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leaves. One of the leaves is given to the Jangam, who
officiates at the rite, another to a washerman, and the
third is left, so that the food on it may be eaten by
crows. All, who are assembled, wait till these birds
collect, and the ashes are finally poured on a tree. On
the ninth, tenth, or eleventh day after death, a ceremony
called the peddadinam (big day) is performed. Cooked
rice, curry, meat, and other things, are placed on a leaf
inside the house. Sitting near this leaf, the widow
weeps and breaks one or two of the glass bangles, which
she wears on the wrist. The food is then taken to a
stream or tank (pond), where the agnates, after shaving,
bathing, and purification, make an effigy of the dead
person on the~ground. Close to this cooked rice and
vegetables arejplaced on three leaves, and offereddto the


effigy. The widow's remaining bangles are broken, and
she is presented with a new cloth, called munda koka
(widow's cloth) as a sign of her condition. All Gamallas,
rich or poor, engage on this occasion the services of
Mala Pambalas and Bainedus (musicians and story-
tellers) to recite the story of the goddess Ankamma.
The performance is called Ankamma kolupu. Some of
the Malas make on the ground a design, called muggu,
while the others play on the drum, and carry out the
recitation. The design must be made in five colours,
green (leaves of Cassia aiiriculata), white (rice flour),
red (turmeric and lime), yellow (turmeric), and black
(burnt rice-husk). It represents a male and female
figure (Virulu, heroes), who are supposed to be the
person whose peddadinam is being celebrated, and an
ancestor of the opposite sex. If the family can afford it,
other designs, for example of Ankamma, are also drawn.
On the completion of the muggu, cocoanuts, rice, and
betel are offered, and a fowl is sacrificed.

Like many other Telugu castes, the Gamallas have
a class of beggars, called Eneti, attached to them, for
whom a subscription is raised when they turn up.

The Gamallas are mostly Saivites, and their priests
are Aradhya Brahmans, i.e., Telugu Brahmans, who
have adopted some of the customs of the Lingayats.
They worship a variety of gods and goddesses, who
include Potharaju, Katamayya, Gangamma, Mathamma,
and Thallamma, or Thadlamma. Once or twice during
the year, a pot of toddy is brought from every house to
the shrine of Thallamma, and the liquor contained in
some of the pots is poured on the floor, and the re-
mainder given to those assembled, irrespective of caste.

At the festival of Dipavali, the celebrants bathe in
the early morning, and go, in wet clothes, to an ant-hill,



before which they prostrate themselves, and pour a little
water into one of the holes. Round the hill they wind
five turns of cotton thread, and return home. Subse-
quently they come once more to the ant-hill with a lamp
made of flour paste. Carrying the light, they go thrice
or five times round the hill, and throw into a hole
therein split pulse (Phaseolus Mungo). During the whole
of this day they fast. On the following morning they
again go to the hill, pour milk into it, and snap the
threads wound round it.

At the festival of Sankaranthi, the principal member
of every family observes the worship of ancestors.
Various articles are placed in a room on leaf plates
representing the ancestors, who are worshipped by the
celebrant after he has been purified by bathing. Taking
a little of the food from each leaf, he places it on a single
leaf, which is worshipped, and placed in the court-yard, so
that the crows may partake thereof. The remainder of
the food is distributed among the members of the family.

At the census, 1901, some Gamallas returned them-
selves as Settigadu (Chetti).

Gampa (basket). A sub-division of Kamma and
Telaga, and an exogamous sept of Odde. The name,
among the Kammas, refers to a deadly struggle at
Gandikota, in which some escaped by hiding in baskets.
Gampa dhompti is the name of a sub-division of the
Madigas, whose marriage offerings to the god are placed
in a basket.

Ganayata. Recorded, at times of census, as a sub-
division of Lingayat Jangams in the Nellore, Cuddapah,
and Kurnool districts. The Sanskrit word Ganam means
Siva's attendants.

Gandham (sandal paste). An exogamous sept of
Balijas, one sub-division of whom is called Gandhavallu


or Gandhapodi (sandal perfume sellers). The paste made
by rubbing sandal (Santalum album) wood on a stone
with water is widely used in connection with Hindu
ceremonial observance. A Brahman, for example, after
worshipping, smears his body with the paste. At
festivals, and other ceremonial occasions, sandal paste
is distributed to guests along with betel leaves and
areca nuts (pan-supari). Gandhapodi also occurs as an
exogamous sept of Boya.

Gandikota. A sub-division of Kamma. Gandi
Kottei is recorded * as a sub-division of Kapu or Reddi,
" found only in Madura and Tinnevelly, and also known
simply as Kottei Reddis. Kottei is the Tamil for a fort,
the corresponding Telugu word being kota. Their
females do not appear in public."

Gandla. See Ganiga.

Gangadikara. Gangadikara, said doubtfully to
mean those who lived on the banks of the Ganges, has
been recorded as a sub-division of the Holeyas,
Okkiliyans, and Vakkaligas. The name probably refers
to Gangavadi, the country of the Gangas, a royal line
which ruled over the greater part of the modern Mysore
in former times.

Gangeddtl. The Gangeddulu are a class of mendi-
cants, who travel about the country exhibiting performing
bulls. "The exhibition of sacred bulls, known as
Gangeddulu (Ganga's bulls) is very common in the towns
and villages of Southern India. The presence of the
swami (god) bull, as he is popularly called, is made known
by his keeper playing on a small drum, which emits a
dismal, booming sound, in the intervals of addressing his
dumb companion in a piercing voice. The bull is led

Madras Census Report, 1891.


about from house to house, and made to go through
several tricks, which he does with evident zest. The
keeper in the meanwhile talks to him, and puts questions
to him, to which he replies by shakes of his head. He
will kneel down in an attitude of worship, with his head
inclined to the ground, or he will approach you, and
gently rub his nozzle against your hand. Usually a
diminutive cow accompanies the bull, and, like him, is
grandly attired, and resounds with tinkling bells. She
is introduced to the spectators as the bull's ammagaru,
that is consort or spouse. Then a scene between the
pair is enacted, the gist of which is that the husband is
displeased with the wife, and declines to hold converse
with her. As a result of the difference, he resolves to
go away, and stalks off in high dudgeon. The keeper
attempts to make peace between them, and is rewarded
by being charged by the irate husband and knocked down,
though no harm is done to him as the animal's horns
are padded. The keeper rises, shakes himself, and
complains woefully of the treatment he has received.
Indeed, it is only after a great deal of coaxing and
wheedling, and promises of buying him endless quantities
of rice cakes and other bazaar delicacies, that the bull
condescends to return, and a reconciliation is effected."
For the following note, I am indebted to Mr. C.
Hayavadana Rao. The Gangeddulu, Erudandis, or
Perumal Madukkarans, often acquire and train deformed
male calves. It is a popular superstition that for a family
to keep such animals in its possession is to court
destruction. Consequently, when one is born, information
is sent to a Gangeddu, who, on his arrival, is sumptuously
fed. The calf is then washed, and a new cloth tied to
its" horns. A small present of money is made to the
Gangeddu, and he takes the animal away. Temples
11-17 B


sometimes dispose of their deformed calves in a similar
manner. When the trained animals are exhibited in
public, the deformity, which is the hall-mark of a
genuine Gangeddu, is shown, usually at the commence-
ment of the performance, or at any time at the bidding
of any of the spectators. It is only after the exhibition
of the deformity, which is usually concealed within the
trappings of the animal, that remuneration, generally in
kind, or in old rags and copper coins, is doled out to them.
Villagers worship the bulls, when they happen to pass
their houses, and, as soon as they enter a village, the
females wash the feet of the animals with milk and water.
They then adorn their foreheads with kunkumam (aniline
powder) and turmeric paste, and burn incense and
camphor before them. Cocoanuts, plantains, betel leaves
and areca nuts, and money are also offered in a plate,
and are the perquisite of the Gangeddu. The bulls are
thus venerated, as they represent Basavanna, the sacred
bull which is the vehicle of Siva.

The language of theGangeddulu is Telugu, but those
who have migrated to the Tamil country also speak
the language of the south. They profess the Vaishna-
vite religion, and are of the Tengalai persuasion. They
have Brahman gurus (religious preceptors), who reside
at Srirangam, Tirupati, and other places. By them the
Gangeddulu are branded on the shoulder with the
emblems of the chank and chakram, and initiated into
the mysteries of the Dasari priesthood. But, though
they call themselves Dasaris, the Gangeddulu have no
marital or other connection with the Dasaris. In addi-
tion to training and exhibiting the performing bulls
and cultivating land, the Gangeddulu officiate as Dasaris
in the month of Peratasi (September-October). Their
principal insignia of office are the chank shell, which is


blown to announce their arrival, and the iron lamp
(called Garudasthambha), which is kept burning, and is
said to represent Venkatesa, the presiding deity at
Tirupati. As Dasaris, little is expected of them, except
offering fruits to the god, and assisting at funerals.
Several proverbs, of which the following are examples,
are current concerning this aspect of their life :

The mistake of a Dasari is excused with an apology.
The songs of a Dasari are known only to the god,
i.e., they are unintelligible and unreal.

For the song of a Dasari alms are the payment, i.e.,
that is all the song is worth.

Sing again what you have sung, oh ! Dasari with
dirty teeth.

When a beggar was asked whether he was a
Dasari or a Jangam, he replied that it depends on
the next village. This in reference to his being a

A Gangeddu mendicant is, like his bulls, picturesquely
attired. He is very punctilious about having his sect-
mark on the forehead, invariably wears a turban, and his
body is clothed in a long white cloth robe. When going
about with the performing bulls, the Gangeddulu
generally travel in pairs, one carrying a drum, and the
other a bell-metal gong. One of them holds in one
hand the nose-rope of the bull, and in the other the
whip. The bulls are dressed up in a patch work quilt
with two eye-holes in it. Of names which are given to
the animals, Rama and Lakshmana are very popular.
The tameness of the bulls is referred to in the proverb
" As mild as a Gangeddu."

The Perumal Madukkarans, or Perumal Erudukka-
rans, both of which names indicate those who lead bulls
about, are found chiefly in the Chingleput, North and


South Arcot districts. " Every now and then," Mr.
S. M. Natesa'Sastri writes,* "throughout Madras, a man
dressed up as a buffoon is to be seen leading about a bull,
as fantastically got up as himself with cowries (Cyprcea
arabica shells) and rags of many colours, from door to
door. The bull is called in Tamil Perumal erudu, and
in Telugu Ganga eddu, the former meaning Vishnu's
bull and the latter Ganga's bull. The origin of the first
is given in a legend, but that of the last is not clear.
The conductors of these bulls are neatherds of high
caste, called Pu Idaiyan, i.e., flower neatherds (see Idai-
yan), and come from villages in the North and South
Arcot districts. They are a simple and ignorant set,
who firmly believe that their occupation arises out of
a command from the great god Venkatachalapati, the
lord of the Venkatachala near Tirupaddi (Tirupati) in the
North Arcot district. Their legend is as follows. Among
the habitual gifts to the Venkatachala temple at Tirup-
padi were all the freaks of nature of the neighbourhood
as exhibited in cattle, such as two-tailed cows, five-
legged bulls, four-horned calves, and so on. The Pu
Idaiyans, whose original duty was to string flowers for
the temple, were set to graze these abortions. Now
to graze cows is an honour, but to tend such creatures
as these the Pu Idaiyans regarded as a sin. So they
prayed to Venkatachalapati to show them how they
could purge it away. On this, the god gave them a bull
called after himself the Perumal bull and said : ' My sons,
if you take as much care of this bull as you would of
your own children, and lead it from house to house,
begging its food, your sin will be washed away.' Ever
since then they have been purging themselves of their

* Ind. Ant. XVIII, 1889.


original sin. The process is this. The bull leader takes
it from house to house, and puts it questions, and the
animal shakes its head in reply. This is proof positive
that it can reason. The fact is the animal is bought
when young for a small sum, and brought up to its
profession. Long practice has made its purchasers
experts in selecting the animals that will suit them.
After purchase the training commences, which consists
in pinching the animal's ears whenever it is given bran,
and it soon learns to shake its head at the sight of bran.
I need hardly say that a handful of bran is ready in its
conductor's hands when the questions are put to it. It
is also taught to butt at any person that speaks angrily
to it. As regards the offerings made to these people,
one-sixth goes to feeding the bulls, and the remaining
five-sixths to the conductors. They look upon it as
' good work ', but the village boys and girls think it the
greatest fun in the world to watch its performances, and
the advent of a Vishnu's bull is hailed by the youngsters
with the greatest delight."

Gangimakkalll. Gangimakkalu, or Gangaputra,
meaning children or sons of Ganga, the goddess of water,
is the name of a sub-division of Kabbera. The allied
Gangavamsamu, or people of Ganga, is a name for Jalaris.
Ganiga or Gandla. The name Ganiga is derived
from the Telugu ganuga, meaning an oil-mill. The
Ganigas are said * to be " the oil pressers of the Canarese
people, corresponding to the Telugu Gandla and the
Tamil Vaniyan. This caste is sub-divided into three
sections, none of whom eat together or intermarry.
These sections are the Hegganigas, who yoke two oxen
to a stone oil-mill ; Kirganigas, who make oil in wooden

Manual of the South Canara district.


mills ; and Ontiyeddu Ganigas, who yoke only.^one
animal to the mill. They are collectively known as
Jotipans or Jotinagarams (people of the city of light).
In addition to pressing oil, they also make palm-leaf
umbrellas, cultivate land, and work as labourers. They
employ Brahmans to perform their ceremonies. Their
guru is the head of the Vyasaraya mutt at Anegundi.
Early marriage is practiced. Widow remarriage is not
allowed. They eat fish, mutton, and fowls, but do not
drink liquor. Chetti is their title." In the Madras
Census Report, 1891, it is stated that the guru of the
Ganigas is the head of the mutt at Sringeri, and that
they employ Havig Brahmans for their ceremonies.
Sringeri is the name of a Smarta (Saivite) mutt or
religious institution at several places, such as Tanjore
and Kumbakonam ; and there is a town of this name in
Mysore, from which the mutt derives its name.

Concerning the Ganigas of the Mysore Province,
Mr. V. N. Narasimmiyengar writes as follows.* "The
account locally obtained connects this caste with the
Nagartas, as forming the leading communities of the
left-hand faction, in opposition to the Lingayats and
other castes composing the right-hand faction. Caste
supremacy is ever associated in India with preternatural
mythology. If the average Brahman traces his nobility
literally to the face of Brahma, according to the Vedic
Purusha Sukta, every other castelet claims a patent of
superiority in a similar miraculous origin. The Ganigas
allege that they immigrated from the north at a time
beyond living memory. A Mysore noble, named Malla-
raje Ars, established and first peopled the pete (market
town) of Bangalore, when the Ganigas first came there,

* Mysore Census Report, 1891.


followed by the Nagartas, who are said to have been co-
emigrants with the Ganigas. Mallaraj made Sattis and
Yajamans (headmen) of the principal members of the two
castes, and exempted them from the house-tax. The
Ganigas are both Vaishnavites and Saivites. Their
guru is known as Dharmasivacharsvami in the Madras
Presidency, and certain gotras (family names) are said
to be common to the Ganigas and Nagartas, but they
never eat together or intermarry. The Ganigas claim
the peculiar privilege of following the Vishnu image or
car processions, throughout the province, with flags
exhibiting the figures of Hanuman and Garuda, and
torches. These insignia are alleged to have been abo-
riginally given to an ancestor, named Siriyala Satti, by
Rama, as a reward for a valuable gem presented by him.
The Ganigas call themselves Dharmasivachar Vaisyas
like the Nagartas, and the feud between them used
often to culminate in much bitter unpleasantness. The
order includes a small division of the linga-wearing
oilmongers, known as Sajjana (good men), whose popu-
lation is a small fraction of the community. The
Sajjanas, however, hold no social intercourse of any kind
with the other sub-divisions."

The Ganigas of Sandur, in the little Maratha State
of that name, returned Yenne (oil) and Kallu (stone) as
sub-divisions. The average cephalic index of these
Ganigas was very high, being 80*5 as against 77*6 for
the Ganigas of Mysore city.

" The oil-mill of the Ganigas is," Mr. W. Francis
writes,* " a sort of large wooden mortar, usually formed
out of the heart of a tamarind tree, and firmly imbedded
in the ground. A wooden cylinder, shod with iron, fits

* Gazetteer of the Bellary district.


roughly into the cavity. A cross beam is lashed to this
in such a way that one end is close to the ground, and
to this a pair of bullocks or buffaloes are fastened. By
an arrangement of pullies, the pressure of the cylinder
can be increased at pleasure. As the bullocks go round
the trough, the seeds are crushed by the action of the
cylinder, so that the expressed oil falls to the bottom,
while the residuum, as oil-cake, adheres to the side of the

The following note refers to the Onteddu (single
bullock) Ganigas, who claim superiority over those who
employ two bullocks in working their oil-mills. The
former belong to the right-hand, and the latter to the
left-hand faction. Among them are various sub-divi-
sions, of which the Deva and Onteddu may intermarry,
while the Kasi, Teli (gingelly : Sesamum), and Chan-
danapu are endogamous. Like other Telugu castes
they have gotras, some of which are interesting, as there
are certain prohibitions connected with them. For
example, members of the Badranollu and Balanollu
gotras may not cut the tree Erythroxylon monogynum.
In like manner, members of the Viranollu and Viththa-
nollu gotras are forbidden to cut Feronia elephantum,
and those of the Vedanollu gotra to cut Nyctanthes
arbor-tristis. Members of certain other gotras do not
cultivate turmeric, sugarcane, or the millet (Panicum

The Onteddu Ganigas are Saivites, and disciples of
Lingayat Brahmans (Aradhyas). Some, however, wear
the sacred thread, and others bear on the forehead the
red streak of the Vaishnavites. In some places, their
special deity is Chaudeswara, who is the god of some of
the weaving classes. In the Kistna district they claim
Mallikarjunasvami as their deity.


Their primary occupation is oil-pressing, but some
are traders in cotton, oil-seeds, etc., or cultivators. In
some localities, the animal which works the oil-mill is
not blindfolded, while it is in others, because, it is said,
it would otherwise fall down after a few revolutions.
Crushing gingelly oil is, according to the Shastras, a
sinful act, but condoned inasmuch as Devatas use this
oil for lamps, and men in temples. For the removal of
the oil-cake, or turning the seeds in the mill, the left
hand only is used. Burning the tongue with a piece of
gold, as a means of purification after some offence has
been committed, is a common practice.

The marriage rites conform, for the most part, to the
Telugu type. But, while the wrist thread is being tied
on, common salt is held in the hand. A dagger (baku)
is then given to the bridegroom, who keeps it with him
till the conclusion of the ceremonies. On the wedding
day, the bridegroom wears the sacred thread. The tali
is not an ordinary bottu, but a thread composed of 101
thin strings, which is removed on the last day, and
replaced by a bottu. On the third day, the bride and
bridegroom worship a jammi tree (Prosopis spicigera),
and the latter, removing his sacred thread, throws it on
the tree. Five young men, called Bala Dasulu, also
worship the tree, and, if they are wearing the sacred
thread, throw it thereon. The dead are as a rule buried,
in a sitting posture if the deceased was an orthodox
Saivite. If a young man dies a bachelor, the corpse is
married to an arka plant (Calotropis gigantea), and
decorated with a wreath made of the flowers thereof.
The final death ceremonies are performed on the eleventh
day. Food is offered to crows and the soul of the dead
person, who is represented by a wooden post dressed
with his clothes. The bangles of a widow are broken


near the post, which is finally thrown into a tank or

Ganiga further occurs as an occupational name for
Lingayat oil-vendors, and for Mogers who are employed
as oil-pressers.

Ganta. Ganta or Gantla, meaning a bell, has been
recorded as an exogamous sept of Kamma and Balija.
Gantelavaru, or men of the bell, is given by Mr. S. M.
Natesa Sastri * as the family name of one section of the
Donga (thieving) Dasaris, and of the Kabberas, who
are said to join the ranks of this criminal class. Gantu-
gazula occurs, in the Mysore Census Report, 1901, as a
sub-division of Koracha. In the Vizagapatam Manual,
the Tiragati Gantlavallu are described as repairing
hand-mills, catching antelopes, and selling their skins.

Ganti (a hole pierced in the ear-lobe). An
exogamous sept of Gudala.

Garadi. Garadi or Garadiga is the name of a class
of mendicants in the Telugu country and Mysore who
are snake-charmers, practice sleight of hand, and per-
form various juggling and mountebank tricks.

Garappa (dry land). A synonym of Challa Yanadi.

Gatti. A small caste of cultivators, found chiefly
near Kumbla and Someswara in the Kasaragod taluk of
South Canara. Other names for the caste are Poladava
and Holadava, both signifying men of the field. Like
the Bants, they follow the aliya santana law of inheri-
tance (in the female line), have exogamous septs or
balis, and, on the day of the final death ceremonies,
construct car-like structures, if the deceased was an
important personage in the community. The Bants
and Gattis interdine, but do not intermarry. The

* Calcutta Review, 1905.


headman of the Gattis is called Gurikara. The God of
the Someswara temple is regarded as the caste deity,
and every family has to pay an annual fee of four annas
to this temple. Failure to do so would entail

Gattu (bank or mound). An exogamous sept of

Gaud. A title of Sadar.

Gauda. The Gaudas or Gaudos are a large caste of
Canarese cultivators and cattle-breeders. " Gauda and
Gaudo," Mr. H. A. Stuart writes,* "are really two
distinct castes, the former being Canarese and the latter
Uriya. Each name is, however, spelt both ways. The
two names are, I presume, etymologically the same.
The ordinary derivation is from the Sanskrit go, a cow,
but Dr. Gustav Oppert contends f that the root of Gauda
is a Dravidian word meaning a mountain. Among the
Canarese, and to a less extent among the Uriyas also,
the word is used in an honorific sense, a custom which

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