Edgar Allan Poe.

The works of Edgar Allan Poe : newly collected and edited, with a memoir, critical introductions, and notes (Volume v. 1) online

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THE WORKS

OF

EDGAR ALLAN POE

IN TEN VOLUMES
VOLUME I



TALES OF THE GROTESQUE

AND

ARABESQUE



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive

in 2010 witin funding from

Boston Public Library



http://www.archive.org/details/worksofedgaralla01poee




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PORTRAIT ENGRAVED BY J. SARTAIN FROM THE
ORIGINAL PICTURE IN THE COLLECTION OF
R. W. GRISWOLD



tHE WORKS



OF



EDGAR ALLAN POE



NEWLY COLLECTED AND EDITED, WITH A

MEMOIR, CRITICAL INTRODUCTIONS, AND

NOTES, BY EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN

AND GEORGE EDWARD WOODBERRY



THE ILLUSTRATIONS BY
ALBERT EDWARD STERNER



IN TEN VOLUMES
VOLUME I




CHICAGO
STONE & KIMBALL

MDCCCXCIV



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COPYRIGHT, 1894
BY STONE & KIMBALL



IN HONOR OF

THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

THIS EDITION

OF THE WORKS OF HER DISTINGUISHED SON

IS DEDICATED



GENERAL PREFACE



T



HE works of Poe were collected by Dr. Rufus
Wilmot Griswold, his literary executor, and pub-
lished in three volumes by J. S. Redfield, New
York, 1850. The edition, thus authorized, was
protected until lately by copyrights owned by the
publisher, and has remained substantially unchanged
in its successive issues, although enlarged in later
years; the papers added and the few corrections
made under the stimulus of the English editions of
Mr. J. H, Ingram, should, perhaps, be specially
referred to ; but the edition is practically as Gris-
wold left it, and should be known by his name.
It was good enough for its own time ; and, in
view of the contemporary uncertainty of Poe's
fame, the difficulty of obtaining a publisher, and
the fact that the editorial work was not paid for,
little fault can justly be found with Griswold, who
did secure what Poe in his life- time could never
accomplish, — a tolerably complete collected edition

vii



GENERAL PREFACE

of the tales, reviews, and poems. But after the
lapse of nearly half a century, something more
may be exacted from those who have had the cus-
tody of a great writer's works, and something more
is due from those who care for the literature of the
country. Poe's fame has spread as widely through
the world as that of any imaginative author of
America; and longer neglect of the state of his
text would be discreditable to men of letters among
us, now that his works have passed by law into the
common property of mankind. With this convic-
tion the present edition has been undertaken, in
order to ascertain and establish as accurate and
complete a text of his permanent writings as the
state of the sources now permits.

The editors have been fortunate beyond expec-
tation in the recovery of final corrections by Poe,
made on the margin of his published volumes for
the purpose of being incorporated in later editions.
These manuscript notes are contained in Poe's
copies of the "Tales," 1845, and "The Raven,
and other Poems," 1845, recently bequeathed by
James Lorimer Graham, Esq., to the Century Asso-
ciation, and of " Eureka," now in the possession of
William Evarts Benjamin, Esq. The volumes were
in Griswold's possession, but the changes indicated
were not made by him, and are now for the first time

viii



GENERAL PREFACE

embodied in the text. Mrs. Whitman's copy of the
"Broadway Journal," with sHght marginal correc-
tions by Poe, now in the possession of Thomas J.
McKee, Esq., has afforded a few verbal changes.
The Duane copy of the " Southern Literary Mes-
senger," similarly revised by Poe, now in the pos-
session of J. H. Whitty, Esq., has also been collated,
but the corrections there made represent an early
state of the text. It is believed that these com-
prise all the extant manuscript sources affecting
the final form of the text; and the editors beg
here to express their deep sense of obligation to
the owners of these documents, invaluable for the
establishment of the text, and to thank them for
the use of the volumes.

For the body of Poe's works, however, the
printed sources are final. In every case, except
as mentioned in the Notes, the editors have had
recourse to the original issues, and have collated
the various forms of the text in each republication
during Poe's life, whether in periodicals or in
books ; the last form having Poe's authority has
been followed, and given as the authentic text. In
the prose no attempt has been made to show the
nature of Poe's revision, but a complete variorum
is given of the poems. The quotations, book-titles,
and all expressions in ancient or foreign languages

ix



GENERAL PREFACE

have been revised with a view solely to accuracy,
and references have been more exactly and mi-
nutely given than in the original publication ; the
punctuation, and all that concerns typographical
style, has been modified to accord with later usage
and taste, and generally the editors have exercised
free judgment in all matters not affecting the integ-
rity of the text. Hundreds of errors have been
corrected ; and, though the editors cannot hope
that all the original and accumulated faults have
been amended, they have spared no pains to verify
whatever was susceptible of any doubt. They
desire to thank all who have assisted them in
any way, and in addition to the acknowledgments
already made particularly to own their obligations
and express their gratitude to Messrs. Thomas J.
McKee for the right to engrave the portrait that
bears his name, and for the free use of his collec-
tion of Poeana, W. M. Griswold for the use of the
Poe-Griswold papers from which many extracts are
given in the Memoir, and Robert Lee Traylor for
the right to engrave the Shelton portrait.

In regard to the Tales comprised in the first five
volumes of this edition, it is only necessary to add
in this place that the main text is, in substance,
that of the revision of 1844, which Poe made with
the hope of publishing a complete collection in



GENERAL PREFACE

five volumes, but used only in the "Broadway
Journal." The generic title given to the Philadel-
phia edition of 1 840, " Tales of the Grotesque and
Arabesque," has been retained, as the character-
istic description always in Poe's mind in referring
to his Tales ; but the whole collection has been
separated into a few natural groups. One tale,
hitherto included, " The Landscape Garden,"
being bodily and identically the opening portion
of " The Domain of Arnheim," is omitted ; and
one tale, "The Elk," is here added for the first
time. "The Journal of Julius Rodman" is also
now in its place among Poe's works. Special
prefaces are prefixed to the subsequent general
divisions in later volumes, and to them and the
Notes the reader is referred for fijrther detailed

information.

THE EDITORS.

New York, Oct. 28, 1894.



XI



Contents of the First Volume

PAGE

MEMOIR 3

INTRODUCTION TO THE TALES 91

ROMANCES OF DEATH:

OVERTURE :

SHADOW — A PARABLE I25

TERRESTRIAL :

THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER I3I

BERENICE 157

THE OVAL PORTRAIT 169

MORELLA 174

LIGEIA 182

ELEONORA 2O3

CELESTIAL :

THE COLLOQUY OF MONOS AND UNA 21 5
THE CONVERSATION OF EIROS AND

CHARMION 228

THE POWER OF WORDS 236

FINALE:

SILENCE — A FABLE 242

OLD-WORLD ROMANCE:

THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH 249

THE ASSIGNATION 258

THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO 274

A TALE OF THE RAGGED MOUNTAINS 283

METZENGERSTEIN 297

THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM 309

HOP-FROG 330



Illustrations to the First Volume

PORTRAIT ENGRAVED BY J. SARTAIN FROM THE
ORIGINAL PICTURE IN THE COLLECTION OF

R. w, GRiswoLD Frontispiece

PICTURES : to face page

THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER 131

LIGEIA 188

ELEONORA 206

THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH 256



MEMOIR



VOL. I. — I



MEMOIR






rLDGAR ALLAN POE was the grandson of David
Poe, a patriot of the Revolution, who established
the family name in Maryland, and distinguished it by
life-long service to his country. His eldest son, who
bore his name, disappointed him by adopting the pro-
fession of an actor, and married a fellow-member of
the Virginia players, — Mrs. Hopkins, whose husband,
a comedian of the same company, had recently died.
Her maiden name was Elizabeth Arnold. Her mother,
Mrs. Arnold, was an English actress who had emigrated
to America and made her first appearance here at Bos-
ton, Feb. 12, 1796; but she remarried, and, after a brief
interval, passed into an obscurity which concealed her
fate. The daughter, whose education had been in the
theatre, remained with the players ; and she was now,
at the time of her second marriage, in 1805, accom-
plished and attractive in her art. David Poe was not
less than twenty-five years old, and she was, perhaps,
somewhat younger. In the fall of 1806, they joined
the company of the Federal Street Theatre, in Bos-
ton, where she had sung her first song in public
with her mother ten years before, and for the three fol-
lowing years they made their home in that city. There,
on Jan. 19, 1809, was born their second child, Edgar,

3



MEMOIR

the subject of this memoir ; an elder son, William, and
a younger daughter, Rosalie, were the other offspring
of this marriage. The career of the parents was brief
and, perhaps, unhappy. They were, at least, poor,
and were sometimes in want. The father, though with
a natural inclination for the stage, had no success as
an actor, and the burden consequently fell upon the
mother. She became the leading actress at the Fed-
eral Street Theatre ; and, as she was commended for
her industry and good sense, as well as for her ability,
and seems to have sustained with credit her tragic
parts and to have been especially attractive in hghter
impersonations, it may be concluded that she made the
most of her native talents and her opportunities.
She was also praised for her moral qualities and do-
mestic virtues. But success did not companion merit in
her case ; and in the summer after Edgar's birth the
family left the city, with grateful memories on her part,
as is shown by the lines of her writing in which she bade
her son " love Boston, the place of his birth, and
where his mother found her best and most sympathetic
friends." It is not known when her husband died.
Mrs. Poe joined her old friends of the Southern cir-
cuit, and after the birth of her third child, Rosalie,
she fell into a decline. Early in the winter, in 1811,
at Richmond, the family became objects of charity ; the
actors played twice for their benefit, addressing their
card of advertisement " To the Humane ; " and, on De-
cember 8, the mother died, leaving the three young
children destitute. William was sent to his father's
kindred in Baltimore ; Rosahe was received into the
family of Mrs. MacKenzie, and Edgar into that of
Mrs. Allan, both of Richmond.
The change of life and prospect thus secured for

4



MEMOIR

Edgar was so great that it might seem worthy of some
good fairy. The child of the poor players, before
whom, notwithstanding his mother's devotion, there
could have been for his youthful years only the neces-
sary circumstances of a continual struggle with pov-
erty in the midst of a wandering life, was given a place
privileged with fortune, education, and social breeding,
where he should grow to manhood. Mrs. Allan, who
was a woman of twenty -five years, showed him, while
she lived, true affection ; and his precocity and beauty
as a child won upon the unwilling heart of her hus-
band so that he soon took pride in the boy to whom
he had given his name. Mr. John Allan was by birth
a Scotchman, and by trade a tobacco merchant, and
had already acquired wealth and social position in
Richmond. He was, it would appear, of a somewhat
hard nature, even cold, perhaps, in affection ; but he
was not unjust or sparing, in his treatment of the
adopted child. Edgar was brought up as a son of
the house. He was early sent to a private school,
kept by an old-fashioned dame. When six years old,
he could read, draw, and dance; he had a talent
for declamation, and is remembered standing between
the doors of some Richmond drawing-room and re-
citing from the " Lay of the Last Minstrel " to a large
company, in a sweet voice and with clear enunciation.
It is related also that Mr. Allan taught the boy to
stand up in a chair at dessert, and pledge the health of
the company, which he did with roguish grace. He
wore dark curls, and had brilliant eyes ; and those who
remembered him in Richmond or at the White Sul-
phur Springs, where the family passed the summers,
spoke of the pretty figure he made, with his pony and
dogs and his vivacious ways.

5



MEMOIR

In the summer of 1815, Mr. Allan took his family
abroad for a long stay ; and he placed Edgar at the
Manor House School, at Stoke Newington, near Lon-
don, under Dr. Bransby ; but the homelessness of such
a life was relieved by weekly Sunday visits which the
child made to the Allans, who lived at no great dis-
tance, and by the vacations, which he spent with
them in travelling, thus seeing, according to his own
statement, nearly all parts of the United Kingdom.
These five years of English school-days have left
little record of themselves, though in later life he
sketched the outward aspects of the house and
grounds, and drew a portrait of the head-master.
He was inducted into the manly sports, as a matter of
course, and began to be athletic ; he learned to speak
French and construe easy Latin, and obtained a
knowledge of history and literature said to have been
beyond his years ; and he showed the scholarly spirit
which is noticeable in every account of his youth.
Dr. Bransby appears to have remembered most clearly
the extravagant amount of his pocket-money. " I
liked the boy," he said ; " poor fellow, his parents
spoiled him." English school-life, in early years, al-
ways seems a kind of orphanage ; but such as it was,
the boy had, perhaps, less to complain of than others.
In August, 1820, the Allans returned to Richmond,
where they resided during Poe's later schooldays in
North Fifth Street till their removal in 1825 to the es-
tate on the corner of Fifth and Main streets. Here Poe
could have lived but a few months, and the place first
mentioned must be regarded as his Richmond home.

He was immediately put to school again with
Master Joseph H. Clarke, an Irishman from Trinity
College, Dublin. He continued his French and clas-

6



MEMOIR

sical studies, and acquired proficiency in capping
Latin verses and composing English rhymes. He
had already shown his poetic instinct, and the master
recalled a manuscript volume of verses, addressed to
the little girls of Richmond, which Mr. Allan sub-
mitted to his judgment with a view to publication;
but it is not unlikely that the description of the con-
tents is inaccurate. The lad was a leader of the school
in debates, verse-contests, and athletic games, and
made an impression upon his mates both by his
character and attainments. At the age of fifteen, he
began his military career as lieutenant of the Rich-
mond Junior Volunteers, — as appears from commu-
nications, signed with his name and rank, from that
youthful body of soldiers to the Governor and Coun-
cil, which still exist in the Executive Archives of
Virginia. It was just before this incident that Master
Clarke gave way to Master William Burk, and was
addressed, on his leave-taking, by the young poet in
an English ode.

A younger member of the school, Mr. Andrew John-
ston, describes the traits of Poe, in these school days,
more distinctly : —

" Poe was a much more advanced scholar than any
of us; but there was no other class for him — that
being the highest — and he had nothing to do, or but
little, to keep his headship of the class. I dare say
he liked it well, for he was fond of desultory reading,
and even then wrote verses, very clever for a boy of
his years, and sometimes satirical. We all recog-
nized and admired his great and varied talents, and
were proud of him as the most distinguished school-
boy of the town. At that time, Poe was slight in
person and figure, but well made, active, sinewy,

7



MEMOIR

and graceful. In athletic exercises he was foremost :
especially, he was the best, the most daring, and
most enduring swimmer that I ever saw in the water.
When about sixteen years old, he performed his well-
known feat of swimming from Richmond to Warwick,
a distance of five or six miles. He was accompanied
by two boats, and it took him several hours to
accomplish the task, the tide changing during the
time. In dress he was neat but not foppish. His
disposition was amiable, and his manners pleasant
and courteous."

Colonel John Preston, also a younger schoolfellow,
adds that, notwithstanding, Poe was not the master-
spirit or favorite among the boys, partly because he
was "self-willed, capricious, inclined to be imperious,
and, though of generous impulses, not steadily kind or
even amiable," and partly because his mates remem-
bered that he was born of the players and dependent
on Mr. Allan's bounty. In these reminiscences, his
ardent temperament, which in anger was furious, and
the habitual reserve of his nature, together with his
ambitious talent and its intellectual and poetic bent,
are most prominent. He stood somewhat aloof from
all, fond of admiration, but jealous of his place ; if he
loved any, it was Sully, a nephew of the artist, and also
with a touch of the sensibilities of genius. No one
seemed to be intimate with him. Impetuous, self-
willed, defiant, proud of his powers, and fond of their
successful display, he does not appear to have been
unamiable or morose, though he was resentful and
probably lonely.

A single romantic episode of the time, which, how-
ever, should not be allowed to cast too heavy a shadow
upon his home, where he received probably more affec-

8



MEMOIR

donate care than he was aware of, is related by Mrs.
Whitman, to whom he told it : —

" While at the academy in Richmond, he one day
accompanied a schoolmate to his home, where he saw

for the first time Mrs. H S , the mother of his

young friend. This lady, on entering the room, took
his hand and spoke some gentle and gracious words of
welcome, which so penetrated the sensitive heart of the
orphan boy as to deprive him of the power of speech,
and for a time almost of consciousness itself. He
returned home in a dream, with but one thought, one
hope in life — to hear again the sweet and gracious
words that had made the desolate world so beautiful
to him, and filled his lonely heart with the oppression
of a new joy. This lady afterwards became the con-
fidant of all his boyish sorrows, and hers was the one
redeeming influence that saved and guided him in the
earlier days of his turbulent and passionate youth.
After the visitation of strange and peculiar sorrows she
died, and for months after her decease it was his habit
to visit nightly the cemetery where the object of his
boyish idolatry lay entombed. The thought of her —
sleeping there in her loneliness — filled his heart with
a profound, incommunicable sorrow. When the nights
were very dreary and cold, when the autumnal rains
fell and the winds wailed mournfully over the graves,
he lingered longest and came away most regretfully."

This is the earliest of the Lenore legends. The
lady, Mrs. Jane Stith Stanard, died April 28, 1824, at
the age of thirty-one years. It was, perhaps, in this
experience of death, when the boy was fifteen years
of age, that the spirit of brooding over the grave first
fell upon him. The peculiar melancholy of Poe, in
presence of the death of woman, cannot be traced

9



MEMOIR

further to an original motive ; and it is reasonable to
believe that something, embalmed in this romantic
memory, occurred in his heart and life, and vitally
awakened his imagination.

This event belongs in the last year of his school
life. He studied another year under excellent tutors,
and on Feb. 14, 1826, he matriculated at the Univer-
sity of Virginia, entering the schools of ancient and
modern languages. He remained until December 15,
when the session closed; and he obtained distinc-
tion in his final examinations in Latin and French.
He had also attended classes in Greek, Spanish, and
Italian, and his scholarship was well spoken of by his
teachers. In his relations with the University authori-
ties he had a clear record. His private life was that
of a student with a careless reputation. He joined
with others in the amusements natural to the time.
He was more inclined to gambling than drinking,
but exhibited in both diversions a peculiar reckless-
ness, indicative of an excitable temperament rather
than of pleasure in his cups or the cards. " Poe's
passion for strong drink," says one of his fellow-
students, " was as marked and as peculiar as that
for cards. It was not the taste of the beverage
that influenced him; without a sip or smack of the
mouth he would seize a full glass, without sugar or
water, and send it home at a single gulp. This fre-
quently used him up; but, if not, he rarely returned
to the charge." He is said to have lost caste with
the more aristocratic of his mates by his card-playing.
One student remembered hearing him express regret
for his extravagance and waste of money during the
session, just as he was about to leave for Richmond.
He was known to all, however, for other tastes. He

10



MEMOIR

had decorated his room, No. 13 West Range, with
large charcoal sketches copied from an illustrated
edition of Byron, and here he would relate to his
companions some tale, or declaim some poem, of his
invention. He remained solitary and reserved, and
found pleasure in tramping amid the wild scenes of
the neighboring countr5% His spirit had declared
itself, both in character and talent; and when Mr.
Allan came down to inquire into affairs, toward the
close of the session, he found the youth of seventeen
with a mind and resolution of his own, and with
qualities so blended in him that his right guardian-
ship might have taxed a far wiser hand and a more
delicate and tender touch. Mr. Allan flatly refused
to honor the youth's gambling debts, amounting to
twenty-five hundred dollars ; and, on his return to
Richmond, placed him in the counting-room, doubt-
less meaning that he should follow a commercial
career. It was, perhaps, only an added irritation to
find that the young lady. Miss Sarah Elmira Royster,
who was the first mistress of his affections, and had
been the object of his sketches, letters, and verse, was
married to another.

Poe resolved on flight and an adventurous course.
Whatever his original plan may have been, he is
next found in Boston, where he enlisted as a private
in the army of the United States, May 26, 1827,
under the name of Edgar A. Perry. He was eigh-
teen, but he gave his age as twenty-two ; he stated
that he was by occupation a clerk ; and the record
adds that he had gray eyes, brown hair, and a fair
complexion, and was five feet eight inches in height. He
was assigned to Battery H, of the First Artillery, then
on duty in the harbor at Fort Independence, and

II



MEMOIR

there he spent the summer. He had also made a
venture in literature, and published towards August his
first work, " Tamerlane and other Poems, by a Bos-
tonian," — a small thin pamphlet, issued from the press
by Calvin F. S. Thomas, a poor youth of nineteen, who
had just set up a job printing-office, and who seems to
have begun and ended his career as a publisher with
this then insignificant but now famous little book.
The edition was obscure, and was noticed only b)'-
advertisements of its receipt in two leading maga-
zines. There were nine short poems, besides " Tam-
erlane," in the pamphlet, but they were too crude to
make any impression. The author probably conducted
the affair under an assumed name, as the printer seems
never to have identified him as the poet of later years.
In the fall, Poe was transferred with the Battery to
Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S. C, and a year after-
wards to Fortress Monroe, Va. He was company clerk
and assistant in the commissariat department, and on
Jan. I, 1829, was promoted for merit to be Sergeant-
Major. Official reports show that he discharged his
duties satisfactorily, and won the regard of his superi-
ors, who, when the occasion arose, interested themselves
to aid him in regaining his proper position in life.

At what time and in what way he made his situation


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