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EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS



VOL. II.



Y 1268.



LETTERS



RECEIVED BY THE



East India Company

Jrom its Servants in tbe East

TRANSCRIBED FROM THE 'ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE'
SERIES OF THE INDIA OFFICE RECORDS

VOL. II.
1613— 1615

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

WILLIAM FOSTER, B.A.

loint Editor of ' The Register of Letters of the E. India Co., 1600-19.'



PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF HER MAJESTY'S
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL



LONDON

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & COMPANY

[LIMITED)

St. E>unstan's "ffjousc
FETTER LANE, FLEET STREET, E.C.

1897




1;



CONTENTS



PAGE

124. Tempest Peacocke to the Company. Firando, Decem-

ber 2, 1613 1

125. Instructions left by Captain John Saris on his departure

from Japan. P'irando, December 5, 161 3 ... 4

126. Richard Cocks to William Adams and Richard Wickham

at Jeddo. Firando, December 24, 161 3 .... 9

127. Instructions from Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, for

a trading- expedition to Jeddo and other places. Firando,
January [ ], 1613-14 10

128. John Jourdain to the Company. Bantam, January 31,

1613-14 14

129. Declaration by Peter Floris concerning a sum of money

belonging to the Seventh Voyage. Masulipatam, Feb-
ruary 1, 1613-14 . 17

130. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

February 5, 1613-14. ....... 17

131. The same to the same. Firando, February 17, 1613-14 . 18

132. Captain Essington and Peter Floris to Thomas Aldworthe

at Surat. Masulipatam, February 18, 161 3-14 (Missing) 19

133. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka,

March 1, 1613-14 20

134. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

March 7, 1613-14 21



L30504



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS



PAGE



23

25
26

28

29
30



135. The same to the same. Firando, March 9, 161 3-14 . . 22

136. Captain Downton's instructions to his fleet for keeping

company, March 14, 161 3-14

137. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka

March 22, 1613-14

138. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando

April 1, 1614

139. Instructions from Captain Larkin and others to Sophony

Cozucke, proceeding to Landak. Sukadana, April 11
1614

140. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka

April 20, 1614

141. The same to the same. Osaka, April 21, 16 14 .

142. Letters received by John Jourdain at Bantam : —

(1) From George Cokayne at Macassar, April 24 and

May 7 & 24, 1614 31

(2) From Richard Welden at Macassar, May 23, 1614 35

(3) From Robert Larkin at Sukadana, June 10, 1614 . 37

(4) From the same at Patani, July 24, 16 14 . . . 38

(5) From Peter Floris and George Chauncey at Masu-

lipatam,July 10, 1614 . ..... 40

(6) From John Gourney and others at Patani, July 28,

1614 44

(7) From George Cokayne at Macassar, July 17, 1614 45

143. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

May 12, 1614 46

144. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka,

May 12, 1614 48

145. Instructions from John Gourney and others to John Jourdain

and Richard Cobb for the disposal of goods from the
'James,' June 1, 1614 49

146. William Eaton to Richard Wickham. Osaka, June 3, 1614 50

147. Richard Cocks to William Adams at Jeddo. Firando,

June s, 1614 51



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

148. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

June 5, 1614 S3

149. Benjamin Farie to John Jourdain [at Bantam]. Sukadana,

June 11, 1614 54

150. Nathaniel Courthope to John Jourdain [at Bantam].

[Sukadana], June 14, 1614 57

151. Peter Floris to Thomas Aldworthe at Surat. Masulipatam,

June 17, 1614 59

152. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka,

June 17, 1614 62

153. Thomas Brockedon to Sir Thomas Smith. Patani,

July 23, 1614 63

154. Captain Larkin to Sir Thomas Smith, Patani, July 24,

1614 65

155. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

July 25, 1614 67

155A. William Nealson to [Richard Wickham. Firando, about

February, 161 3-14] 7 1

156. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

July 26, 1614 74

157. William Adams to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando,

July 26, 1614 75

158. Benjamin Farie to [the Company]. Patani, July 26, 1614 . 77

159. John Gourney to the Company. Patani, July 28, 1614 . 80

159A. Invoice of goods left in Patani for the Ninth Voyage,

July 25, 1614 88

160. Duplicate of No. 159 88

161. John Gourney to Sir Thomas Smith. Patani, July 28, 1614 88

162. Thomas Herode to Sir Thomas Smith. Patani, July 28,

1614 9 1

163. Thomas Aldworthe and William Biddulph to the Company.

Surat, August 19, 1614 96



viii EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

164. Thomas Aldworthe to Peter Floris at Masulipatam. Surat,

August 19, 1614 I01

165. Thomas Keridg-e to the Company. Ajmere, Septem-

ber 20, 1614 I0 3

166. Thomas Keridg-e to Sir Thomas Smith. Ajmere, Sep-

tember 20, 1614 ' IO

167. Adam Denton to the Company. Patani, October 5, 16 14 . 112

168 & 169. Consultations held at Svvally and Surat, October 15
to November 28, 1614

170. Thomas Aldworthe to Thomas Keridge at Agra. Surat

October 22, 1614

171. William Eaton to Richard Cocks at Firando. Osaka

October 27, 1614



172. Nicholas Withington to Thomas Aldworthe at Surat

Agra, October 29, 1614

173. William Eaton to Richard Cocks at Firando. Osaka

October 30, 1614



174. John Jourdain and George Ball to the Company. Bantam
October 31, 1614



175. A note of the ports in Persia, obtained by Thomas Keridge

Ajmere, October [1614]

176. List of papers sent home by William Nicholls from Tiku

November 7, 1614 .......



130

137

»39
140

143
144

I4S
147



177. Wiliiam Edwards to the Company. Ahmedabad, Decem-

ber 20 [1614] 148

178. Thomas Keridge to Thomas Aldworthe and William

Biddulph at Surat. Ajmere, November 15, 1614 . . 156

179. Opinions of the factors concerning the behaviour of

Richard Cobb. Bantam, November 16, 1614 . . 1 59

180. Peter Floris and George Chauncey to Thomas Aldworthe

at Surat. Masulipatam, November 16, 1614 . . . 164

181. Captain Nicholas Downton to the Company. Svvally Road,

November 20, 1614 167



CONTENTS \x

PAGE

182. Particulars learned from a native skipper regarding - Sind

[November 20, 16 1 4] (Missing) 172

183. List of goods desired from England by Mukarrab Khan

for the Great Mogul 173

184. Captain Downton to Sir Thomas Smith. Surat, Novem-

ber 20, 1614 174

185. Duplicate of No. 181 177

186. Thomas Keridge to Captain Downton [at Swally]. Ajmere,

November 22, 1614 178

187. Abstracts of letters received by the ' Hope/ November,

1615: —

(1) From Captain Downton. Swally Road, Novem-

ber 22, 1614 182

(2) From John Young. February 25, 1614-15 . . 183

(3) List of goods desired by Mukarrab Khan for the

Great Mogul 183

(4) From Edward Holmeden. Surat, March 7,

1614-15 ' . .183

(5) From Thomas Keridge. Ajmere, September 20,

1614 183

(6) From William Edwards to Sir Thomas Smith.

December 26, 16 14, and March 14, 1614-15 . 183

(7) From Richard Baker. Saldania, June 20, 1615 . 183

(8) From Thomas Keridge to Sir Thomas Smith.

Ajmere, September 20, 1614 .... 185

(9) From Captain Downton to William Edwards at

Agra. Swally [March, 1614-15 ?] . . .185

(10) From George Uffington. Saldania, June 20, 1615 185

(11) From Captain Downton. Surat (or at sea),

March 7, 1614-15 185

(12) From William Biddulph. Surat, February 28,

1614-15 1S7

(13) From William Edwards. Ahmedabad, Decem-

ber 20, 1614 187

(14) From Thomas Mitford. December 26, 1614 . . 187



x. EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

PAGE

(15) From Edward Dodsworth. Killybegg Harbour,

November 5, 16 15 188

(16) From Captain Keeling - . Saldania, June 19, 1615 . 189

(17) From Thomas Keridge. Ajmere, January 20,

1614-15 191

(18) From John Sandcrofte. Surat, November 29, 16 14 191

(19) From Ralph Preston. Before Dabul, March 9,

1614-15 191

(20) From Robert Gipps. Saldania, June 19, 1615 . 192

(21) From Thomas Elkington. Swally, February 25,

1614-15 192

(22) From Thomas Keridge to Captain Downton.

Ajmere, November 22, 1614 .... 192

(23) From Thomas Aldvvorthe and William Biddulph.

February 28 and March 2, 1614-15 . . . 193

(24) From Thomas Arthington. Saldania, June 18,

1615 194

188. Thomas Keridge to William Edwards [at Surat]. Ajmere,

November 23, 1614 195

189. Richard Cocks to the Company. Firando, November 25,

1614 . 196

190. Richard Cocks to Adam Denton at Patani. Firando, No-

vember 25, 1614 202

191. Commission and invoice of goods shipped in the 'Sea

Adventure ' for Siam. Firando, November 25, 1614 . 204

192. Consultation at Surat, November 28, 1614, regarding the

discovery of trade in Persia ...... 208

193. Captain Downton to Sir Robert Sherley. [Surat, Novem-

ber, 1614?] 209

194. John Sandcrofte to the Company. Surat, November 29,

1614, and Ahmedabad, December 19, 1614 • • • 212

195. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea

Adventure.' Firando, December 2, 1614. . . .215

196. The same to the same. Firando, December 3, 1614 . .216



CONTENTS xi

PAGE



197. Japanese receipt for certain parcels. August 22 [1613] . 216

1 97A. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea

Adventure.' Firando, December 3, 1614 . . . . 217

198. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat,

December 8, 1614 218

199. Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke at Broach. Baroda,

December 9, 1614 218

200. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat,

December 10, 1614 219

201. Duplicate (with slight variations) of No. 189 . . . 220

202. Richard Cocks to the Company of Merchant Adventurers

of England resident in Middelburg. [Firando, Decem-
ber 10, 1614] 220

203. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea

Adventure.' Firando, December 10, 1614 . . . 222

204. The same to the same. Firando, December 10, 1614 . 223

205. The same to the same. Firando, December 12, 1614 . 223

206. Memorandum of goods to be claimed from the custom

house at Surat by William Biddulph on behalf of John

Oxwicke 224

William Biddulph to John Oxwicke at Broach. [Surat],
December 12, 1614 225

207. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat,

December 14, 1614 225

208. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea

Adventure.' Firando, December 15, 1614 . . . 227

209. The same to the same. Firando, December 15, 1614 . 227

210. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke and Christopher

Farewell [at Broach]. Surat, December 16, 1614 . . 228

211. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the 'Sea

Adventure.' Firando, December 16, 1614 . . . 230

212. Jeronimo de Varrada to the English at Firando. Nanga-

saki, December \ £, 1614 (Missing) 230



xii EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

PAGE

213. Ralph Preston to John Oxwicke at Broach. Ahmedabad,

December 17, 1614 2 3 !

214. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat,

January 17, 1614-15 232

215. Memorandum by [Thomas Mitford ?] for Christopher

Farewell, proceeding to Broach. Baroda, December 19,
1614



216. [Richard Wickham] to Richard Cocks at Firando. Amami

Oosima, December 23, 1614

217. Thomas Mitford to the Company. [Ahmedabad], Decern

ber 26, 1614 ........

218. John Crouther to the Company. Ahmedabad, Decern

ber 26, 1614

219. William Edwards to Sir Thomas Smith. Ahmedabad

December 26, 16 14, and Ajmere, March 14, 16 14-15

220. Thomas Aldworthe to the Company. Ahmedabad, De

cember 27, 1614



221. William Edwards, Thomas Aldworthe, and Edward

Dodsworth to John Oxwicke and others at Broach
Ahmedabad, December 29, 1614 ....

222. Edward Dodsworth to the Company. Ahmedabad, De

cember 30, 1614 .......

223. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke and Christopher

Farewell at Broach. Surat, December 31, 1614

224. Ralph Preston to the Company. Ahmedabad, January 1

1614-15



225. Instructions to Richard Steel and John Crouther for their

mission to Persia. Ahmedabad, January 2, 1614-15

226. John Jourdain and others to the Company. Bantam

January 2, 1614-15 .......

227. Christopher Farewell to John Oxwicke at Broach. Jam

busar, January 3, 1614-15 .



CONTENTS xiii

PAGE



228. Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke and others at Broach

Ahmedabad, January 4, 1614-15

229. John Oxwicke to Thomas Elkington [at Surat]. Broach

Januarys, 1614-15

230. Resolution by a court of merchants at Bantam, January 9

1614-15



231. Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke and others at Broach

Ahmedabad, January 12, 1614-15 ....

232. [William Nicholls ?] to the Company. Bantam, January 14

1614-15



233. George Chauncey to the Company. Bantam, January 15

1614-15

234. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat

January 19, 1614-15

235. Thomas Keridge to the Company. Ajmere, January 20

1614-15

236. George Chauncey to the Company. Bantam, January 21

1614-15

237. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat

January 21, 1614-15

238. The same to the same. Surat, January 23, 1614-15 .

239. The same to the same. Surat, January 24, 1 614-15 .

240. Instructions to George Ball for a voyage to Macassar and

Amboyna. Bantam, January 24, 1614-15

241. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat

January 31, 1614-15

242(1). Duplicate of No. 226

242 (2). John Jourdain to the Company. Bantam, February 10,
1614-15

243. John Yates to William Greenwell, Deputy Governor of the

Company. Bantam, February 17, 1614-15

244. Samuel Boyle to the Company. Bantam, February 18

1614-15



282
283
284
286
287
292

295

297

302

302
303

305

306

3"

312

312

319
321



xiv EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

PACK

245. Captain David Middleton to the Company. Bantam,

February 20, 1614-15 324

246. John Millward to the Company. Bantam, February 20,

1614-15 327

247. Edward Blitheman to Sir Thomas Smith. Bantam, Feb-

ruary 20, 1614—15 328

248. Richard Rowe to the Company. Bantam, February 21,

1614-15 333

249. Richard Westby to the Company. Bantam, February 21,

1614-15 .... 33s

250. John Jourdain to George Ball, cape merchant of the

Concord. Bantam, February 23, 1614-15 . . . 339



Corrigenda

Page 49, line 23, after very insert acceptable
»» 77. >> 17, for 26 read 36
,, 291, „ 8, for Kataping ? read Kola Teugah



INTRODUCTION.




HE documents of the ' Original Correspondence' series
printed in the present volume are numbered 124 to
250, and, with a few exceptions, belong to the period
between the 2nd December, 1613, and the 23rd Feb-
ruary, 1615, or nearly fifteen months. The exceptions, it may be
well to note, are Nos. 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 23 and 24 of the
abstracts ranged under No. 187. These were mostly written from
the Cape by the factors, &c, of Reeling's fleet of 1615, and are
mingled with letters of earlier date owing to the fact that they
were received by the Hope, which was met at Table Bay on her
homeward voyage.

In all, nearly one hundred and fifty separate documents are
included in this instalment. Roughly speaking, one-half of these
are dated from Surat, Agra, or other places in the dominions of
the Great Mogul ; while the remainder may be almost equally
divided between Japan and Bantam (with its subordinates).

The importance of the first of these three groups is certainly
commensurate with its bulk ; for the period in question was one
in which the fate of the English attempt to settle in Western
India hung more than once in the balance. As noted in the
Introduction to the preceding volume, the Portuguese, in the
autumn of 1613, to mark their displeasure at the favourable
reception accorded to the English, had seized a native vessel
of great value ; and Jahangir had thereupon given orders to

Y 1268. a



xviii EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

imprison all the Portuguese in his dominions, and had sent an
army under Mukarrab Khan to besiege the city of Damaun
(p. 96). Meanwhile the handful of Englishmen whom Best had
left behind him under Thomas Aldworthe had been well treated, 'all
these people here generally much more affecting us than the Por-
tingals, and showing us kindness in what they may ' (p. 97). Their
sales, however, were inconsiderable, and their discouragements
many. The spring and summer of 1614 passed away without any
tidings of the expected fleet from England ; the natives began to
weary of the hostilities with the Portuguese and the consequent loss
of trade,and to doubt whether it were not wiser to yield to the
Viceroy's demands and expel the English from the Mogul's terri-
tories. At last, however, in October, 1614, Captain Downton
reached Swally ' with four gallant ships and four hundred gallant
men,' as Aldworthe wrote joyfully to Keridge (p. 137). The news
of their arrival roused the Portuguese to a supreme effort ; and,
as soon as he could collect his entire force, the Viceroy sailed
to the north with the intention of first crushing the English
intruders and then punishing their native allies. Alarmed at
the prospect of an attack upon Surat, Mukarrab Khan demanded
the active co-operation of the English vessels (p. 149). Downton,
however, was forbidden by his commission (First Letter Book of
the E. India Co., p. 451) to commence hostilities against the
subjects of other Christian powers, and he would therefore
undertake nothing unless he were first attacked (pp. 149,
168). Mukarrab Khan was greatly incensed at this and showed
his displeasure in many ways, until the approach of the
Viceroy's armada warned him not to alienate his only sup-
porters. To the ensuing engagement, which, as is well known,
ended in the entire discomfiture of the Portuguese, the refer-
ences in the present volume are curiously meagre; and the
student who wishes for details of the fight must still go to the
journals preserved among the India Office Marine Records or
to the pages of Purchas. It is interesting, however, to notice
that Downton himself testifies to the bravery shown by the



INTRODUCTION xix

Portuguese. ' The gallants of the Portugal's army were in this
business,' he writes ; in fact they nearly succeeded in their first
attack, and he had never seen men fight with greater resolution
(p. 186).

Meanwhile more peaceful pursuits were not forgotten. It
was arranged that one ship should be sent home direct from
Swally, and factors were told off to proceed to Ahmedabad,
Broach, Cambay, and other places to procure a lading of indigo
and calicoes. Before they separated, a series of consultations
was held (Nos. 168, 169, 192), at which the position of affairs
was fully discussed. The Company had intended that William
Edwards, the principal of the newly-arrived factors, should
assume the direction of affairs at Surat ; but this was vigorously
opposed by Aldworthe, who almost unaided had maintained the
English hold on the port, and was not inclined to give place
to a new-comer when events had taken a more favourable turn
(Dodsworth's Journal, I. O. Mar. Rec). The need of someone
' of good fashion and esteem ' at Ajmere, in the place of Keridge,
suggested an honourable compromise ; and ultimately Aldworthe
was recognised as chief at Surat, while Edwards was appointed
to proceed to the Court. A question which caused some difficulty
was that of the capacity in which the latter was to present
himself. The Company had expressly forbidden any of their
servants to imitate Captain Hawkins in assuming the title of
ambassador ; and yet those on the spot agreed that ' whosoever
should go up to the king under the title of a merchant should
not be respected .... for that merchants generally are
not regarded by the king' (p. 133). In the end it was determined
that Edwards should call himself ' a messenger sent by our
King to the Great Mogul ' (p. 137), and under this title he set
out from Surat in December, 1614. A letter which he sent
from Ajmere to Sir Thomas Smith (p. 243) states that their
' entertainment by the Great Mogul hath been very honourable,'
and that they look forward with confidence to ' a contenting
trade hereafter without obstacle or impediment.'



bcx EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

Another question debated at the consultations among the
factors was the advisability of endeavouring to open a trade with
Persia. When the English factors first repaired to the Mogul
Court their broadcloths found a ready sale, and in consequence a
large quantity was ordered from England ; but when once the
novelty had disappeared, the demand fell to a mere fraction of
the estimate (p. 97), and it seemed probable that the expected con-
signment would be far beyond their requirements. This prospect
quickened Aldworthe's interest in other possible markets, par-
ticularly Persia, concerning which he had already ' made diligent
enquiry' (Vol. I., p. 307). There, he was told, they might be
sure ' of the vent of much cloth, in regard their country is cold,
and that men, women, and children are clothed therewith some
five months in the year' (p. 98). This information he obtained
from an Englishman named Steel, who had come overland from
Aleppo in pursuit of a runaway debtor, and had been persuaded to
await at Surat the coming of the expected fleet. When Downton
arrived the matter was brought before the council of merchants,
and it was resolved to despatch Steel to Ispahan, accompanied by
a factor named Crouther, to procure further information and to
solicit a firman ' for the fair and peaceable entertainment of our men
ships, and goods in all such parts as they shall arrive at ' (p. 267).
This obtained, they were to separate, Crouther returning to
India and Steel pursuing his journey to England to report to
the Company. As a further means of obtaining the desired
object, they were furnished with letters of commendation to
Sir Robert Sherley, who had recently returned to Persia (by
way of Lahori Bandar and Ajmere) from a roving mission to
various European courts (1608-13) as the Shah's representative.
With these letters and a supply of money for the needs of the
journey the two travellers set out from Ahmedabad shortly before
the date on which the volume closes.

Such were the main events affecting the English in Western
India during this period. Before quitting the subject, however,
attention may be directed to two points which are clearly



INTRODUCTION xxi

brought out in these letters. The first is that the agreement
concluded by Best with the Governors of Surat and Ahmedabad
was far from possessing the importance which was then and
since has been ascribed to it. Keridge, writing from Ajmere
in November, 1614, says that ' none here will take notice ' of the
articles (p. 180) ; and it is clear, from the instructions given
to Canning ' to procure the king's seal to the articles ' (p. 103)
and from other references, that the so-called treaty, in spite
of its confirmation by the Mogul, had not (as was at first hoped)
established the English position on a secure basis. The second
point is that the founding, or at least the maintenance, of
an English factory at Surat was due quite as much to Thomas
Aldworthe as to Captain Best, though to the latter is generally
awarded the whole credit. In the preceding volume (p. 301)
William Biddulph bore testimony that ' the greatest cause
and means of our settling here was Mr. Aldworthe, for
our General [Best] would have been gone three or four times
and left this place .... but Mr. Aldworthe stood out
with him and would not go aboard ' ; and now we find Keridge
equally emphatic (p. 157) : ' had not Mr. Aldworthe directly
refused to follow his [Best's] will, we had left this place and
trade.' Best, however, had the opportunity of telling his story
first and of ' attributing all good services to be done by himself
(p. 157) ; and consequently less than justice has hitherto been
done to the energy and persistence of the first English agent
in Western India.

The documents relating to the factory in Japan need not
detain us long. The principal events of the period were Saris's
departure for England, recorded in the first two documents (which
really belong to the group of letters from Firando with which the
previous volume concludes) : a trading journey to Jeddo early in
1614, which met with scant success : and two ventures to Cochin
China and Siam in country junks. The former of these two
voyages was disastrous, for both of the factors lost their lives
and the junk was cast away; the latter was likewise unsuccessful,



xx ii EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

though the last we hear of it in the present volume (No. 216)



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