Edgar Thurston.

Castes and tribes of southern India (Volume 1) online

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and is spoken in Ganjam, and a portion of the Vizaga-
patam district. The population speaking each of these
languages, as recorded at the census, 1901, was as
follows :

Tamil ... i5,543>383
Telugu 14,315,304



* Linguistic Survey of India, IV, 1906.



INTRODUCTION.



Ivii



Malayalam 2,854,145

Oriya 1,809,336

Canarese ... ... ... ... 1,530,688

In the preparation of the following brief summary of
the other vernacular languages and dialects, I have
indented mainly on the Linguistic Survey of India, and
the Madras Census Report, 1901.

Savara. The language of the Savaras of Ganjam
and Vizagapatam. One of the Munda languages. Con-
cerning the Munda linguistic family, Mr. Grierson writes
as follows. "The denomination Munda (adopted by
Max M tiller) was not long allowed to stand unchallenged.
Sir George Campbell in 1866 proposed to call the family
Kolarian. He was of opinion that Kol had an older
form Kolar, which he thought to be identical with
Kanarese Kallar, thieves. There is absolutely no foun-
dation for this supposition. Moreover, the name Kolarian
is objectionable, as seeming to suggest a connexion with
Aryan which does not exist. The principal home of the
Munda languages at the present day is the Chota
Nagpur plateau. The Munda race is much more widely
spread than the Munda languages. It has already been
remarked that it is identical with the Dravidian race,
which forms the bulk of the population of Southern
India."

Gadaba. Spoken by the Gadabas of Vizagapatam
and Ganjam. One of the Munda languages.

Kond, Kandhi, or Kui. The language of the
Kondhs of Ganjam and Vizagapatam.

Gondi. The language of the Gonds, a tribe which
belongs to the Central Provinces, but has overflowed
into Ganjam and Vizagapatam.

Gattu. A dialect of Gondi, spoken by some of the
Gonds in Vizagapatam.



Iviii INTRODUCTION.

Kdya or Koi. A dialect of Gondi, spoken by the
Koyis in the Vizagapatam and Godavari districts.

Poroja, Parjd, or Parjl. A dialect of Gondi.

Tulu. The language largely spoken in South
Canara (the ancient Tuluva). It is described by Bishop
Caldwell as one of the most highly developed languages
of the Dravidian family.

Koraga. Spoken by the Koragas of South Canara.
It is thought by Mr. H. A. Stuart * to be a dialect of
Tulu.

Bellera. Spoken by the Belleras of South Canara,
and regarded as a dialect of Canarese or Tulu.

Toda. The language of the Todas of the Nilgiri
hills, concerning which Dr. W. H. R. Rivers writes as
follows. t " Bernhard SchmidJ who wrote in 1837,
appears to have known more of the true Toda language
than any one who has written since, and he ascribes two-
thirds of the Toda vocabulary to Tamil, and was unable
to trace the remaining third to any other language.
Caldwell believed the language of the Todas to be
most closely allied to Tamil. According to Pope,|| the
language was originally old Canarese with the addition
of a few Tamil forms, but he has included in his voca-
bulary words which have probably been borrowed from
the Badagas."

Kota. A mixture of Canarese and Tamil spoken
by the Kotas of the Nilgiri hills.

Badaga, The language of the Badagas of the
Nilgiri hills. Said to be an ancient form of Canarese.



* Manual of the South Canara district. f The Todas, 1906.

J Madras Journ., Lit. and Sci., V., 1837.

Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. 2nd Ed., 1875.
|| Outlines of the Toda Grammar appended to Marshall's Phrenologist
among the Todas.



INTRODUCTION. Hx

Irula. Spoken by the Irulas of the Nilgiris, and
said to be a dialect of Tamil. According to Mr. Stuart,
Kasuba or Kasuva is another dialect of Tamil spoken
by the sub-division of the Irulas which bears the same
name.

Kurumba. Spoken by the Kurumbas of the Nilgiri
hills, Malabar, and Mysore, and regarded as a dialect of
Canarese.

Konkani. A dialect of Marathi, spoken almost
entirely in the South Canara district by Sarasvat and
Konkani Brahmans and Roman Catholic Christians.

Marathi. In the Tanjore district, the descendants
of the former Maratha Rajas of Tanjore speak this
language. It is also spoken in the Bellary district,
which was formerly under Maratha dominion, by various
Maratha castes, and in the feudatory State of Sandur.

Patnuli or Khatri. A dialect of Gujarati, spoken
by the Patnulkarans who have settled for the most part
in the town of Madura. They are immigrants from
Saurashtra in Gujarat, who are said to have come south
at the invitation of the Nayak kings of Madura.

Lambadi. The language of the nomad Lambadis,
Brinjaris, or Sugalis. It is described by Mr. W. Francis*
as a patois " usually based on one of the local verna-
culars, and embroidered and diversified with thieves'
slang and expressions borrowed from the various loca-
lities in which the tribe has sojourned. Cust thought
that Lambadi was Semi-Dravidian, but the point is
not clear, and it has been classed as Indo-Aryan."

Korava or Yerukala. A dialect of Tamil spoken
by the nomad caste bearing these names. Like the
Lambadis, they have a thieves' slang.



* Madras Census Report, 1901.



Ix INTRODUCTION.

Vadari. Recorded as a vulgar Telugu dialect
spoken by a wandering tribe of quarrymen in the
Bombay Presidency, the Berars, and elsewhere. They
are doubtless Oddes or Wudder navvies, who have
migrated from their home in the Telugu country.



TABLE A.



Ixi



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TABLE A.



Ixiii



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Vellala ...


Smarta Brahman .


Malaiyali ...


Chenchu ...


IH
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&


Pattar Brahman .


Malasar


1

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Chakkiliyan


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Madiga, Adoni .


Kammalan


Mukkuvan


Sheik Muhammadz


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Ixiv



TABLE A.



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TABLE A.



Ixv



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Komati, Adoni


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Ixvi



TABLE A,



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o

c

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cj
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cf

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m

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Karnataka Smarta Brahman.


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cj
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cj

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cj
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9


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'o5
H


U


U



TABLE A.



Ixvii



N

M


Tf
M


to

M


00
N


-*

M


M

N


M

to


t^

M


H
M




M


VO

M


t^
M


*
M


HI
M


M


*


t^.




M


00


oo


to


to


t^


to


to


M


ON


Tj-


O


tO


M


it


N


ON


N


Tj-


^4-


"*


N


VO


to






























ON


M


M


to


Tf


M


N


fr


t>.


M


HI


oo


M




to

00


M

ON


00
00


H

ON


^-

CO


(4

ON


00
00


VO

ON


VO
00


t^

00


f^.

00


to

ON


00
00




ON


Tj-


00




M


IH


M


N


-t


10


00




*


00


M


ON
t^.


ON

t^.




00




00




00




CO




00


O

00




00


o

00


HI
00


M

00


M

oo


N

00


VO


00


VO


N


VO


"t


"t


VO




VO


:*


N


;*


VO


to


to


to


fO


to


to


to


tO


*


to


to


to


to


to
































Tfr


00


VO


N


Tj-


00


N


M


to


00


t-




Tj-


to


to


*


to


to


VO


to


VO


to


to


Tl-


to


to


to






























*t


to


M


VO


Tt


t>.


00


ON


Tf


to


tO


to


to


Jfr


*


Tt-


*


Tt


Tj-












Tj-


Tj-


Tf


'+
































oo


N


Tt-


t^


N


VO


00


VO




^J-


oo


VO




t-


o


VO


VO


VO


t^


VO


vO


VO


t^


VO


to


VO


VO






























M


00




\o


;t


VO


N


VO


M


VO


00


to


00




ON


ON


ON


O


ON


ON





ON


ON


ON


00


ON


00


ON






























M


M


t>.


N


M


<t


to


to






VO


t^


t


VO


00


00


t>.


00


00


CO


00


CO


00


00


t^


t^


**


*^


























































'
o

T3

<J
vT
|

.(U

PQ


'G

a

StO

n

&


3

a
bo

o
h


Billava


'c
o

T3

<

<a

_bO

'rt 1

c

a

PQ

CJ

bo

13


Hebbar Brahman


Mandya Brahman


Shivalli Brahman


OS

.SP

'rt
O


rt

fc/D

l

Id)
Q


Komati


Vakkaliga, Mysore


>o
^rt
CO

ed

^!

P
CO


i3J

^3

CO

c

IS

M

3

CO


to
N



to


10
N




to


o

to


o
to


o

10


o

to




N


o

M


to

N



to




to


o

to


U


V*

rt

s


"3
H


3

H


U


tj


O


d
H


O


u


13
H


U


IN

rt

S


4

3

S



Ixviii



TABLE B.



X


W


Q


2
> i


J


M


01


W


2


M


Q
g


H


r1







Tj-


M-


M


tr>


00


VO




ON






s


*

m


in
m


o


o
m


00
in


M

VO


b

VO


l^
m


<u

T3




t^


N


m


VO


N


M




o


a
t i

"c3

l/>

C8

fc


X
rt

S


00

* - .


t^

00


H

ON


P)

00


to

ON


<o

00


t-~

00


*

00




y


w


N

M


yo

w


in

M


N


f*

<M


7-

N


Jt

(4




<




















C

iS


N
N

in


00

b
vn


^p
b

1O


b
m


00

M

m


00

in
in


00

Vo
m


N

Vo
m






















S








Tj-




00


N


N


00


N


V
3


M

rt
M


ON
i^


I*

t^.


VO
t - .


H
00


VO
f-.


ON
l - .


Vf

t^


<n

t


rt

<y$


S




















<j


N

n

vO


JS

ro
VO


N

rf
VO


_*

VO
VO


r

Vo

VO


t>.

in

VO


VO

'*t

VO


t^.

m
vo





























J





:






"


:






.


.


.


.









.
























Caste or Tribe.


M

rt

>,
>pj

S3


Hebbar Brahman


Karnataka Smarta Brahman .


Dayare Muhammadan


Madhva Brahman


j->
cj

M


Sheik Muhammadan ...


Ambattan




1


o

t


o

m


o

VO


o

m




VO


5-


5-


0\
N




1


S


U


U


U


C

i


3

H


B

ed

H


e

Gj

H



TABLE B.



Ixix





to


to


**


Tj-


to


oo


to


to




to


t^.


IO


-*


IO







ON

IO


ON
to


N

VO


00

to


N

VO


o

vO


M

VO


to

VO


'*

VO


to

VO


N

*o


N

O


o

VO


M
VO


00


O\


VO


10


00




to


<.


r-


Tf


M




Ox


^




N

ON


M

OS


N

00




ON


C-.

ON


10

OO


M

ON


fO

00




ON


00

00


Tj-

00


ON


00
00


to

oo


to

00


VO





00


00






M


N


to


to


VO


VO


M


M


M


(M


M


N


N


to


fO


to


fO


to


to


to


to


T}-


V


Vf
































*


N




VO


VO


N


N


00


VO




Tf


*0


Ti-






ON
Tj-


tO
tO


N
tO


N
to


O
to


to
to


to
to


to
to


it

to


N
to


T)-

to


Tl-
tO


to

IO


V

to


M

to
































00


N


00


VO


00




OO


Tf


VO


N


Tj-




N


N


oo


10


-


*^


*>.


f~


l-l
00


N

r^


M

f-


ON
t-


Tj-

r^


00
VO


00
*>.


ON
VO


M

t>.


to
f-.
































N


tO


to


to


r^.


M


Tj-


ON




vo


to


to





Tj-


00


tO

vO


tO

VO


tO

VO


Tj"

VO


to

VO


f-

VO


N

VO


ON
vo


SO
VO


to

VO


M

VO


Vr

VO


N

VO


to
vo


to
vo
























































































































































rf
_rt

M


1)
C/3


Dasa Banajiga


3

O,

icd

M


Mandya Brahman


Vakkaliga, Mysore


Vellala


>O

^3

t/3

cj

s

T3

a

OH


Okkiliyan


Kuruba, Mysore


' -~-

IC1J

bO
nJ

(4


c

a
f >->

'c5

T3

i i


M

IS
T3
C
rt
t/3

rt
UJ


Linga Banajiga


Jg
"o

o


o

10


O
to


5-


ON
rl-


o

to




10


o

Tj-




to


o

Tf


o
to




to


N
Tt


IO

w


o

to


o

VO


3

H


U


CJ


"3

H


U


U


C
BJ

t 1


"3

LH


U


U


c

1



rt

^H


"3

H


U


"4;
H



Ixx



TABLETS.



M

W
^
PQ
<
H







to


00


^


VO


VO


CO




00


N






d


M


CO


vo


M


H


0)


' r)


vo


H


VO






VO




VO


VO


VO


VO


VO




VO


VO


13

a


M


VO


ON
00





vb-


Th


M

VO


ON
<X>


N


M

ON


vb


1




00


00


00


00


00


00


00




00


00






N


Vi-


Vf


VO

Vf


OjO


00
if


00
if


ON


ON

Vi-


VO




<


























M


vo


VO


00


vo


00


VO


N


vo


ON




c


VO


CO


ON


i>.


N


J>.


1-1


N


i^


M






VO


vo


<*


vo


VO


T ^'


vo


VO


vo


VO


























g




VO


VO


00




VO




M


^


00


VO




.^


H


vo


VO


CO


i^


o


f^.


vo


VO


HI


g


4?


*^






t^


VO




^-




00


*"


in




























N


CO


ON


VO


CO


M


co


^


00


00




.


T^-


vo


CO


vo


O


M


M


N


ON


o






VO


VO


VO


VO


VO


VO


VO


VO


VO


VO






























i


:


:


:


'


:


:


:


:


:




<u
























a
















































o




i




'3


;


:


:


:



Online LibraryEdgar ThurstonCastes and tribes of southern India (Volume 1) → online text (page 4 of 33)