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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.



Slieli'.En-F-i

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



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Rolling Great Iron Vien Trestle. Coke Ovens. Frambes Lumber Co.

Mill. Fort Payne Furnace. Ice Factory. Fire Clay Works.

Southern Pavement Co. Stove Works. Dustin-Hubbard M'f'g Co,



Stand Pipe.

BiRDSEYE View ok Fort Payne, Lookin




Q

Court House.

ROM Lookout Mountain, August, 1890.



ks.

ght Station



DeKalb Hotel. Coal i^ Iron Co, Opera Railroad Station.

Building. House.



Al.ib..in.t Uuilders'

Hardware Co.

Fort Payne Academy.



FCRT PAg/NE, ALABAMA,

ILLUSTKATEB.



February, 1889 — August, 1890.



PUBLISHED Bg THE



Fort Payne Coal and Iron Company,

CAPITAL, $5,000,000.



' ^It is the intention of tlic stockholders and officers of The Fort^Payne Coal and Iron Company to build a manufacturing
dty in the Wills I 'alley at Fort Payne, and if the results obtained in other localities, many of them with far less advan-



tages, call be taken as a criterion, the accomplishme?it of the object can readily be attained. The Company has laid the
foundations broad, and surrounded the enterprise with men whose financial skill and judgment are a guarantee that
the inexhaustible resources of this fine property will be carefully and fully developed, and, as a natural result of such
developme7it, a city will rise in its midst." — [Prospectus, January, 1889.

FOR TIIK KUl^FIIwMKNT OF THK PROMISKS QUOTKD ABOVK, THK READER IS REFERRED

TO THE FOLI.OWING PAGES.



7



JOURNAL PRINTING HOUSE, ELIZABETH, N. J.



NOV po loqp ■



OFFICERS.



Pirsidciil COL. J. W. vSPAULDING.

First ]-ur-Pirs!dai/, . . HON. D. H. GOODELL.

Seco>id ]-ia-Prcsidcnf, . HON. HENRY B. PEIRCE.

Manager, .... HON. C. O. GODFREY.

Treasurer F. H. TOBEY, Fort Payne, Alabama.

Secrelarv HENRY T. POPE, Fort Payne, Alabama.



BOARD OF DIRECTORS.



W. p. Rice, Fort Payne, President Union Investment Co., Kansas City.

Hon. D. H. Goodell, Governor of New Hampshire, Antrim, N. H.

Hon. Hknry B. Peirce, Secretary of State of Massachn.'-etts, Abington,

Massachu.setts.
Gen. Selden Connor, ex-Governor of Maine, Pre.sident of Northern Banking

Company, Portland, Maine.
Col. J. W. vSpaulding, Fort Payne, Alabama.
Hon. F. G. Jillson, Vice-President and Treasurer of Rhode Island Mortgage

and Trust Co., Providence, Rhode Island.
Horatio Adams, Kingston, Massachusetts.
Dr. J. M. Ford, Kansas City, Missouri.
C. O. Godfrey, ex-Mayor of Fort Payne, Alabama.



GKNERAI. OFFICES: HR-VNCH OFIICKS:

FORT PAYNE, AI.A15AM.V. 15 STATK STRKKT. m>STON. MASS.

40:! PKO\'n>ENT H'EirG, PHll.A.. 1*A.



f =>-^.\



The Fort Payne Coal and Iron Company.



HE Fort Payne Coal and Iron Company was organized in the
fall of :S88, and after making a close examination of min-
eral lands in Alabama, purchased thirty-two thousand acres
of land in the vicinity of Fort Payne, DeKalb County.

The site of the city in January, 1889, was a little village
on the Alabama Great Southern Railroad, fifty-one miles
south from Chattanooga, Tenn., and ninety-one miles north
from Birmingham.
At a meeting held
in Birmingham in No-
vember, 1888, the or-
ganization was com-
pleted, officers and
directors elected, and
the capital of the
company fixed at five
million dollars. Four
million dollars o f
the stock was after-
wards offered to the
public, mainly in the
New England states,
and was taken in one
month. Ten thousand
shares were reserved
as treasury stock, and was offered to the original stockholders a
few months ago ; it was readily taken by them and their friends.

On the fourth of February, i88g, the pioneers of the new city
arrived in the town, and began the foundations of a community
that has grown with such rapidity and solidity that it astonishes




even its most sanguine advocates. The work of surveying, grading
and building has gone on steadily until now — about eighteen
mouths since it began — a model city stands on the cotton fields
in the Wills Valley.

The camera of the photographer, which always tells the truth,
exhibits in the pages of this book the results of the untiring
energy and sleepless care of the projectors and directors of this
enterprise. The city, however, changes daily, and by the time

this book reaches its
readers many new fea-
tures not portrayed
will be fixtures in Fort
Paj'ne.

Those who first vis-
ited this valley were
charmed with its
Ijeauty and were loud
in its praises, and a
closer acquaintance
has proved that the
city and surrounding
country reveals new
beauties of scenery
ever)' time they are
visited.

The mountain ranges — Lookout on the east and Sand Mountain
on the west — are delightful, winter and summer ; they abound
in romantic scenery, rocky glens and tumbling water. Within
twenty miles there are vmtrodden forests and dense jungles where
wild beasts and game abound. The location, from Soo to 1200



FORT PAYNE, ALABAMA, IDLUSTRATED.



feet above tide water, tempers the sun's heat even on the hottest
days, and the nights are cool and restful. The water that supplies
the city is drawn from springs fed by the streams that flow from
the heart of the mountain.

The men who control Fort Payne are mainh- from New Eng-
land. Many of
the most ener-
getic citizens,
however, are
either natives of
the county or
young men from
various southern
cities.

The greatest
care has been
taken in the de-
scription in this
book of the min-
eral resources of
the Company, to
show exactly
what have been
developed by
the experts and
engineers em-
ployed. The re-
sults of the work
for the past eigh-
teen mouths are
detailed b}' them
in the articles on

iron and coal, etc. Much yet remains to be done to fully develop
the great deposits of coal and iron, but what has been accom-
plished has been done thoroughly and with a view to the future.
Selections have been made of various scenes and buildings to give
an idea of the progress of the works of the Coal and Iron Com-
pany, but it would be impossible in the limits of this work to por-
trav all that could be shown.




Maink Stiikkt.



The mining and manufacture of iron being one of the chief
industries of Fort Payne, the Coal and Iron Company have made
extra efforts to encourage the establishment of iron-working
plants, and in a short time the raw material will be introduced at
the southern end of the city at the furnaces, and from thence pass

to the .\labama
Hardware Man-
ufacturing Com-
pany and other
factories at the
northern part of
the city, and be
put on the mark-
et as finished
goods.

(~) n e of the
principal plants
built by the com-
pany is the Fire
Brick and Tile
works. It is one
of the largest
and best a p -
])ointed works
i 11 the United
Slates, and now
manufactures
fire brick and
tiles, drain aud
sewer pipe, aud
terra cotta work.
It is now pushed

to the fullest capacity, aud will be enlarged shortly in order to
meet demands for its wares, both in Fort Payne and elsewhere.

A complete stove works, making nearlj- loo patterns of stoves
and varieties of hollow ware, has already become crowded for
room, and must immediately increase its capacity in order to sup-
ply stoves, etc., ordered from various parts of the South and West.
The plant belongs to the Company.



THK FORT PAYNE COAL AND IRON COMPANY,




Genekal Offices Fort Pavne Coal and Iron Company.



FORT PATNE, ALABAMA, rLLIISTRATED.



The elaborate system of water works which supplies water to
the city has now nine miles of mains and fifty fire-plugs in the
corporation limits, and furnishes pure, sparkling water, of which
the following analysis was made by Prof LefFnian, of Philadelphia,
April 29th, 1S90 :
715 \\'alnlt St.,

PHlLADEtrHIA,

Apr. 29, 1890.

Dear Sir :

The following are
the results of the an-
alysis of the sample
of water sent by you.
The figures are in
grains to the U. S.
gallon :

Total Solids. . 7.54

Chlorine, . . .26

SO in Sulphates, .15

Calcium, . . 2,6g

Magnesium, . .11

Nitrogen in Ni-
trites, . . . NONE

Nitrogen in Ni-
trates, . . .04

Nitrogen in Am-
monium, . NONE

Nitrogen by Per-
manganate, .0043

The above results indicated water of high organic pur-
ity. The total solids consist almost entirely of calcium
carbonate. The quantity of this is calculated from the
calcium amounting to 6.5 grains per U. S, gallon. The
water is quite suitable for all manufacturing purposes.
It is an excellent drinking water.

HENRY LEFFMAN.

An electric light plant furnishes arc lights
for street purposes and incandescent lights
for stores, public buildings and dwelliugs,
and is the property of the parent company.

The DeKalb Hotel, erected bj' the Company in 1889, upon an
entire square in the centre of the city, at a large cost, is mod-
ern and complete in all its appointments, and ranks among the
best hotels in the Union. It has been patronized by thousands
and has merited the warm encomiums passed upon it by guests
from home and abroad. It has made the stay of visitors from the




North to Fort Payne pleasant and agreeable, and is a favorite
resort of the entire country within 100 miles, on accoimt of its
cuisiue and admirable management.

Early in the formation of the city an exhibit hall was built by
the managers in which to show the various ores, coals, timbers,
clays, etc., to be found on the property of
the Company-. This hall has become entire-
ly inadequate to contain the various speci-
mens, etc., and a new and elegant building
in which to display not only ores, but all
manufactures of iron, wood, clay, etc., pro-
duced in the city, will be built opposite the
new railway station.

One of the natural curiosities of Fort
Payne is its Man-
itou cave, a won-
derful . formation
in the limestone
rocks in the side
of Lookout moun-
tain. It was prob-
alih' oue of the
natural fortresses
of the Cherokee
Indians, and from
its rocks the Con-
federate govern-
ment made salt-
petre. It abounds
in beautiful for-
mations, subter-
ranean rivers and
cascades. A sur-
vey has been made for several miles b}' the company, bridges,
stairs and railings built, and guides provided. When lighted, as it
often is, by thousands of caudles, it presents a sight never to be
forgotten. Electric lights will be introduced and new wonders will
doubtless be revealed. Around the entrance of the cave a beauti-
ful park has been laid out, and it is a place of resort by visitors.



THE FORT PAYNE COAL^AND IRON COMPANT.




Fort Payne Fire Clay Works.










Each of the squares on this map represents a section, one mile squ.ire. ^ov eminent survey. The shaded portions represent the property of the

Fort Payne Coal and Iron Company.



p



IRON



ORES, MIXES, ECKXACES, STEEE.



WKST of the City of Fort Payne, running parallel to the
Lookout and Sand Mountain ranges, is a series of
ridges from two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet
in height, and well covered with forest trees. The ridge
nearest the city, and upon whose slope Fort Payne is
being built, is called Iron Mountain, from the great
quantity of iron ore contained in it. The above-named
ridges extend the whole length of the Wills Valley, being
a section of a similar mineral
belt extending from Birmingham
on the south to Chattanooga,
Tenn., on the north, and are
practically one mass of iron ore,
compri>ing the main ore deposit
owned by the Company. The
seams of the richest ore vary
from three to thirty-two feet in
thickness, and lie in parallel
strata separated by beds of sand-
stone and the clayey soil, which
is red in color owing to the
presence of a large per cent, of
oxide of iron, caused by the in-
filtration of water from the
ore. An analysis of some of
this soil has given as high as eleven per cent, of metallic iron.

The iron mines now being developed are located in Iron Moun-
tain, west of the Fort Payne Furnace Company's plant, and east
of the Bay State Furnace Company. On the east slope at a dis-
tance of about So3 feet from the Fort Pavue Furnace Stock House




TKKSTi.r fkmm IIkown CiKii Mine



is opened and now operated the Brosvn Ore or Limonite mine.
This has been fully developed by stripping and by drift into the
face of the ore, and is known to extend in a southerly direction
1,500 feet before it goes beneath the surface. It also extends
northerly to Mill Gap with a thickness at the drift of twenty-four
feet of good ore. The indications show very plainly that this
thickness will be inci eased from five to ten feet as it runs under
the hill. A large body of this ore, enough to run the furnaces for

years, can be used without wash-
ing. An analysis of the un-
washed ore shows :

Silica 20.02 per cent.

Metallic Iron, . 47.09 "
Phosphorus, . 0.2S "

This analysis represents the
"run of mine" as it will be deliv-
ered to the furnace stock house.
An incline is built by which the
ore can be run directly into the
stock house of the Fort Payne
furnace, or loaded at the Fort
Payne and Eastern Railroad on
cars for market. As now devel-
oped the mine will have a capac-
ity of 200 tons per day.
On the west side of Iron Mountain the red hematite ore has
been fully developed to show five distinct veins of iron ore, vary-
ing in thickness at the outcrop from three to fourteen feet. The
three foot veins of ore increase in thickness as the drift extends
into the mountain, some of them now showing a thickness of



10



FORT PAYNE, ALABAMA, ILLUSTBATEU.



seven feet. These veins lie above one another in a distance of
200 feet from the highest to the lowest, and are divided by sand-
stone and clay ranging from twenty-five to fifty feet in thickness.

The red hematite belongs geologically tc the fossil iron ore,
which is so called from the fact that the iron oxide appears in the
shape of complete or fragmentary shells of marine animals, partly
bivalves, partly
snails, partly sea
lilies or crinoids.
An analysis of a
sample of this
ore obtained by
boring through
the thickness of
the different
veins shows :

Silica, 4. 1 1 per
cent. ; metallic
iron, 25.39 per
cent. ; caustic
lime, 30.13 per
cent. ; phospho-
rus, 0.336 per
cent.

This ore, al-
though low in
iron, is really a
valuable ore for
the furnace, the
high per cent, of
caustic lime

making it desirable for a flux for the soft hematite and limonite
ores, thus reducing the amount of limestone to be added to the
mixture in the furnace.

At the outcrop of the red hematite ores, where it has been ex-
posed to the elements, it is known as the soft red ore, and when
freshly mined can be easily cut with a carpenter's saw. This ore
can be readily mined by stripping, and is of such good quality
that it is economy to strip a foot of surface for every inch thick-




Gi-EN Avenue Mine.



ness of ore, unless hard rock is encountered. An analysis of a
sample of the soft red hematite ore, an average of all the vein as
it will be delivered to the furnaces, shows : Silica, 10.37 per cent.;
metallic iron, 55.34 per cent. ; phosphorus, 0.46 per cent. ; caustic
lime, 1.07 per cent.

All of the ores on the east of Iron Mountain, including the red

hematite veins
and the soft ore,
will be loaded
into mine cars
by chutes, thence
run l)y gravity to
the loading ter-
minal of an in-
cline, which will
convey it to a
discharging sta-
tion on the line
of the railroad.
It will then be
weighed and
conveyed to its
destination. The
machinery of the
different inclines
will work auto-
matically, the
loaded cars in
their descent
pulling up the
empties. -As now
planned the ore can be got out in a most economical manner, and
can be taken from the mine and loaded on the cars without
rehandling. The present capacity of the red ore mines is about
300 tons per day. The cost of getting out either the red or brown
ore, when the mines are in working condition, will be 75 cents per
ton. From the Mill gap, extending north from one and a half to
two miles above the city, the same veins of brown aud red ore
have been traced and their quantity and quality fully developed.



. v-%fc. i"^^; ■^••'^



IKON.



11




i'uK-i r'A\,NK Furnace



13



FORT PAYNE, AI.ABAMA, ILXilTSTRATED.



The brown ore is found in larger quantities and same quality as
that now worked, and the red ores, both hard and soft, are shown
in their proper position, well defined and known to be the same
as that which is
now being mined

About 30,000
tons of the soft
and hard ore
have been expos-
ed by stripping
directly west of
the centre of the
city on Iron
Mountain. It is
proposed in the
near future to
open these mines
with a view of
supplying the
market from Bir-
mingham on the
south to Chatta-
nooga on the
north. From the
mines the ore
will be conveyed
to the top of the
ridge,and thence
down to a spur
of the A. G. S.
railroad by an
endless wire rope
haulage system,

by which the ore will be loaded into iron buckets, passing over
the mountain to a terminal discharging station at the railroad,
and automatically weighed into the cars. This plant will have a
capacity of 1,000 tons a day.

Besides the above mentioned fields, large bodies of iron ore
have been located on the Sand Mountain range, iucludiug a man-




ganese ore or pyrolusite. This ore has been analysized by Prof.
Brainerd, of Birmingham, and shown to have 54 per cent, of man-
ganese, a very rich ore, which could be shipped to Pennsylvania,

or better still,
could be smelted
in the form of
spiegeleisen or
ferro-manganese
This ore in the
future is destin-
ed to be a source
of large income
to the Company.
Deposits of red
and brown ore
have been also
located on Look-
out range, but
being found in
such abundance
on Iron Moun-
tain, they have
not yet been giv-
en much atten-
tion by the min-
ing engineer.

The articles
on coal and iron
have been pre-
pared by Col. J.
H. Mullin, min-
ing engineer.



KT Payne Stove Works.



Manufacture of Iron.

Iron ores as they come from the miners' cars consist of differ-
ent forms of oxide of iron, {metallic iron combined with different
portions of oxygen), and also foreign matter, silica (in the form of
sand and clay), phosphorus, sulphur, etc. Much of the clay and
sand is removed from the ore by washing, but a certain portion



IRON.



13



passes through the furnace and is finally removed by the action
of heat and the different gases resulting from the combustion of
the fuel and limestone. The operation of reducing the iron ores
to metallic iron in the blast furnace is strictly a chemical one, a
chemist's assay carried on on a grand scale, using masses of ore
and flux measured by the hundred pounds instead of a few grams.
The operation, however, is one of accuracy, nothing being left to
chance, but following the chemist's analysis the proportion of
every part of the material put into the furnace (the " burden ")
is calculated, the proper amount of air necessarj- to produce the
required amount of heat is known ; therefore, with a well designed
furnace, managed by a skillful founder and using good ores, it is
easy to produce any grade of iron required by the market.

The blast furnace having been properlj- " dried out, " or freed
from all moisture contained in the brick work, is filled up inside
with fuel. A short scaffold of lumber is first built, cord wood
then piled in "on end " until it reaches nearly to the "bosh " ;
coke is then added and fire applied to the bottom. After the
whole mass is well lighted, light charges of ore, coke and lime-
stone are added, sometimes furnace cinder is used, and after six
or eight hours the blast is gently " turned on " and the gas passes
through the down-comer and gas flues to the boilers and stoves,
furnishing heat for steam and hot blast. In the meantime the
proper charge of ore, coke and limestone have been put in the
furnace until it is filled within, say, twelve feet of the top.

The action of the gases and the combustion of the fuel and
the reduction of the limestone to caustic lime, have removed the
oxygen from the oxides of iron, converting it to metallic iron. The
carbon from the fuel and the silica from the ore have furnished
the required amount of carbon and silicon; the result is cast-iron.
The interior of the blast furnace has been divided into three
zones. Commencing at the top is the zone of preparation, from
thence to about half way from the bosh to tuyeres is called the
zone of reduction, and thence to a point just above the tuyeres is
the zone of fusion. In about two hours after charging into the
furnace the ore commences to lose its oxygen at not quite red
heat. The first signs of metallic iron are seen in about six hours,
when the mass is red hot. In half an hour more than fifty per
cent, of the oxygen is removed at a temperature suflicieut to



soften wrought iron, and a complete reduction will occur in
about nine hours, when the mass of metal is ready to pass into
the crucible of the furnace.

From the top of the furnace down to the tuyere the walls
slightly widen, to allow the contents to pass downward as rapidly
as possible, but from the bosh the walls approach each other,
forming a funnel-shaped shaft, which compresses the mass of
melted ore aud limestone, forming an arch above the tuyeres, and
the great weight of material above presses this together, and, like
a huge sponge, the contents are " squeezed " out and drop, a fiery
rain of molten iron and cinder, to the bottom. The slag, or cin-
der, being lighter, floats on top of the iron, and protects it from
the oxidizing influence of the heated air.

This continued rain of iron and cinder gradualh' fills the cruci-
ble of the furnace, and as fast as cinder reaches a certain height,
the cinder notch is opened and the slag is blown out. This is
done as often as necessary, and when the melted iron has accumu-
lated in sufficient quantity the iron notch is tapped and the iron
is run out and cast iuto pi.gs. The process of filling a blast fur-
nace is continuous throughout the twenty-four hours. A cast is
made from three to four times in twentv-four hours.



The Fort Payne Furnace Company.

The Fort Payne Furnace Company was organized on the 27th of
April, 1889, with a capital of f2oo,ooo. The directors are : W.
P. Rice, J. M. Ford, J. W. Spaulding, C. O. Godfrey, S. C. Hatha-
way, H. B. Peirce aud H. B. Hill. J. M. Ford is president; C. O.
Godfrey, vicc-preiudent ; S. C. Hathaway Jr., secretary and treas-
urer, and John H. MuUin, superintendent, (iround was broken
for the construction of the foundations May 24, 18S9. The foun-
dations were put in by h'red. Wagner. The iron work, including
pumps and engines, by Alex. K. Rarig & Co., of Columbus, O.,
and all the brick work by John McGarry & Co.

This furnace is located on Gault avenue, one mile south of the
DeKalb hotel, on the main line of the Fort Payne and Eastern
railroad. The property consists of ten acres of land and is a very
desirable site. The stack is 65 by 14 feet, which is small compar-
ed to most southern furnaces, but was selected by the superin-



14



FORT PAYNE, ALABAMA, IliLUSTRATED.




Fort Payne Rolling Mill.



tendent because it is better adapted to the ores of the district than
larger sizes. The nominal daily capacity is 75 tons. The blast is
heated by three Siemens-Cowper fire brick stoves, each 65 by 16
feet. The cast house is brick, no by 45 feet, with corrugated iron
roof. The stock house is frame, iron roof and sides, T50 b\- 75
feet, with two tracks fifteen feet high. An iron hoist lower, with
a Craue vertical hoist, takes the stock to the tunnel head. The



engine house is brick, 55 by 35 feet. It has two blast engines,
each 72 by 48 by 36 steam cylinder. The steam is supplied by
eight boilers, each 52 inches by 28 feet, with two 18-inch flues.
The draft stack is iron, 170 feet high, and 8 feet 6 inches in diame-
ter in the clear. There are two Gordon supply pumps, 15 by iS
inches, and two boiler feed pumps, 9 by 16 inches. An 8 inch
artesian well supplies pure water to the boilers and furnace.



IRON.



15



This furnace is very eligibly located for its supply of raw
materials, and the owners believe that pig iron can be made
in it at a less cost than at any other locality.



The Bay State Furnace Company.

The Bay State Furnace Company was organized ou April 19th,
1890, with a cap-
ital of 1250,000.
The directors
are C O. God-
frey, H. B. Hill,
J. W. Spaulding,
A. W. Train and
S. Reed Allen,
all of Fort
Payne; Adna
Brown, Spring-


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