL CHAPTERS BY

EDWARD EVERETT HALE, D.D., LTD.; THEODORE L. CUYLER, D.D.; ALEX-
ANDER McKENZIE, D.D.; THE RT. REV. F. D. HUNTINGTON, S.T.D., D.C.L.,
LL.D.,LH.D.; PRESIDENT E. BENJAMIN ANDREWS, LL.D.; DANIEL DOR-
CHESTER, D.D.; HON. ROBERT TREAT PAINE; WAYLAND HOYT, D.D.;
JOHN L. SCUDDER, D.D.; RUSSELL H. CONWELL, D.D., LL.D.; C. C.
McCABE, D.D.: JOHN HENRY BARROWS, D.D.; JOSEPH COOK,
LL.D.; BISHOP JOHN H. VINCENT, D.D., LL.D.; GENERAL
WILLIAM BOOTH; GEORGE P. FISHER, D.D., LL.D.;
CHARLES H. PARKHURST, D.D.; AND OTHER
EMINENT AUTHORITIES.

And with the Collaboration of over Two Hundred Representative Religiocs Workers,

INTERNATIONAL AND INTERDENOMINATIONAL



Cllustratrti



BY THREE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPHS
AND WORKS OF ART BY FAMOUS MASTERS.



BOSTON :

B A L C H BROTHERS,

36 Bko.m FIELD Street,

1895.



Copyrighted, 1895,
By BALCH brothers.



J. S. Gushing & Co. — Berwick & Smith.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



LIST OF COLLABORATORS.

TO WHOM THE AUTHOR EXPRESSES HIS OBLIGATION IN THE PREFACE.

lion. James B. Angell, President Michigan University, Late High Commissioner to

China.
The Hon. H. N. Allen, Secretary of the United States Legation, Seoul, Korea.
The Rev. Edward Abbott, D.D., Rector of St. James, Cambridge.
Sir Charles V. Aitchison, K.C.S.L, CLE., LL.D., South Kensington, Late

Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, India.
Rev. Hagop Abouhayatian, Oorfa, Turkey.
Miss Minnie F. Abrams, Mazagou, Bombay.
Miss PiiEBE G. Adam, Ramabai Association.
Rev. T. T. Alexander, Osaka, Japan.
Professor J. M. Allis, Santiago, Chili.
Mrs. Mary Warren Ayars, Cambridge.
Rev. Joseph A. Adams, Hankow, China.
Mrs. J. W. Andrews, Boston.
Rev. J. M. Alexander, Allahabad, India.
The Rev. S. Y. Abraham, C.M.S., Madras.
His Grace Right Hon. and Most Rev. Dr. Edward White Benson, .\rchbishop

of Canterbury.
Count .\NDKEAS VON Bernstoff, Berlin.

The Right Hon. Lord Brassev, K.C.B., Governor of Victoria, Australia.
C. P. Bancroft, M.D., Superintendent, Concord.
Rev. J. J. Banbury, Kiukiang, China.
Rev. Henry J. Bruce, Satara, India.

Mrs. Margaret Botiome, Founder of the King's Daughters.
Rev. George Dana Board.man, D.D., LL.D., Philadelphia.
James L. Barton, D.D., Secretary; Late President Euphrates College.
Rev. William Burt, P.E., Rome, Italy.
Brigadier WiLLiAM J. Brewer, S. A. Barracks, Boston.
Rev. Howard S. Bliss, Upper Montclair, New Jersey.
Daniel Bliss, D.D., LL.D., President Syrian College, Beirftt.
President W. R. Boggs, DD., Ramapatan, India.
Rev. A. A. Bennett, Yokohama.

Rev. Edwin Hallock Byington, Associate Pastor, Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn.
The Rev. Henry Bailey, D.D., Canon of Canterbury.
W. O. Ballantine, M.D., Rahuri, India.



iv THE TRIUMPHS OF THE CROSS.

Mary K. Bradford, M.D., Tabriz, Persia.

Rev. Willis Green Craig, D.D., LL.D., Chicago, Moderator General Assembly
of the Presbyterian Church.

Hamilton Cassels, Esq., Toronto.

Mr. C. N. Chapin, Boston.

The Right Rev. C. J. CoRFE, D.D., Bishop of Korea and Shing King, Chemulpo.

Ret. Hunter Corbett, D.D., Chefoo, China.

Rev. Arthur Carson, Thayetmyo, Burmah.

Rev, Nathaniel G. Clark, D.D., West Roxbury.

Rev. Francis E. Clark, D.D., President United Society of Christian Endeavor.

Robert Needham Cust, Esq., LL.D., Secretary of the Board of Missionary Litera-
ture, Provinces of Canterbury and York.

Thomas K. Cree, Secretary International Committee, Y.M.C.A.

Rev. C. C. Creegan, D.D., New York.

Rev. J. S. Chandler, Madura.

Jessica R. Carlton, M.D., Ambula, Lodiana.

Miss A. B. Childs, Secretary, Boston.

Rev. Joseph Clark, Irebu, Congo Free State.

Rev. George Cousins, Editorial Secretary, London Missionary Society.

Rev. Charles A. Dickinson, Boston.

C. V. A. Van Dyck, M.D., D.D., Beirfit.

Rev. M. R. Deming, Nevi' York.

J. D. Davis, D.D., Kyoto.

Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, LL.D., New York.

Hon. Frederick Douglass, LL.D., Washington, D.C.

Rev. Charles W. Drees, Buenos Ayres.

Rev. William Dring, Tura, Assam.

William S. Dodd, M.D., Cesarea.

Rev. O. P. Emerson, Secretary, Honolulu.

Rev. F. H. EvELETH, Sandoway, Burmah.

F. Eardley-Wilmot, Esq., R.N., Westminster.

Rev. F. F. Ellinwood, D.D., Secretary, New York.

Miss E. M. Edson, President Girls' Friendly Society of America.

Rev. W. A. EssERY, Hon. Sec. Turkish Mission Aid Society.

Miss C. E. Ferris, Singapore, Farther India.

Rev. Alexander Fuller, D.D., President Central Turkey College.

Rev. A. A. Fulton, Canton, China.

Rev. W. B. FORBUSH, Ph.D., Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.

Rev. Wilson A. Farnsworth, D.D., Cesarea, Turkey.

Rev. W. E. Fay, Kamundago, Benguella.

Rev. Herbert D. Goodenough, Umvoti, South .\frica.

George H. Gutterson, D.D., Boston.

Mr. R. F. Geller, President Moravian Deaconess House, Emmaus, Germany.

C. H. Good, Ph.D., Batanga, West Africa.

James Logan Gordon, Secretary, Y.M.C.A.

Rev. G. Milton Gardner, Shao-wu, Foochow.

Miss Ella E. Glover, Tientsin, China.

Professor William S. Greene, Lowell.

F. W. GuNSAULUS, D.D., Chicago.

M. L. Gordon, M.D., D.D., Doshisha University, Kyoto.



LIST OF COLLABORATORS. y

The Right Rev. Frederick Geli., D.D., Bishop of the Church of England, Madras.

Hon. T. W. Harris, LL.D., United States Commissioner of Education.

Cyrus H.\MUN, D.D., LL.D, Lexington, Massachusetts.

Rev. F. E. HosKiNS, Zaleh, Syria.

Major-General O. O. Howard, LL.D., IkuHngton.

Ira Harris, M.D., Tripoli.

President D. N. Howe, A.^L, Moravian College, North Manchester, Indiana.

Rev. Edward P.wson Holton, Melur, Madura.

The Right Rev. W. H. Hare, S.T.D., Bishop of Dakota and Niobrara.

Lucy H. Hoag, ^LD., Chinkiang.

Professor Willia.m E. Hitchcock, Jaffna College, Batticotta, Ceylon.

J. W. Hamilton, D.D., Cincinnati.

Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, Dorchester, W. C. T. U. Sup't Sci. Temp. Instruction.

The Right Rev. Edward Ralph Johnson, D.D., Bishop of the Church of England,
Calcutta.

The Rev. Harry Jones, M.A., Prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral.

Rev. Henry H. Jessut, D.D. . Beirflt.

Mrs. Charlotte AL Jewell, Peking.

Professor J. P. Jones, Pasumalai College, South India.

The Right Hon. Lord Kinnaird, London.

The Rev. William Kirkus, M.A., LL.B., Jersey City Heights.

The Rev. Joshua Ki.mber, New York.

Hardman N. Kinnear, M.D., Foochow, China.

Mr. Charles D. Kellogg, Charity Organization Society, New York.

Mr. F. G. Knauer, McCormick Seminary, Chicago.

Miss Harriet L. Kemper, Moradabad.

Rev. Henry King.man, Tong-cho, North China.

President Seth Low, LL.D., Columbia College, New York.

J.\MES Legge, LL.D., Professor of Chinese, University of Oxford.

The Right Rev. William Lawrence, D.D , Bishop of Massachusetts.

The Rev. William S. Langford, M.Yi., New York.

Mr. Frederick H. Law, New London.

Miss Harriet A. Lovell, Marash, Turkey.

Mrs. J. C. Lawson, Aligarh, India.

The Rev. B. La Trobe, Moravian Secretary, London.

Professor Ellen M. Law, Beirfit, Syria.

E. B. Landis, ^LD., Chemulpo, Korea.

His Grace Right Hon. and Most Rev. W. D. Maci.agan, D.D., D.C.L., Arch-
bishop of York.

Sir William Muir, Bart, K.C.S.L, LL.D., D.C.L, Vice Chancellor Edinburgh
University, Late Lieut. Governor of the North West Provinces, India.

Rev. Xenophon P. Moschou, Ph.D., Greek Evangelical Church, Smyrna.

John McLaurin, D.D., Bangolore, Madras.

J. H. McCarthey, M.D., Chungking.

The Rev. Kashu Musha, Nestorian Mission.

Rev. W. R. Manley, Udayagiri, Madras.

James MacAlister, LL.D., President Drexel Institute.

The Rev. G. E. Mason, ^LA., I'rebendary of Southwell.

Mr. B. McKendry, Boston.

Miss Kate C. McBeth, Fort Lapwai, Nez I'erce Mission.



vi THE TRIUMPHS OF THE CROSS.

Sir M. MoNiER-WiLLiAMS, K.C.I. E., D.C.L., LL.D., Boden Professor of Sanskrit,

and Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
The Rev. Thomas M. Macdonald, D.D., Canon of Lincoln.
Rev. H. C. Mabie, D.D., Secretary American Baptist Union.
The Right Hon. the Countess of Meath.
Rev. P. H. Moore, Nowgong, Assam, India.
Rev. Alexander McLaren, D.D., Manchester, England.
Rev. J. P. McNaughton, Smyrna.
Rev. Edward F. Merrian, Cambridge.
The Rev. W. R. Mackay, M.A., Pittsburg,
The Right Rev. J. A. Nevvnham, M.A., Bishop of Moosone.
Hon. George W. Norris, Late Indian Agent, Nez Perces.
Rev. C. A. Nelson, Canton, China.
Monsignor Nugent, a Priest of the People, Liverpool.
Rev. Horatio B. Newell, Niigata, Japan.
J. Harris Orbison, M.D., Lahore, India.
E. W. Parker, D.D., Lucknow, India.

Captain R. H. Pratt, Superintendent Indian Training School, Carlisle.
Henry D. Porter, D.D., Pang Chauang, Shantung.
M. P. Parmalee, M.D., Trebizond.

The Right Rev. H. C. Potter, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of New York.
The Rev. S. B. Partridge, Swatow, China.
The Rev. S. Paul, Hon. Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Madras.
Estella a. Perkins, M.D., Tientsin.
Rev. Alden Perrine, Amguri, Assam.
Francis N. Peloubet, D.D., Aubumdale.
The Rev. W. S. Rainsford, D.D., New York.
The Right Rev. W. D. Reeve, D.D., Bishop of Mackenzie River.
Rev. G. H. Rouse, English Baptist Mission, Assam.
C. J. Ryder, D.D., New York.
Rev. Noble S. Rockey, Shahjahanpur.
Dr. J. E. Robbins, University Settlement, New York.
The Rev. George Smith, D.D., CLE., LL.D., Edinburgh.
Miss Corinna Shatiuck, Oorfa, Turkey.
The Rev. R. S. Storrs, D.D., LL.D., Brooklyn.

The Rev. W. A. Scott-Robertson, M.A., Hon. Canon of Canterbury.
Mr. William Shaw, Treasurer, United Society of Christian Endeavor.
Miss S. A. Searle, Kobe, Japan.

Rev. Thomas Spurgeon, Metropolitan Tabernacle, Newington, S.E,
Rev. David S. Spencer, P.E., Nagoya, Japan.
E. E. Strong, D.D., Editorial Secretary, Boston.
Rev. Arthur H. Smith, Pang-Chuang, North China.
Professor J. S. Sewall, D.D., Bangor.
Rev. A. Sims, M.D., Leopoldville, Congo.
Mr. C. E. Swett, Boston.

The Rev. James Stone, C.M.S., Telugu Mission.
Miss M. A. Spencer, Tokyo.
Rev. Charles A. Stanley, Tientsin.

Miss L. W. Sullivan, Superintendent Deaconess Home, Lucknow.
Russell Sturgis, Esq., Manchester-by-the-Sea.



LIST OF COLLABORATORS. vii

Rev. D. A. W. Smith, D.D., Insein, Burmah.

Rev. A. F. SCHAUFFLER, D.D., New York.

Miss Ellen Gates Stark, Mull House Settlement, Chicago.

Mr. John Sample, Boston.

Rev. Hagop Tashgian, Armenian Evangelical Church, Smyrna.

Professor Graham Taylor, D.D., Chicago.

J. M. Thoburn, D.D., Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Calcutta.

John Trevarthen, Esq., Redhill, Surrey, England.

JosiAH Tyler, D.D., St. Johnsbury.

Miss Clara Thiede, Waga, Lodiana.

Mr. Bradford Torrey, Boston.

The Rev. D. Travers, Com. of Zanzibar and East Africa.

The Rev. Elliot II. Thomson, Protestant Episcopal Mission, Shanghai.

D. M. B. Thom, M.D., Mardin, East Turkey.

Miss Isabella Thoburn, Lucknow, Oudh.

Rev. R. A. Torrey, Biblical Institute, Chicago.

Rev. E. W. Thwing, Kang Hau, China.

C. C. Vinton, M.D., Seoul, Korea.

Rev. C. H. Wheeler, D.D., Harpoot, Turkey.

Miss Pauline Waldron, Boston.

Mr. Amos R. Wells, Editor Golden Rule.

Miss Mary E. Wilson, Nagoya, Japan.

Rev. Edward Webb, Oxford, Pennsylvania.

Mrs. Bernard Whitman, Dorchester.

The Ven. Archdeacon W. L. Williams, D.D., Representing the Bishopric of

Waiapu, New Zealand.
L. D. Wishard, Esq., International Secretary Y.M.C.A.
Miss Elsie Wood, Lima, Peru.

Mr. George A. Warburton, Railway Secretary, Y.M.C.A.
The Right Rev. Cortlandt Whitehead, D. D., Bishop of Pittsburg.
General Lew Wallace.
The Rev. Julius H. Ward, Roxbury.
Rev. Will C. Wood, Boston.

Professor Charles A. Young, LL.D., Princeton College.
Mr. C. L. D. YouNKiN, Boston.
The Rev. Richard Young, D.D., Bishop of Athabasca.



PREFACE.

IN preparing the Triumphs of the Cross it was the aim at the out-
set to make A Practical Book, one dealing with conditions, not
theories, facts rather than fancies; not a philosophical book or a book
of theology, but a book of achievements: — to tell what Christianity
has done to make the world better and happier; to show how the relig-
ion of Jesus, alone among all the religions of the world, has cherished
childhood, honored womanhood, and dignified the condition of all
handicraft workers; how it has quickened the human intellect and fos-
tered the cause of education; how it has purified literature and cleansed
art; how it has alleviated social sorrow and wretchedness, notably in
its myriad modern philanthropic movements in behalf of the victims of
poverty and vice and crime, and in the equally numerous and remark-
able evangelistic movements in our great cities, on the outskirts of
civilization, and in non-Christian lands.

Constant attention has been paid to this : to make such a book as
every earnest Christian worker would like to own and to place in the
hands of his friends to stimulate Christian activity, bringing them into
hearty sympathy and co-operation with the great philanthropic and
evangelistic movements that characterize the age.

It was also the aim from the beginning to make A Time-Saving Book.
The average reader, even among clergymen, cannot undertake such
work. It has been attempted, therefore, to prepare what will prove a
quick help to an easy and reliable acquaintance with a most important
topic, by a labor-saving system of giving the results without the proc-
esses; to make a highly concentrated book, condensed, packed, without
waste of words.

The Outline of Contents is an apt illustration of this condensa-
tion; the four pages would be seven if the subordinate headings under
the main topics were displayed — there being nearly twice as much to



X THE TRIUMPHS OF THE CROSS.

the book as there appears to be. The attempt has been made to treat
these topics thoroughly, even if briefly; the limit of the amount of the
text being sharply drawn by the necessity of making a low-priced book,
— a book in the interest of the many, not of the few.

To this end Everything Has Been Left Out which a busy man has
no time for; everything that is put in, a busy man must know, if he is
to keep abreast of this age as a wide-awake Christian, with an all-round
apprehension of the movement of events in developing the Kingdom
of God.

How This Book Came to be Written.

It has been a part of the author's plan in his life work, to live,
during some years, not far away from large libraries, and to perform
his parochial service face to face with the grand movements of historic
Christianity and an aggressive religious activity that sweeps the world.
No parish is insignificant that is in touch with the mighty ongoing of
the hosts of God throughout the globe; nor can any local body of be-
lievers be profoundly moved to become laborers together with God,
except by some notion of the trend of providential events upon this
globe.

When far from libraries, books were bought in quantity and then
sold, and others purchased. So, at least four days in a week, during
eight years, was given to the wide range of special studies essential
to the preparation of this book. These studies comprised an elaborate
system of note taking, in reading a third of a million pages.

The more immediate desk work in the preparation of this book has
involved eight hours a day six days in a week for two years' time, with
brief vacation ; so that this book, as it stands, is the outcome of ten
years' work.

Another part of the author's life plan, to devote himself to Home
MISSIONARY service, — his experience of ten years upon the border, and
wide acquaintance with the conditions of parochial service in rural
fields remote from books, — determined him to attempt to make a book
helpful to the active pastor who is overwhelmed with constant parish
duties and preparation for next Sunday, who has no time for the ex-
amination of the vohuninous details of philanthropic service, and the
literature of Asiatic religions, and the bulky records of travel, that
accumulate in libraries; a book, too, that the most bright-minded of



PREFACE. xi

his people will not find too dry, but filled with the kind of information
needful to make them intelligent helpers in the conduct of the activities
of the Church.

In undertaking to make this book rather than some other, it was
found that book-shelves of the current market and of the great libraries
are bare of books upon the topic here presented. Indeed, the elo-
quent and erudite Lowell Lectures by Dr. R. S. Storrs, and the learned
work of the late Mr. Charles Loring Brace, are not only the most valu-
able treatises that have so far appeared, but they are almost the only
ones that take up the topic by system.

The MiR-ACLE Wrought by Christianity in changing the face of
society is, however, illustrated so profusely by the historians of all ages;
and the range of non-Christian sacred literature is so vast; and the
records of travel in non-Christian lands are so abundant; and there
are so many intelligent Christian observers at work in different parts
of the globe, who know how to tell a story well; and there are so many
photographers abroad; and Christian themes have so long engaged the
world's most famous painters, — that it is not difficult to present a
book thoroughly Unique; and it is confidently believed that the "Tri-
umphs of the Cross " stands alone in its method, and almost alone in
its topic. This grand theme has indeed been touched upon, or even
elaborately treated in some one or another of its features, but none
have sought to cover the whole ground or any considerable portion of
it. That the present writer has succeeded in covering the whole of
this vast field is perhaps too much to hope, but he has, at least, made
an honest effort to do so. The date of the publication of this book has
been six times deferred in the attempt to make a more complete presen-
tation; and it is only by adopting Carlyle's maxim that the book is
issued at all : — " No one can make a square that is mathematically
true, but any good carpenter can make it square enough." The book
is as square as we can make it.

And we believe that any one who examines the market and the libra-
ries, will affirm that there has never been any such systematic compari-
son of the outcome of the different religious systems of the world; a
practical comparison dealing with results rather than causes, with
actual accomplishments instead of theological systems and philosophi-
cal speculations; a comparison loudly called for at the present time by
the well-nigh universal interest in the subject, evidenced by the popu-
lar attention given to the recent World's Parliament of Religions.



xii THE TRIUMPHS OF THE CROSS.

As to the Title of this book, Christianity has ahvays stood in con-
trast to the religious systems around it, in ancient and in modern
times, and has ahvays confronted social conditions easily compared
with contemporary environments; so that the Triumphs of the Cross
are best set forth by a series of comparative studies. The Cross is the
symbol of Love, — God's love to man, man's answering love to God,
and the law of fraternal love between man and his fellows; there is no
Cross outside of Christianity, and its Triumphs are easily discernible.

Relating to Collaborators.

In preparing this work, covering a world-wide range of subordinate
topics, it seemed better to advise with a large number by corre-
spondence, to secure brief papers or specific answers to definite ques-
tions, than to mutiply articles of some length liable to disturb the
unity of the book.

Some hundreds of missionaries of the leading denominations, philan-
thropic and evangelistic laborers, special students, and public men
with a large knowledge of affairs, were written to for specific replies
to questions concerning religious and sociological work, or for illus-
trative photographs. The number of descriptive letters replete with
particular information, the amount of photographic material and the
number of illustrative documents, that came in from every quarter of
the globe to substantiate or picture the points made in this book, was
a surprise alike to the author and the publishers; being so abundant
that it has been found impossible to use the material except by selec-
tion. Indeed, the material so obtained was perhaps alone sufficient
for instituting the comparison called for. The names of more than
two hundred persons who have assisted the author in this way are given
upon another page. The personal letters and personal interviews in-
volved have literally run into the thousands. Eminent among the
leaders of the Christian forces of the globe, those who have assisted
the author by furnishing material to illustrate the principles unfolded
in the text, who have supplied local photographs, letters of pertinent
information, printed documents from far-away fields, notes of intro-
duction to special writers, or important service at the inception of this
enterprise, have acquired a share in the authorship of this work: their
replies and particular communications being directly quoted, or serving
as a basis for the text when the letters have been confidential. It is



PREFACE. xiii

confidently believed that the author's plan of making good his points
by citing living witnesses, makes this book a unique literary produc-
tion. The excerpts from correspondence which are incorporated in
the text are not only pertinent but of great weight, since the writers are
experts in their various fields; and this fresh testimony adds greatly to
the vivacity of the book. The pleasant months in which the author
has been privileged to confer with a great multitude of workers of vari-
ous religious bodies in many countries, have been marked by surprises,
in a constant series. The theme, the Triumphs of the Cross, has
been found to awaken an enthusiasm of response not looked for; yet,
in a measure, fitting to the grandeur of the triumphal progress of the
Redeemer's kingdom in every age and in all lands. From it he has
learned as never before that Christianity is one: that denominational
lines and the boundary stones of the nations never stand in the way of
a hearty expression of enthusiastic fellowship in advancing the glory
of the Cross of Christ, or readiness to work upon broad unsectarian
lines, having always a strong grip on the essentials of Christian faith
and service. These persons are involved in making this book —
Christians of every name in every part of the world. The readiness
and painstaking of these co-laborers — for the most part an unpaid
service — is explicable only upon the ground of a far-reaching enthu-
siasm for humanity and devotion to the Cross.

Special Contributors.

Several chapters of the book, dealing with critical questions, were
written by the eminent men whose names appear upon the title page,
and in the table of contents in connection with the subjects treated by
them. These chapters consist of original articles prepared for this
work, and issued over the writers' signatures.

It will at once be noted that these special articles deal with those
topics upon which their authors are universally recognized as being
among the foremost living authorities.

The gratitude of the author, as well as of the reader, is due to those
who have so aided this undertaking, not only adding to the interest of
our endeavor, but vouching for the importance and practical worth of
the great topic of the book. The book is so made a sort of symposium
or World's Parliament of Christian Workers: differing from the World's
Parliament of Religions at Chicago in this, that its members are all



xiv THE TRIUMPHS OF THE CROSS.

Christian; and in this also, that the subject under discussion is not the
theoretical but the practical side of religion.

When the question is asked in reference to each of the various relig-
ions of the world, what has been its practical outcome, — what has it
done for childhood, for womanhood, for the home, for schools, for
civil liberty, for literature, for art, for the laboring man, for the poor,
for the victims of vice and crime, for the sinner, — then Christianity
ceases to be one of many good religions, or even the best of religions,
and becomes the only religion worthy of the name, — "the power of



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