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eruptions, and by simple diffusion under the solar rays,
but from rings of it which were left in the inter-plane
tary spaces after the precipitation of the primaries.
There is no insuperable obstacle in the way of the con
ception that meteoric stones and ' shooting-stars ' have
their source in matter which has gone off from vol
canoes and by common evaporation; but it is hardly
supposable that a sufficient quantity could be produced
thus to make a body so large as, by centrifugal force
resulting from rotation, to withstand the absorptive
power of its parent's rotation. The event implied may
take place not until the planets have become flaming
suns from an accumulation of their own sun's cal
oric, reacting from centre to surface, which shall in
the lonesome latter days melt all the ' elements ' and
dissipate the solid foundations out as a scroll.

" The sun forms, in rotating, a vortex in the ether
surrounding him. The planets have their orbits lying
within this vortex at different distances from its centre ;
so that their liabilities to be absorbed by it are, other
things being equal, inversely according to those dis
tances, since length, not surface, is the measure of the
absorptive power along the lines marking the orbits.
Each planet overcomes its liability, that is, keeps in its



Eureka

orbit, through a counter-vortex generated by its own
rotation. The force of such counter-vortex is meas
ured by multiplying together the producing planet's
density and rotary velocity; which velocity depends,
not upon the length of the planet's equatorial circum
ference, but upon the distance through which a given
point of the equator is carried during a rotary period.
Then if Venus and Mercury, for example, have now the
orbits in which they commenced their revolutions the
orbit of the former 68 million miles, and that of the lat
ter 37 million miles, from the centre of the sun's vortex ;
if the diameter of Venus is 2g times the diameter, and
her density is the same with the density, of Mercury;
and if the rotary velocity of the equator of Venus is
1000 miles per hour, that of Mercury's equator is 1,900
miles per hour, making the diameter of his orbit of
rotation 14,500 miles nearly five times that of him
self. But I pass this point without further examina
tion. Whether there is or is not a difference in the
relative conditions of the different planets sufficient to
cause such diversity in the extents of their peripheries
of rotation as is indicated, still each planet is to be con
sidered to have, other things being equal, a vortical
resistance bearing the same proportion inversely to that
of every other planet which its distance from the centre
of the solar vortex bears to the distance of every other
from the same ; so that if it be removed inward or out
ward from its position, it will increase or diminish that

33 1



Eureka

resistance, accordingly, by adding to or subtracting
from its speed or rotation. As the rotary period must
be one in the two cases, the greater or less speed can
be produced only by the lengthening or the shortening
of the circumference described by the rotation.

" Then Mercury, at the distance of Venus, would
rotate in an orbit only || as broad as the one in which
he does rotate; so his centrifugal force, in that posi
tion, would be only || as great as it is in his own
position; so his capability, while there, of resisting the
forward pressure of the sun's vortex, which prevents
him from passing his full (circle) distance behind his
centre of rotation and thus adds to his velocity in his
annual orbit, would be but f| of what it is in his own
place. But this forward pressure is only || as great
at the distance of Venus as it is at that of Mercury.
Then Mercury, with his own rotary speed in the an
nual orbit of Venus, would move but || as fast as
Venus moves in it; while Venus, with her rotary

fiQ

speed in Mercury's annual orbit, would move as fast
as she moves in her own, that is, || of ^ as fast as
Mercury would move in the same (annual orbit of
Venus). It follows that the square root of || is the
measure of the velocity of Mercury in his own annual
orbit with his own rotary speed, compared with that of
Venus in her annual orbit with her rotary speed in
accordance with the fact.

" Such is my explanation of Kepler's first and third
332



Eureka

laws, which laws cannot be explained upon the prin
ciple of Newton's theory.

" Two planets, gathered from portions of the sun's
vapor into one orbit, would rotate through the same
ellipse with velocities proportional to their densities;
that is, the denser planet would rotate the more swiftly;
since, in condensing, it would have descended farther
toward the sun. For example, suppose the earth and
Jupiter to be the two planets in one orbit. The diam
eter of the former is 8,000 miles; period of rotation,
24 hours. The diameter of the latter is 88,000 miles:
period, g\ hours. The ring of vapor out of which the
earth was formed was of a certain (perpendicular)
width ; that out of which Jupiter was formed was of a
certain greater width. In condensing, the springs of
ether lying among the particles (these springs having
been latent before the condensation began) were let
out, the number of them along any given radial line
being the number of spaces between all the couples of
the particles constituting the line. If the two conden
sations had gone on in simple diametric proportions,
Jupiter would have put forth only n times as many
springs as the earth did, and his velocity would have
been but n times her velocity. But the fact that
the falling downward of her particles was completed
when they had got so far that 24 hours were required
for her equator to make its rotary circuit, while that
of his particles continued till but about | of her period

333



Eureka

was occupied by his equator in effecting its revolution,
shows that his springs were increased above hers in
still another ratio of 2^, making, in the case, his ve
locity and his vortical force (2\ x " =) 27 times her
velocity and force.

" Then the planets' densities are inversely as their
rotary periods ; and their rotary velocities and degrees
of centrifugal force are, other things being equal, di
rectly as their densities.

" Two planets, revolving in one orbit, in rotating,
would approach the sun, therefore enlarge their rotary
ellipses, therefore accelerate their rotary velocities,
therefore increase their powers of withstanding the in
fluence of the solar vortex, inversely according to the
products of their diameters into their densities ; that is,
the smaller and less dense planet, having to resist an
amount of influence equal to that resisted by the other >
would multiply the number of its resisting springs by
the ratio of the other's diameter and density to the
diameter and density of itself. Thus, the earth, in
Jupiter's orbit, would have to rotate in an ellipse 27
times as broad as herself, in order to make her power
correspond with his.

" Then the breadths, in a perpendicular direction, of
the rotary ellipses of the planets in their several orbits
are inversely as the products obtained by multiplying
together the bodies' densities, diameters, and distances
from the centre of the solar vortex. Thus, the product

334



Eureka

of Jupiter's density, diameter, and distance being (2^
times ii times 5^-) 140 times the product of the earth's
density, diameter, and distance, the breadth of the
latter's ellipse is about 1,120,000 miles; this upon the
foundation, of course, that Jupiter's ellipse coincides
precisely with his own equatorial diameter."

[Note by the editor. The last paragraph has been
copied just as it stands. But the query arises whether
the calculator in arriving at his conclusion did not
take, accidentally, one step off his premises. Isn't
rotary velocity inversely according to distance ? there
fore should not the ratio of Jupiter's, to the earth's,
distance, s|, come in as a divisor, instead of a mul
tiplier ?]

" It will be observed that that process, in its last
analysis, presents the point that rotary speed (hence
that vortical force) is in exact inverse proportion to dis
tance. Then, since the movement in orbit is a part of
the rotary movement, being at the rate which the
centre of the rotary ellipse is carried along the line
marking the orbit, and since that centre and the
planet's centre are not identical, the former being the
point around which the latter revolves, causing, by
the act, a relative loss of time in the inverse ratio of the
square root of distance, as I have shown back, the
speed in orbit is inversely according to the square root
of distance. Demonstration the earth's orbital pe
riod contains 365^- of her rotary periods. During these

335



Eureka

periods her equator passes through a distance of
(1,120,000 X ~ X 365^ =) about 1,286 million miles;
and the centre of her rotary ellipse, through a distance
of (95,000,000 x 2 x y= ) about 597 million miles.
Jupiter's orbital period has (365^ x i\ X 12 years =)
about 10,957 of his rotary periods, during which his
equator courses (88,000 x y X 10,957 =) about
3,050 million miles; and the centre of his rotary ellipse
about the same number of miles (490,000,000 x 2 x
22). Dividing this distance by 12 ( 3 50 =)
gives the length of Jupiter's double journey during
one of the earth's orbital periods = 254 million miles.
Relative velocities in ellipse (~^ =) 5 -f- to i, which
is inversely as the distances ; and relative velocities in
orbit (f|? =) 2 + to i, inversely as the square roots
of the distances.

" The sun's period of rotation being 25 days, his
density is only ^ of that of a planet having a period of
24 hours that of Mercury, for instance. Hence Mer
cury has, for the purpose now in view, virtually a diam
eter equal to a little more than ~ of that of the sun

= 11.84: =)-say,



75,000 miles.

" Here we have a conception of the planet in the
mid-stage, so to speak, of its condensation, after the
breaking up of the vaporous ring which was to pro
duce it and just at the taking on of the globular form.
But before the arrival at this stage the figure was that

336



Eureka

of a truck, the vertical diameter of which is identifiable
in the periphery of the globe (75,000 x y =), 236
thousand miles. Half way down this diameter the body
settled into its (original) orbit, rather, would have
settled had it been the only one, besides its parents, hi
the solar system, an orbit distant from the sun's
equator ( 236 a = ) 118,000 miles; and from the
centre of the solar vortex (118,000 + 888_22_- ^
562 thousand miles. To this are to be added succes
sively the lengths of the semi-diameters of the trucks
of Venus, of the earth, and so on outward.

" There, the planets' original distances, rather,
speaking strictly, the widths from the common centre
to the outer limits of their rings of vapor, are pointed
at. From these, as foundations, the present dis
tances may be deduced. A simple outline of the pro
cess to the deduction is this: Neptune took his orbit
first; then Uranus took his. The effect of the coming
into closer conjunction of the two bodies was such as
would have been produced by bringing each so much
nearer the centre of the solar vortex. Each enlarged
its rotary ellipse and increased its rotary velocity in the
ratio of the decrease of distance. A secondary result
the final consequence of the enlargement and the
increase was the propulsion of each outward, the square
root of the relative decrease being the measure of the
length through which each was sent. The primary
result, of course, was the drawing of each inward ; and

337



Eureka

it is fairly presumable that there were oscillations in
ward and outward, outward and inward, during sev
eral successive periods of rotation. It is probable, at
any rate, not glaringly improbable, that, in the oscilla
tions across the remnants of the rings of vapor (the
natural inference is that these were not completely
gathered into the composition of the bodies), portions
of the vapor were whirled into satellites, which fol
lowed in the passage outward.

" Saturn's ring (I have no allusion to the rings now
existing), as well as that of each of the other planets
after him, while it was being gradually cast off from
the sun's equator, was carried along in the track of its
next predecessor, the distance here being the full
quotient (not the square root of the quotient) found in
dividing by the breadth to its own periphery, that to
the periphery of the other. Thus, reckoning for Ura
nus a breadth of 17 million, and for Saturn one of 14
million miles, the latter (still in his vaporous state) was
conducted outward (through a sort of capillary attrac
tion) j| as far as the former (after condensation) was
driven by means of the vortical influence of Neptune.
The new body and the two older bodies interchanged
forces, and another advance outward (of all three) was
made. Combining all of the asteroids into one of the
Nine Great Powers, there were eight stages of the gen
eral movement away from the centre; and, granting
that we have, exact, the diameters and the rotary

338



Eureka

periods (that is, the densities) of all of the participants
in the movement, the measurement of each stage by
itself, and of all the stages together, can be calculated
exactly.

" How will that do for a postscript ? "




339




Title Index

ESSAYS AND MISCELLANIES



Adams. T. 0.


VOL.


PAGE

TOO


Allston, Washington .


. 10


L 3O

153


Anastatic Printing


. 10


162


Anthon, Charles .


. 10


82


Arthur, T. S.


. 10


139


Astoria ....


. 7


35


Autography, A Chapter on .


. IO


77


Barrett, Elizabeth Barrett .


. 8


82


Benjamin, Park .


. IO


86


Bird, Robert M. .


. 7


i


Bird, Robert M. .


. 10


108


Bogart, Elizabeth


9


59


Brainard, J. G. C.


. 7


245


Brooks, James


. 10


137


Brooks, N. C.


. 10


125


Brown, David Paul


. IO


143


Brownson, O. A. .


. 10


98


Bryant, William Cullen


. 8


293


Burton, W. E.


.10


135


Calvert, George H.


. 10


122


Cass, Lewis ....


. IO


136


Chandler, Jos. R. .


. 10


118


Channing, William Ellery .


. 8


i


Channing, William Ellery .


. IO


127


Chapter on Autography, A .


. IO


77



341



Title Index

VOL. PAGE

Child, LydiaM 9 5*

drivers, Thos. H 10 140

Cist, L. J 10 138

Clark, Lewis Gaylord 9 67

Cockton, Henry 7 *9Q

" Conchologist's First Book, The," Preface to] . 10 40

Conrad, R. T 10 132

Cooper, J. Fenimore 8 22

Cooper, J. Fenimore 10 109

Cranch, Christopher Pearse 9 I

Cryptography 10 54

Dana, Richard H 10 124

Davidson, Lucretia Maria 7 *75

Dawes, Rufus 7 2 93

Dawes, Rufus 10 94

Dickens, Charles 7 196

Doane, G. W 10157

Dow, J. E 10 129

Downing, Jack 10 137

DuSolle, JohnS 10 119

Earle, Pliny 10 131

Ellett, Elizabeth Frieze 9 125

Embury, Emma C 9 26

Embury, Emma C I( > IO2

Emerson, R. W 10161

Eureka IO *7<>

Everett, Edward 10 107

Fancy and Imagination 7 I2 4

Fay, Theo. S 10 121

Flaccus 7 353

French, J. S 10 120

Frost, J 10 141

Fuller, Sarah Margaret 9 6

Furniture, Philosophy of 10 4*

Gallagher, W. D 10 123

Godey, L. A 10 119

Gould, H. F 10 101

Graham, Geo. R 10 115

Greeley, Horace 10 149

342



Title Index



Griswold and the Poets ....

Hale, Sarah J

Halleck, FitzGreene

Hawks, F. L

Hawthorne, Nathaniel .....

Headley, Joel T

Heath, Jas. E

Henry, C. S

Herbert, Henry William ....

Hewitt, Mary E

Hirst, Henry B

Hoffman, David

Hoffman, Charles Fenno ....
Hoffman, Charles Fenno ....

Holden, Ezra

Holmes, Oliver Wendell ....

Home, R. H.

Ingraham, J. H

Irving, Washington

Jones, J. Beauchamp

Kennedy, John P.

Kirkland, Caroline M

Langtree, S. D

Lawson, James

Legare, H. S

Leslie, Eliza

Lever, Charles

Lewis, Estelle Anna

Lieber, Francis

Literati, The

Literati, The

Locke, Richard Adams ....

Locke, Richard Adams ....

Longfellow's Ballads

Longfellow, Henry W. ....

Longfellow (Mr.), and Other Plagiarists
Longfellow (Mr.), Mr. Willis, and the Drama

Lord, William W

Loud, Mrs. M. St. Leon ....

343



VOL.
7


PAGE
313


IO


107


10


93


IO


no


7
9


329

146


IO


139


10


IOI


IO


no


9
9


77
126


10


131


9


72


IO


149


10
IO

8


114
156
42


IO
IO


92

85


IO
IO


134
88


9


19


10


132


9


19


IO


117


IO


IO2


7


257


9

IO


97

1 06


8


312


9
9


i
83


IO


159


7


274


IO

8
8


95
143

220


8


121


IO


130



Title Index

VOL. PAGE

Lowell, James Russell 9 109

Lowell, James Russell 10 138

Lunt, George 10 117

Macaulay, Thomas Babington .... 7 138

MaelzePs Chess-Player 10 i

Magazine Prison House, Some Secrets of 8 138

Magazine Writing 7 15

Marginalia 9 176

Marryat, Frederick 7 168

Mathews, Cornelius 7 228

Mathews, Cornelius 10 148

McHenry, James 10 158

Mcjilton, J. N 10 123

McMichael, M 10 124

Mellen, Grenville 10 89

Miller, Margaret 7 175

Mitchell, J. K 10 121

Morris, George P. 7 118

Morris, George P. 10 122

Morris, Robert 10 113

Mr. Longfellow, and Other Plagiarists . . . 8 143

Mr. Longfellow, Mr. Willis, and the Drama . . 8 220

Neal, John 10 108

Neal, Joseph C 10 103

Nichols, Mrs. R. S 10 159

Notes on English Verse i 267

Old English Poetry 7 no

Osgood, Frances Sargent 9 30

Otis, James F 10 142

Palfrey, J. G 10 in

Paulding, J. K 10 90

Peabody, William B. 10 151

" Peter Snook " 7 *5

Philosophy of Composition, The i 287

Philosophy of Furniture 10 44

Pierpont, J. 10 96

Pike, Albert 10157

Pinakidia 9 156

Poetic Principle, The i 164

344



Title Index

VOL. PAGE

Poet's Art, The I 153

Preface to " The Conchologist's First Book " . 10 40

Purpose of Poetry. Letter to B . . . i 153

Quacks of Helicon, The 7 151

Rationale of Verse, The i 198

Review of Stephens's " Arabia Petraea " .7 80

Reynolds, J. W 10 142

Sanderson, John 10 101

Sargent, Epes 9 28

Sargent, Epes 10 152

Sedgwick, Catherine M 9 60

Sedgwick, Catherine M 10 109

Sigourney, L. H 10 90

Simms, William Gilmore 8 287

Simms, William Gilmore . . . . .10 97

Slidell, Alexander 10 105

Smith, Elizabeth Oakes 8 270

Smith, Richard Penn 10 155

Smith, Seba 7 144

Smith, Seba 10 104

Some Secrets of the Magazine Prison House . 8 138

Sparks, Jared 10116

Sprague, Charles 10 147

Stedman, Mrs. E. C 10 143

Stephens's " Arabia Petrsea," Review of .7 80

Stephens, Mrs. Ann S 10 144

Stockton, Thos. H 10 126

Stone, W. L 10 115

Story, Joseph 10 141

Street, Alfred B 10 154

Taylor, Bayard 9 121

Thomas, F. W 10 112

Thomson, C. W 10 126

Tucker, Beverly 10 99

Tuckerman, H. T 10118

Wallace, William 9 132

Walsh, Robert 7 9

Walsh, Robert 10 91

Ward, Thomas 7 353

345



Title Index

VOL. PAGE

Ware, H., Jr 10 151

Welby, Amelia 8 74

Weld, H. Hastings 10 129

Wetmore, Prosper M 9 25

Wetmore, Prosper M 10 150

Whipple, E. P., and Other Critics . . . 9 134

Whittier, J. G 10 144

Wilde, Richard Henry 10 135

Willis, N. P. 10 93

Wilmer, L. A 10 128

POEMS. TITLES

AlAaraaf i 28

Alone i 53

Annabel Lee i 141

Bells, The i 136

Bridal Ballad i 101

City in the Sea, The i 60

Coliseum, The i 69

Conqueror Worm, The i 107

Dream, A i 22

Dreamland ... I IO 9

Dreams J I2

Dream Within a Dream, A i 18

Eldorado i 149

Enigma, An * J 3O

Eulalie i 121

Evening Star i l6

Fairy-Land i 50

For Annie * J 44

" Happiest Day, the Happiest Hour " . . i 23

Haunted Palace, The i 103

Hymn i 73

" In Youth have I Known one with whom the

Earth" i 20

Israfel i 66

Lake, The. To i 25

Lenore i 5^

346



Title Index

VOL. PAGE

Raven, The i 112

Romance 49

Scenes from " Politian " 76

Silence . 106

Sleeper, The 63

Sonnet: To Science 27

Spirits of the Dead 14

Tamerlane i

To 48

To 52

To ii

To 128

To F 74

To F s S. O d 75

To Helen 55

To Helen 131

To M. L. S 123

To My Mother 143

To One in Paradise 71

To the River 47

To Zante 100

Ulalume 124

Valentine 134

Valley of Unrest, The 58

TALES

Angel of the Odd, The 6 114

Assignation, The 2 131

Balloon Hoax, The 5 26a

Berenice 2 18

Black Cat, The 5 *72

Bon-Bon 2 150

Business Man, The 4 *44

Cask of Amontillado, The 6 220

Colloquy of Monos and Una, The .... 4 2 *>8

Conversation of Eiros and Charmion, The . . 4 i

Descent into the Maelstrom, A . . . 4 231

Devil in the Belfry, The 3 256

347



Title Index





VOL.


PAGE


Diddling


. 5


228




6


231


Due de 1'Omelette, The


2


***
235


Eleonora


4


310


Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar, The .


. 6


2O4


Fall of the House of Usher, The .


. 3


287


Four Beasts in One ....


2


241


Gold-Bug, The


- 5


III


Hop-Frog


. 6


2 5 6


How to Write a Blackwood Article


- 3


218


Imp of the Perverse, The


. 6


164


Island of the Fay, The


. 4


259


Journal of Julius Rodman, The .


. 4


35


King Pest


2


181


Lander's Cottage


. 6


307


Ligeia


3


192


Lionizing


2


4i


Literary Life of Thingum Bob, Esq.


. 6


25


Loss of Breath


2


20 1


Man of the Crowd, The


4


159


Man that was Used Up, The


3


270


Masque of the Red Death, The .


4


326


Mellonta Tauta


. 6


272


Mesmeric Revelation ....


. 5


283


Metzengerstein


2


221


Morella


2


32


MS. Found in a Bottle


2


5


Murders in the Rue Morgue, The .


4


174


Mystery of Marie Roget, The


5


i


Mystification


4


ii


Narrative of A. Gordon Pym


2


261


Narrative of A. Gordon Pym


3


i


Never Bet the Devil Your Head .


4


283






323


Oval Portrait, The ....


4


320


Pit and the Pendulum, The .


. 5


8i


Power of Words, The ....


. 6


157


Predicament, A . . .


3


235


Premature Burial, The


5


300


348







Title Index

VOL. PAGE

Purloined Letter, The 6 84

Shadow: A Parable 2 176

Silence : A Fable 3 250

Some Words with a Mummy .... 6 57

Spectacles, The 5 188

Sphinx, The 6 338

System of Dr. Tarr and Professor Fether, The . 6 174

Tale of Jerusalem, A 2 254

Tale of the Ragged Mountains, A ... 5 245

Tell-Tale Heart, The 5 106

" Thou Art the Man " 6 i

Thousand-and-Second Tale of Scheherazade . . 6 130

Three Sundays in a Week 4 299

Unparalleled Adventures of One Hans Pfaall, The . 2 50

Von Kempelen and His Discovery ... 6 295
Why the Little Frenchman Wears His Hand in a

Sling 4 25

William Wilson 3 317

X-ing a Paragrab 6 327

POEMS. FIRST LINES

Ah, broken is the golden bowl! the spirit flown

forever! i 56

At midnight, in the month of June ... i 63

At morn, at noon, at twilight dim ... i 73

Because I feel that, in the heavens above . . i 143

Beloved ! amid the earnest woes .... i 74

By a route obscure and lonely . . . i 109

Dim vales, and shadowy floods .... i 50

Fair isle, that from the fairest of all flowers . . i 100

Fair river! in thy bright, clear flow ... i 47

For her this rhyme is penned, whose luminous eyes, i 134

From childhood's hour I have not seen i 53

Gaily bedight i 149

Hear the sledges with the bells . . . . i 136

Helen, thy beauty is to me i 55

I dwelt alone in a world of moan . . . i 121

I heed not that my earthly lot . . . i 52

349



Title Index



In heaven a spirit doth dwell ....

In spring of youth it was my lot .

In the greenest of our valleys ....

In visions of the dark night

In youth have I known one with whom the earth .

I saw thee once, once only, years ago .

I saw thee on thy bridal day ....

It was many and many a year ago

Kind solace in a dying hour ....

Lo ! Death has reared himself a throne

Lo ! 't is a gala night

Not long ago, the writer of these lines .

Of all who hail thy presence as the morning

Oh! nothing earthly save the ray

Oh that my young life were a lasting dream

Once it smiled, a silent dell

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered,

weak and weary

Romance, who loves to nod and sing .

" Seldom we find," says Solomon Don Dunce

Science! true daughter of old Time thou art

Take this kiss upon the brow ....

Thank Heaven! the crisis ....

The bowers whereat, in dreams, I see .

The happiest day, the happiest hour

There are some qualities, some incorporate things .

The ring is on my hand

The skies were ashen and sober ....

Thou art sad, Castiglione

Thou wast that all to me, love ....


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