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informs us * that among the Labbai Muhammadans
of the Madura coast, there are " certain men who make a
livelihood by shooting pigeons with blow-guns. Accord-
ing to my Labbai informants, the ' guns ' are purchased
by them in Singapore from Bugis traders. There is
still a considerable trade, although diminished, between
Kilakarai and the ports of Burma and the Straits
Settlements. It is carried on entirely by Muham-
madans in native sailing vessels, and a large proportion
of the Musalmans of Kilakarai have visited Penang and
Singapore. It is not difficult to find among them men
who can speak Straits Malay. The local name for
the blow-gun is senguttan, and is derived in popular
etymology from the Tamil sen (above) and kutu (to
stab). I have little doubt that it is really a corruption
of the Malay name of the weapon sumpitan."

On the evidence of the very close affinities between
the plants and animals in Africa and India at a very
remote period, Mr. R. D. Oldham concludes that there
was once a continuous stretch of dry land connecting
South Africa and India. "In some deposits," he writes,f
" found resting upon the Karoo beds on the coast of
Natal, 22 out of 35 species of Mollusca and Echino-
dermata collected and specifically identified, are identical
with forms found in the cretaceous beds of Southern
India, the majority being Trichinopoly species. From the
cretaceous rocks of Madagascar, six species of cretaceous
fossils were examined by Mr. R. B. Newton in 1899, of
which three are also found in the Ariyalur group (Southern
India). The South African beds are clearly coast or



* Mem. Asiat. Soc., Bengal, Miscellanea Ethnographica, I, 1906.
t Manual of the Geology of India, and edition, 1893,



INTRODUCTION. XXV

shallow water deposits, like those of India. The great
similarity of forms certainly suggests continuity of coast
line between the two regions, and thus supports the view
that the land connection between South Africa and India,
already shown to have existed in both the lower and upper
Gondwdna periods, was continued into cretaceous times."
By Huxley * the races of mankind are divided into
two primary divisions, the Ulotrichi with crisp or woolly
hair (Negros ; Negritos), and the Leiotrichi with smooth
hair ; and the Dravidians are included in the Australoid
group of the Leiotrichi " with dark skin, hair and eyes,
wavy black hair, and eminently long, prognathous skulls,
with well-developed brow ridges, who are found in
Australia and in the Deccan." There is, in the collection
of the Royal College of Surgeons' Museum, an exceed-
ingly interesting " Hindu " skull from Southern India,
conspicuously dolichocephalic, and with highly developed
superciliary ridges. Some of the recorded measurements
of this skull are as follows :

Length .. .. .. .. 19*6 cm.

Breadth . . . . . . . . 13-2

Cephalic index .. .. .. 67-3

Nasal height . . . . . . 4'8 cm.

breadth 2-5

index .. .. .. 52*1

Another "Hindu" skull, in the collection of the
Madras Museum, with similar marked development of the
superciliary ridges, has the following measurements :
Length . . . . . . . . 18-4 cm.

Breadth 13-8

Cephalic index . . . . . . 75

Nasal height 4-9 cm.

breadth .. .. .. 2-1 ,,

index .. .. .. 42*8



* Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals, 1871.



XXVI INTRODUCTION.

I am unable to subscribe to the prognathism of the
Dravidian tribes of Southern India, or of the jungle
people, though aberrant examples thereof are contained
in the collection of skulls at the Madras Museum, e.g.,
the skull of a Tamil man (caste unknown) who died a
few years ago in Madras (PI. I-a). The average facial
angle of various castes and tribes which I have examined
ranged between 67 and 70, and the inhabitants of
Southern India may be classified as orthognathous.
Some of the large earthenware urns excavated by Mr.
A. Rea, of the Archaeological Department, at the
" prehistoric " burial site at Aditanallur in the Tinnevelly
district,* contained human bones, and skulls in a more
or less perfect condition. Two of these skulls, preserved
at the Madras Museum, are conspicuously prognathous
(PI. l-b}. Concerning this burial site M. L. Lapicque
writes as follows.t " J'ai rapporte un specimen des
urnes fun6raires, avec une collection assez complete du
mobilier fune'raire. J'ai rapporte aussi un crane en assez
bon e"tat, et parfaitement determinable. II est hyperdoli-
choc^phale, et s'accorde avec la serie que le service
d'archeologie de Madras a dej'a reunie. Je pense que
la race d'Adichanallour appartient aux Proto-Dravidi-
ens." The measurements of six of the most perfect
skulls from Aditanallur in the Madras Museum collection
give the following results :



Cephalic
length, cm.


Cephalic
breadth, cm.


Cephalic
index.


18-8


12-4


66-


19-1


I2'7


66-5


i8'3


12-4


67-8


18-


I2'2


67-8


18-


I2'8


77-1


16-8


I3-I


78-



* See Annual Report, Archaeological Survey of India, 1902-03.
f Bull, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 1905.




?. SKULL OF TAMIL MAX.

'. SKULL FROM ADri'AXALLUR



INTRODUCTION. XXV11

The following extracts from my notes show that
the hyperdolichocephalic type survives in the dolicho-
cephalic inhabitants of the Tamil country at the
present day :

p. Number Cephalic index

examined. below 70.

Palli .. .. .. 40 64/4; 66-9; 67; 68'2 ;

68'9 ; 6g'6.
Paraiyan . . . . 40 64*8 ; 69*2 ; 69*3 ; 69*5

Vellala . . . . 40 67-9 ; 69*6.

By Flower and Lydekker,* a white division of man,
called the Caucasian or Eurafrican, is made to include
Huxley's Xanthochroi (blonde type) and Melanochroi
(black hair and eyes, and skin of almost all shades from
white to black). The Melanochroi are said to " comprise
the greater majority of the inhabitants of Southern
Europe, North Africa, and South-west Asia, and consist
mainly of the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic families.
The Dravidians of India, the Veddahs of Ceylon, and
probably the Ainus of Japan, and the Maoutze of China,
also belong to this race, which may have contributed
something to the mixed character of some tribes of Indo-
China and the Polynesian islands, and have given at least
the characters of the hair to the otherwise Negroid
inhabitants of Australia. In Southern India they are
largely mixed with a Negrito element, and, in Africa,
where their habitat becomes coterminous with that of
the Negroes, numerous cross-races have sprung up
between them all along the frontier line/'

In describing the " Hindu type," Topinard t divides
the population of the Indian peninsula into three strata,
viz., the Black, Mongolian, and the Aryan. " The
remnants of the first," he says, "are at the present time



Introduction to the Study of Mammals, living and extinct, 1891.
| Anthropology. Translation, 1894.



XXV111 INTRODUCTION.

shut up in the mountains of Central India under the name
of Bhils, Mahairs, Ghonds, and Khonds ; and in the
south under that of Yenadis, Kurumbas, etc. Its primi-
tive characters, apart from its black colour and low
stature, are difficult to discover, but it is to be noticed
that travellers do not speak of woolly hair in India.*
The second has spread over the plateaux of Central India
by two lines of way, one to the north-east, the other to
the north-west. The remnants of the first invasion are
seen in the Dravidian or Tamil tribes, and those of the
second in the Jhats. The third more recent, and more
important as to quality than as to number, was the
Aryan." In speaking further of the Australian type,
characterised by a combination of smooth hair with
Negroid features, Topinard states that "it is clear
that the Australians might very well be the result of the
cross between one race with smooth hair from some
other place, and a really Negro and autochthonous race.
The opinions held by Huxley are in harmony with this
hypothesis. He says the Australians are identical with
the ancient inhabitants of the Deccan. The features of
the present blacks in India, and the characters which
the Dravidian and Australian languages have in
common, tend to assimilate them. The existence of the
boomerang in the two countries, and some remnants of
caste in Australia, help to support the opinion."

Of the so-called boomerangs of Southern India,
the Madras Museum possesses three (two ivory, one
wooden) from the Tanjore armoury (PI. II). Concern-
ing them, the Dewan of Pudukkottai writes to me as
follows. " The valari or valai tadi (bent stick) is a short
weapon, generally made of some hard-grained wood.



* I have only seen one individual with woolly hair in Southern India, and
he was of mixed Tamil and African parentage.




o
o



O
in



INTRODUCTION. XXIX

It is also sometimes made of iron. It is crescent-shaped,
one end being heavier than the other, and the outer end
is sharpened. Men trained in the use of the weapon
hold it by the lighter end, whirl it a few times over their
shoulders to give it impetus, and then hurl it with great
force against the object aimed at. It is said that there
were experts in the art of throwing the valari, who
could at one stroke despatch small game, and even man.
No such experts are now forthcoming in the Pudukkottai
State, though the instrument is reported to be occa-
sionally used in hunting hares, jungle fowl, etc. Its
days, however, must be counted as past. Tradition
states that the instrument played a considerable part in
the Poligar wars of the last century. But it now reposes
peacefully in the households of the descendants of the
rude Kalian and Maravan warriors, preserved as a sacred
relic of a chivalric past, along with other old family
weapons in their puja (worship) room, brought out and
scraped and cleaned on occasions like the Ayudha puja
day (when worship is paid to weapons and implements
of industry), and restored to its place of rest immedi-
ately afterwards." At a Kalian marriage, the bride and
bridegroom go to the house of the latter, where boom-
erangs are exchanged, and a feast is held. This custom
appears to be fast becoming a tradition. But there is a
common saying still current " Send the valai tadi, and
bring the bride." *

It is pointed out by Topinard,t as a somewhat
important piece of evidence, that, in the West, about
Madagascar and the point of Aden in Africa, there are
black tribes with smooth hair, or, at all events, large
numbers of individuals who have it, mingled particularly



* See article Maravan. f Op. cit.



INTRODUCTION.

among the Somalis and the Gallas, in the region where
M. Broca has an idea that some dark, and not Negro,
race, now extinct, once existed. At the meeting of the
British Association, 1898, Mr. W. Crooke gave expres-
sion to the view that the Dravidians represent an
emigration from the African continent, and discounted
the theory that the Aryans drove the aboriginal inhabit-
ants into the jungles with the suggestion that the
Aryan invasion was more social than racial, viz., that
what India borrowed from the Aryans was manners and
customs. According to this view, it must have been
reforming aborigines who gained the ascendancy in
India, rather than new-comers ; and those of the abori-
gines who clung to their old ways got left behind in the
struggle for existence.

In an article devoted to the Australians, Professor
R. Semon writes as follows. " We must, without hesita-
tion, presume that the ancestors of the Australians stood,
at the time of their immigration to the continent, on a
lower rung of culture than their living representatives
of to-day. Whence, and in what manner, the immi-
gration took place, it is difficult to determine. In the
neighbouring quarter of the globe there lives no race,
which is closely related to the Australians. Their
nearest neighbours, the Papuans of New Guinea, the
Malays of the Sunda Islands, and the Macris of New
Zealand, stand in no close relationship to them. On the
other hand, we find further away, among the Dravidian
aborigines of India, types which remind us forcibly of
the Australians in their anthropological characters. In
drawing attention to the resemblance of the hill-tribes
of the Deccan to the Australians, Huxley says: 'An
ordinary cooly, such as one can see among the sailors of
any newly-arrived East India vessel, would, if stripped,



INTRODUCTION. XXXI

pass very well for an Australian, although the skull and
lower jaw are generally less coarse.' Huxley here goes
a little too far in his accentuation of the similarity of
type. We are, however, undoubtedly confronted with a
number of characters skull formation, features, wavy
curled hair in common between the Australians and
Dravidians, which gain in importance from the fact that,
by the researches of Norris, Bleek, and Caldwell, a
number of points of resemblance between the Australian
and Dravidian languages have been discovered, and this
despite the fact that the homes of the two races are
so far apart, and that a number of races are wedged in
between them, whose languages have no relationship
whatever to either the Dravidian or Australian. There
is much that speaks in favour of the view that the
Australians and Dravidians sprang from a common main
branch of the human race. According to the laborious
researches of Paul and Fritz Sarasin, the Veddas of
Ceylon, whom one might call pre- Dravidians, would
represent an off-shoot from this main stem. When
they branched off, they stood on a very low rung of
development, and seem to have made hardly any pro-
gress worth mentioning."

In dealing with the Australian problem, Mr. A. H.
Keane * refers to the time when Australia formed almost
continuous land with the African continent, and to its
accessibility on the north and north-west to primitive
migration both from India and Papuasia. " That such
migrations," he writes, " took place, scarcely admits of
a doubt, and the Rev. John Mathew t concludes that the
continent was first occupied by a homogeneous branch
of the Papuan race either from New Guinea or Malaysia,



* Ethnology, 1896.

t Proc. R. Soc. N. S. Wales, XXIII, part III.



XXX11 INTRODUCTION.

and that these first arrivals, to be regarded as true
aborigines, passed into Tasmania, which at that time
probably formed continuous land with Australia. Thus
the now extinct Tasrnanians would represent the pri-
mitive type, which, in Australia, became modified, but
not effaced, by crossing with later immigrants, chiefly
from India. These are identified, as they have been by
other ethnologists, with the Dravidians, and the writer
remarks that ' although the Australians are still in a
state of savagery, and the Dravidians of India have been
for many ages a people civilized in a great measure, and
possessed of literature, the two peoples are affiliated by
deeply-marked characteristics in their social system as
shown by the boomerang, which, unless locally evolved,
must have been introduced from India.' But the varia-
tions in the physical characters of the natives appear to
be too great to be accounted for by a single graft ; hence
Malays also are introduced from the Eastern Archi-
pelago, which would explain both the straight hair
in many districts, and a number of pure Malay words
in several of the native languages." Dealing later
with the ethnical relations of the Dravidas, Mr. Keane
says that " although they preceded the Aryan-speaking
Hindus, they are not the true aborigines of the Deccan,
for they were themselves preceded by dark peoples,
probably of aberrant Negrite type."

In the ' Manual of Administration of the Madras
Presidency,' Dr. C. Macleane writes as follows. " The
history proper of the south of India may be held to
begin with the Hindu dynasties formed by a more or
less intimate admixture of the Aryan and Dravidian
systems of government. But, prior to that, three
stages of historical knowledge are recognisable ; first, as
to such aboriginal period as there may have been prior



INTRODUCTION. XXX111

to the Dravidian ; secondly, as to the period when
the Aryans had begun to impose their religion and
customs upon the Dravidians, but the time indicated by
the early dynasties had not yet been reached. Geology
and natural history alike make it certain that, at a time
within the bounds of human knowledge, Southern India
did not form part of Asia. A large southern continent,
of which this country once formed part, has ever been
assumed as necessary to account for the different circum-
stances. The Sanscrit Pooranic writers, the Ceylon
Boodhists, and the local traditions of the west coast, all
indicate a great disturbance of the point of the Peninsula
and Ceylon within recent times.* Investigations in
relation to race show it to be by no means impossible
that Southern India was once the passage-ground, by
which the ancient progenitors of Northern and Mediter-
ranean races proceeded to the parts of the globe which
they now inhabit. In this part of the world, as in
others, antiquarian remains show the existence of peoples
who used successively implements of unwrought stone,
of wrought stone, and of metal fashioned in the most
primitive manner. t These tribes have also left cairns
and stone circles indicating burial places. It has been
usual to set these down as earlier than Dravidian. But
the hill Coorumbar of the Palmanair plateau, who are
only a detached portion of the oldest known Tamulian



* " It is evident that, during much of the tertiary period, Ceylon and South
India were bounded on the north by a considerable extent of sea, and probably
formed part of an extensive southern continent or great island. The very
numerous and remarkable cases of affinity with Malaya require, however, some
closer approximation to these islands, which probably occurred at a later
period." Wallace. Geographical Distribution of Animals, 1876.

t See Breeks, Primitive Tribes and Monuments of the Nilgiris ; Phillips,
Tumuli of the Salem district ; Rea, Prehistoric Burial Places in Southern India ;
R. Bruce Foote, Catalogues of the Prehistoric Antiquities in the Madras Museum,
etc.



XXXIV INTRODUCTION.

population, erect dolmens to this day. The sepulchral
urns of Tinnevelly may be earlier than Dravidian, or
they may be Dravidian . . . The evidence of the
grammatical structure of language is to be relied on as
a clearly distinctive mark of a population, but, from this
point of view, it appears that there are more signs of the
great lapse of time than of previous populations. The
grammar of the South of India is exclusively Dravidian,
and bears no trace of ever having been anything else.
The hill, forest, and Pariah tribes use the Dravidian
forms of grammar and inflection . . . The Dravidi-
ans, a very primeval race, take a by no means low place
in the conjectural history of humanity. They have
affinities with the Australian aborigines, which would
probably connect their earliest origin with that people."
Adopting a novel classification, Dr. Macleane, in assum-
ing that there are no living representatives in Southern
India of any race of a wholly pre-Dravidian character,
sub-divides the Dravidians into pre-Tamulian and Tamu-
lian, to designate two branches of the same family, one
older or less civilised than the other.

The importance, which has been attached by many
authorities to the theory of the connection between the
Dravidians and Australians, is made very clear from the
passages in their writings, which I have quoted. Before
leaving this subject, I may appropriately cite as an
important witness Sir William Turner, who has studied
the Dravidians and Australians from the standpoint of
craniology.* " Many ethnologists of great eminence,"
he writes, " have regarded the aborigines of Australia
as closely associated with the Dravidians of India.



* Contributions to the Craniology of the People of the Empire of India,
Part II. The aborigines of Chuta Nagpur, and of the Central Provinces, the
People of Orissa, Veddahs and Negritos, 1900.



INTRODUCTION. XXXV

Some also consider the Dravidians to be a branch of the
great Caucasian stock, and affiliated therefore to Euro-
peans. If these two hypotheses are to be regarded as
sound, a relationship between the aboriginal Australians
and the European would be established through the
Dravidian people of India. The affinities 'between the
Dravidians and Australians have been based upon the
employment of certain words by both people, apparently
derived from common roots ; by the use of the boom-
erang, similar to the well-known Australian weapon,
by some Dravidian tribes ; by the Indian peninsula
having possibly had in a previous geologic epoch a land
connection with the Austro- Malayan Archipelago, and
by certain correspondences in the physical type of the
two people. Both Dravidians and Australians have
dark skins approximating to black ; dark eyes ; black
hair, either straight, wavy or curly, but not woolly or
frizzly ; thick lips ; low nose with wide nostrils ; usually
short stature, though the Australians are somewhat
taller than the Dravidians. When the skulls are com-
pared with each other, whilst they correspond in some
particulars, they differ in others. In both races, the
general form and proportions are dolichocephalic, but in
the Australians the crania are absolutely longer than in
the Dravidians, owing in part to the prominence of the
glabella. The Australian skull is heavier, and the outer
table is coarser and rougher than in the Dravidian ; the
forehead also is much more receding ; the sagittal region
is frequently ridged, and the slope outwards to the
parietal eminence is steeper. The Australians in the
normafacialis have the glabella and supra-orbital ridges
much more projecting ; the nasion more depressed ; the
jaws heavier ; the upper jaw usually prognathous, some-
times remarkably so." Of twelve Dravidian skulls



XXXVI INTRODUCTION.

measured by Sir William Turner, in seven the jaw
was orthognathous, in four, in the lower term of the
mesognathous series; one specimen only was prognathic.
The customary type of jaw, therefore, was orthognathic.*
The conclusion at which Sir William Turner arrives
is that ''by a careful comparison of Australian and
Dravidian crania, there ought not to be much difficulty
in distinguishing one from the other. The comparative
study of the characters of the two series of crania has not
led me to the conclusion that they can be adduced in
support of the theory of the unity of the two people."

The Dravidians of Southern India are divided by
Sir Herbert Risley t into two main groups, the Scytho-
Dravidian and the Dravidian, which he sums up as
follows :

"The Scytho- Dravidian type of Western India,
comprising the Maratha Brahman s, the Kunbis and the
Coorgs ; probably formed by a mixture of Scythian and
Dravidian elements, the former predominating in the
higher groups, the latter in the lower. The head is
broad ; complexion fair ; hair on face rather scanty ;
stature medium ; nose moderately fine, and not con-
spicuously long.

" The Dravidian type extending from Ceylon to
the valley of the Ganges, and pervading the whole of
Madras, Hyderabad, the Central Provinces, most of
Central India, and Chutia Nagpur. Its most charac-
teristic representatives are the Paniyans of the South
Indian Hills and the Santals of Chutia Nagpur. Prob-
ably the original type of the population of India, now
modified to a varying extent by the admixture of Aryan,



* Other cranial characters are compared by Sir William Turner, for which
I would refer the reader to the original article.
| The People of India, 1908.



INTRODUCTION. XXXV11

Scythian, and Mongoloid elements. In typical speci-
mens, the stature is short or below mean ; the complexion
very dark, approaching black ; hair plentiful with an
occasional tendency to curl ; eyes dark ; head long ; nose
very broad, sometimes depressed at the root, but not so
as to make the face appear flat."

It is, it will be noted, observed by Risley that the
head of the Scytho-Dravidian is broad, and that of the
Dravidian long. Writing some years ago concerning
the Dravidian head with reference to a statement in
Taylor's " Origin of the Aryans,"^ that " the Todas are
fully dolichocephalic, differing in this respect from the
Dravidians, who are brachycephalic," I published f
certain statistics based on the measurements of a num-
ber of subjects in the southern districts of the Madras
Presidency. These figures showed that "the average
cephalic index of 639 members of 19 different castes and
tribes was 74*1 ; and that, in only 19 out of the 639 indi-
viduals, did the index exceed 80. So far then from the



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