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Muttalamma and Jakkamma are also found. Malai
Tambiran is worshipped in the male. The Tottiyans
are known for their uncanny devotion to sorcery and
witchcraft. All of them are supposed to possess unholy
powers, especially the Nalla Gollas, and they are much
dreaded by their neighbours. They do not allow any
stranger to enter their villages with shoes on, or on
horseback, or holding up an umbrella, lest their god
should be offended. It is generally believed that, if any



one breaks this rule, he will be visited with illness or
some other punishment."

The Tottiyans have attached to them a class of
beggars called Pichiga vadu, concerning whose origin
the following legend is narrated. There were, once
upon a time, seven brothers and a sister belonging to
the Irrivaru exogamous sept. The brothers went on a
pilgrimage to Benares, leaving their sister behind. One
day, while she was bathing, a sacred bull (Nandi) left
its sperm on her cloth, and she conceived. Her condi-
tion was noticed by her brothers on their return, and,
suspecting her of immorality, they were about to excom-
municate her. But they discovered some cows in calf
as the result of parthenogenesis, and six of the brothers
were satisfied as to the girl's innocence. The seventh,
however, required further proof. After the child was
born, it was tied to a branch of a dead chilla tree
(Strychiios potatorum), which at once burst into leaf and
flower. The doubting brother became a cripple, and his
descendants are called Pichiga varu, and those of the
baby Chilla varu.

Traivarnika (third caste men). Recorded, in the
Madras Census Report, 1901, as a section of Komatis
(who claim to be Vaisyas, or members of the third caste
of Manu), who follow the details of Brahmanical customs
more scrupulously than the others. They are described,
in the Vizagapatam Manual, as followers of the Rama-
nuja faith, who deal chiefly in gold and silver, and
ornaments made thereof.

Triputa (Ipomaa Turpethum, Indian jalap). A
sept of Viramushti.

Tsakala. The Tsakalas, Sakalas, or Chakalas,
who derive their name from chaku (to wash), are the
washermen of the Telugu country, and also act as torch


and palanquin bearers. In the Census Report, 1901,
Tellakula (the white class) is given as a synonym. The
Rev. J. Cain writes* that the " Tellakulavandlu are
really washermen who, in consequence of having ob-
tained employment as peons (orderlies) in Government
offices, feel themselves to be superior to their old caste
people. In their own towns or villages they acknowledge
themselves to be washermen, but in other places they
disclaim all such connection." It is noted in the Kurnool
Manual (1886) that, in the Cumbum division, " they
serve as palanquin-bearers, and are always at the mercy
of Government officials, and are compelled to carry
baggage for little or no wage. Some are Inamdars
(landholders), while others work for wages. "

The ordinary Tsakalas are called Bana Tsakala, in
contradistinction to the Guna or Velama Tsakala. Bana
is the Telugu name for the large pot, which the washer-
men use for boiling the clothes.t The Guna Tsakalas
are dyers. In a note on the Velamas, Mr. H. A. Stuart
writes J that "some say they form a sub-division of the
Balijas, but this they themselves most vehemently deny,
and the Balijas derisively call them Guni Sakalavandlu
(hunchbacked washermen). The pride and jealousy of
Hindu castes was amusingly illustrated by the Velamas
of Kalahasti. The Deputy Tahsildar of that town was
desired to ascertain the origin of the name Guni
Sakalavandlu, but, as soon as he asked the question, a
member of the caste lodged a complaint of defamation
against him before the District Magistrate. The nick-
name appears to have been applied to them because in
the northern districts some print chintz, and, carrying
their goods in a bundle on their backs, walk stooping

* Ind. Ant., VIII, 1879. t Ibid >

% Manual of the North Arcot district.


like a laden washerman. This derivation is more than
doubtful, for, in the Godavari district, the name is Guna
Sakalavandlu, guna being the large pot in which they
dye the chintzes. "

Like other Telugu castes, the Tsakalas have exoga-
mous septs or intiperu, among which chimala (ant) is of
common occurrence. Members of the gummadi sept
do not cultivate, or eat the fruit of Cucurbita maxima
(gummadi), and those of the magili pula gotra avoid
the fruit of Pandamis fascicularis. In like manner,
sword beans ( Canavalia ensiformis) may not be eaten by
those who belong to the thamballa gotra.

Among the sub-divisions of the caste are Reddi
Bhumi (Reddi earth), Murikinati, Pakanati (eastern
country), Desa, and Golkonda. Of these, some are also
sub-divisions of other Telugu classes, as follows :

Desa or Desur Balija Kapu.

Murikinati or Murikinadu Kamsala, Mangala,
Mala and Razu.

Pakanati Balija, Golla, Kamsala, Kapu, and Mala.

Reddi Bhumi Mala, Mangala.

At the census, 1891, Odde was recorded as a sub-
division of the Tsakalas, and it is noted in the Vizaga-
patam Manual (1869) that the Vadde or Odde Cakali
wash clothes, and carry torches in that district. The
name Odde Tsakala refers to Oriya-speaking washermen.
Telugus call the Oriya country Odra or Odde desam and
Oriyas Odra or Odde Vandlu.

Like the Tamil Vannans, the Tsakalas prepare for
various castes torches for processional or other ceremonial
occasions, and the face cloth, and paddy piled up at the
head of a corpse, are their perquisite. The Reddi Bhumi
and other sub-divisions wash the clothes of all classes,
except Malas and Madigas, while the Desa and Golkonda


sub-divisions will wash for both Malas and Madigas,
provided that the clothes are steeped in water, and not
handed to them, but left therein, to be taken by the
washerman. Every village has its families of washermen,
who, in return for their services, receive an allowance of
grain once a year, and may have land allotted to them.
Whenever a goat or fowl has to be sacrificed to a deity,
it is the privilege of the Tsakala to cut off the head, or
wring the neck of the animal. When Kapu women go
on a visit to a distant village, they are accompanied by a
Tsakala. At a Kapu wedding, a small party of Kapus,
taking with them some food and gingelly (Sesamum) oil,
proceed in procession to the house of a Tsakala, in order
to obtain from him a famework made of bamboo or
sticks, over which cotton threads (dhornam) are wound,
and the Ganga idol, which is kept in his custody. The
food is presented to him, and some rice poured into his
cloth. Receiving these things, he says that he cannot
find the dhornam and idol without a torch-light, and
demands gingelly oil. This is given to him, and the
Kapus return with the Tsakala carrying the dhornam
and idol to the marriage house. The Tsakala is asked
to tie the dhornam to the pandal (marriage booth) or roof
of the house, and he demands some paddy (unhusked
rice) which is heaped up on the ground. Standing
thereon, he ties the dhornam. At a Panta Kapu wed-
ding, the Ganga idol, together with a goat and kavadi
(bamboo pole), with baskets of rice, cakes, betel leaves
and areca nuts, is carried in procession to a pond or
temple. The washerman, dressed up as a woman, heads
the procession, and keeps on dancing and singing till
the destination is reached. At the conclusion of the
ceremonial, he takes charge of the idol, and goes his
way. Among the Panta Reddis of the Tamil country,


the idol is taken in procession by the washerman, who
goes to every Reddi house, and receives a present of
money. At a wedding among the Idigas (Telugu
toddy-drawers), the brother of the bride is fantastically
dressed, with margosa (Melia Azadirachta) leaves in
his turban, and carries a bow and arrow. This kodangi
(buffoon) is conducted in procession to the temple by a
few married women, and made to walk over cloths spread
on the ground by the village washerman. The cloth
worn by a Kapu girl at the time of her first menstrual
ceremony is the perquisite of the washerwoman.

The tribal deity of the Tsakalas is Madivalayya, in
whose honour a feast, called Mailar or Mailar Pandaga,
is held in January immediately after the Pongal festival.
Small models of pots, slabs of stone such as are used for
beating the wet clothes on, and other articles used in
their work, are made in rice and flour paste. After
they have been worshipped, fruits, cooked vegetables,
etc., are offered, and a sheep or goat is sacrificed.
Some of its blood is mixed with the food, of which
a little is sprinkled over the pots, stones, etc., used
during washing operations. If this ceremonial was not
observed, it is believed that the clothes, when boiling
in the water pot, would catch fire, and be ruined. The
festival, which is not observed by the Desa and Golkonda
Tsakalas, lasts for five or seven days, and is a time of

At the first menstrual ceremony, the maternal uncle
of the girl has to erect a hut made of seven different
kinds of sticks, of which one must be from a Strychnos
Nux-vomica tree. The details of the marriage ceremony
are very similar to those of the Balijas and Kammas.
The distribution of pan-supari, and the tying of the dhor-
nam to the pandal must be carried out by an assistant


headman called Gatamdar. On the last day, a goat or
sheep is sacrificed to the marriage pots. Liberal potations
of toddy are given to those who attend the wedding.

The Tsakalas have a caste beggar called Mailari, or
Patam, because he carries a brass plate (patam) with the
figure of a deity engraved on it. He is said to be a

Tsalla or Challa (butter-milk). An exogamous
sept of Mala.

Tsanda or Chanda (tax or subscription). An
exogamous sept of Kamma and Medara.

Tulabharam. In his description* of the Tula-
bharam or Tulapurushadanam ceremony performed by
the Maharajas of Travancore, Mr. Shungoony Menon
explains that the latter word is a compound of three
Sanskrit words, tula (scales), purusha (man), and danam
(gift, particularly of a religious character). And he
gives the following description of the ceremonial, for
the performance of which a Tulamandapam is erected,
wherein the scales are set up, and the weighing and other
rites performed. On the eighth day "after worshipping
and making offerings, the Maharaja proceeds to the
Tulamandapam, where, in the south-east corner, he is
sprinkled with punyaham water. Then he goes to the
side room, where the 'nine grains' are sown in silver
flower pots, where the acharya anoints him with nine
fresh-water kalasas. Thence the Maharaja retires to the
palace, changes clothes, wears certain jewels specially
made for the occasion, and, holding the State sword
in his right hand and the State shield in his left, he
proceeds to the pagoda ; and, having presented a bull
elephant at the foot of the great golden flagstaff, and

* History of Travancore, 1878.


silks, gold coins, jewels and other rich offerings in the
interior, he walks round by the Sevaimandapam, and
re-enters the Tulamandapam. He walks thrice round
the scales, prostrates himself before it, bows before the
priests and elderly relatives, and obtains their sanction
to perform the Tulapurushadanam. He then mounts
the western scale, holding Yama's and Surya's pratimas
in his right and left hand respectively. He sits facing
to the east on a circular heavy plank cut out of fresh
jack-wood (Artocarpus integrifolia], and covered with
silk. He repeats mantras (prayers) in this position.
The opposite or eastern scale then receives the gold,
both coined and in ingots, till it not only attains equality
but touches the ground, and the scale occupied by the
Maharaja rises high. The Maharaja then comes down,
and, sitting facing to the east, places the gold, the
Tulupurusha pratima and other pratimas, with flowers,
sandal paste, etc., in a basin of water, and, meditating
on Brahma or the Supreme Being, he offers the contents
to Brahmans generically." Of the gold placed in the
scale, one-fourth is divided among the priests who con-
duct the ceremony, and the remaining three-fourths
are distributed among Brahmans. For use in connec-
tion with the ceremony, gold coins, called tulabhara
kasu, are specially struck. They bear on one side the
Malayalam legend Sri Padmanabha, and on the other a
chank shell.

In connection with the tulabharam ceremony as per-
formed at the temple of Kali, the goddess of cholera and
small-pox at Cranganore in the Cochin State, Mr. T. K.
Gopal Panikkar writes as follows.* " When a man is
taken ill of any infectious disease, his relations generally

* Malabar and its Folk, Madras, 1900,


pray to this goddess for his recovery, solemnly cove-
nanting to perform what goes by the name of a thula-
bharam ceremony. The process consists in placing the
patient in one of the scale-pans of a huge balance, and
weighing him against gold or more generally pepper
(and sometimes other substances as well) deposited in
the other scale-pan. Then this weight of the substance
is offered to the goddess. This is to be performed
right in front of the goddess in the temple yard."

In connection with weighing ceremonies, it may be
noted that, at Mulki in South Canara, there is a temple
of Venkateswara, which is maintained by Konkani
Brahmans. A Konkani Brahman, who is attached to
the temple, becomes inspired almost daily between 10
and 1 1 A.M. immediately after puja (worship), and people
consult him. Some time ago, a rich merchant (a Baniya
from Gujarat) consulted the inspired man (Darsana) as
to what steps should be taken to enable his wife to be
safely delivered. The Darsana told him to take a vow
that he would present to the god of the temple silver,
sugar-candy, and date fruits, equal in weight to that of
his wife. This he did, and his wife was delivered of a
male child. The cost of the ceremonial is said to have
been five thousand rupees.

Tulabina. The Tulablnas are a class of cotton-
cleaners, who are scattered over the Ganjam district, and
said to be more numerous in Cuttack. It is suggested
that the name is derived from tula, the beam of a
balance, and bma (or vina) a stringed musical instrument.
The apparatus used by them in cleaning cotton, which
bears a fanciful resemblance to a vina, is suspended by a
rope so that it is properly balanced, and the gut-string
thereof struck with a dumb-bell shaped implement, to
set it vibrating.


Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum, sacred basil). A sub-
division of Velama, and gotra of Komati. The tulsi
plant is planted in Hindu houses and worshipped by
women, and the wood is made into beads for rosaries.

Tulukkar (Turks). A Tamil name sometimes
applied to Muhammadans.

Tuluva. Tulu, Tuluva, or Tuluvan occurs as the
name of a sub-division of the Tamil Vellalas, and of the
Agasas, Billavas, Gaudas, Kumbaras, and other classes
in South Canara. The equivalent Tulumar is recorded
as a sub-caste of Mavilan, which speaks Tulu.

Concerning the Tuluva Vellalas, Mr. H. A. Stuart
writes * that these are immigrants from the Tulu country,
a part of the modern district of South Canara. Mr.
Nelson is of opinion that these are the original Vellalas,
who were invited to Tondamandalam after its conquest
by the Chola king Adondai Chakravarti.f

Tunnaran (tailor). An occupational sub-division
of Nayar.

Tupakala.- Tupakala or Tupaki (gun) has been
recorded as an exogamous sept of Balija, Kavarai, and

Turaka. Recorded as a sept of Kuruba. It is
further a Telugu name sometimes applied to Muham-
madans. There is also a thief class, known as Bhattu
Turaka. (See Bhatrazu.)

Turuvalar. Recorded in the Salem Manual as a
caste name, by which some of the Vedanscall themselves.
" The Turuvalar are distinguished as the Kattu-
kudugirajati, a name derived from a custom among
them which authorizes informal temporary matrimonial

* Madras Census Report, 1891. f Manual of the Madura district.


Udasi. A few members of this Central India sect of
religious mendicants and devotees have been returned at
times of census. It is said to have been founded three
hundred years ago by one Gopaldas.

Udaiya. -Udaiya, meaning lord, is the title of many
well-to-do Lingayats and of some Jains, and Udaiya or
Wodeiyar occurs as the name of a Lingayat sub-division
of the Badagas of the Niligiri hills. The Maharajas of
Mysore belong to the Wodeiyar dynasty, which was
restored after the Muhammadan usurpation of Haidar
Ali and Tipu Sultan. The name of the present Maharaja
is Sri Krishna Raja Wodeiyar Bahadur.

Udaiyan.- It is noted in the Madras Census Report,
1891, that "the four Tamil castes Nattaman, Malaiman,
Sudarman (or Suruthiman), and Udaiyan are closely
connected. The last is probably a title rather than a
caste, and is the usual agnomen of the Nattamans,
Malaimans, and Sudarmans, as also of the potter caste
(Kusavan). Nattaman means a man of the plains,
Malaiman a man of the hills, and Sudarman one who
does good, a hero. Nattampadi is another form of
Nattaman. Tradition traces the descent of the three
castes from a certain Deva Raja, a Chera king, who had
three wives, by each of whom he had a son, and these
were the ancestors of the three castes. There are other
stories, but all agree in ascribing the origin of the castes
to a single progenitor of the Chera dynasty. It seems
probable that they are descendants of the Vedar soldiers
of the Kongu country, who were induced to settle in the
eastern districts of the Chera kingdom. Additional
evidence of the important position they once held is
afforded by the titles Pandariyar, Pandarattar (custodians
of the treasury), which some of them still use. Some of
them again are locally styled Poligars (Palayakkaran) by


the ordinary ryots, and the title Kavalgar is not

In a note on the Udaiyans, Malaiyamans, Nattamans,
and Sudarmans of the Trichinopoly district, Mr. F. R.
Hemingway writes as follows. " Though, in the
Census Report, 1901, they are shown as separate castes,
in this district they are endogamous sub-divisions
of one and the same caste, namely the Udaiyans. The
three sub-divisions are unanimous in saying that they
are the descendants of the three Paraiyan foster-daughters
of the poetess Auvaiyar, all of whom became the wives
of the king of Tirukkoyilur in South Arcot, a certain
Daivika, who was warned that only by marrying these
women could he save his family from disaster. The
Chola, Pandya, and Chera kings were present at the
wedding, and, on their blessing the bridegroom and his
brides, they were themselves blessed by the poetess, to
whom the Chera kingdom owes its unfailing rain, the
Chola country its rice fields, and the Pandyan realm its
cotton. The poorness of the last blessing is due to the
fact that the Pandya king was slow to offer his good
wishes. The three sub-divisions eat together, and
recognise the tie of a common descent, but do not
intermarry. The section called Arisakkara Nattaman is
looked down upon by the rest, and may not intermarry
with any of them. All have well-defined exogamous
sub-divisions, called kanis, derived from places where
their different ancestors are supposed to have lived, e.g.,
Kolattur, Kannanur, Ariyalur. The Udaiyans put on
sacred threads at marriages and funerals, and some of
them have recently begun to wear them always. They
are generally cultivators, and, with the exception of the
Sudarmans, who are supposed to have a turn for crime,
are law-abiding citizens. One section of the Sudarmans,


the Muppans of Kapistalam in Tanjore, have a bad
reputation for criminality. A curious practice is that,
before arranging a marriage, it is customary for the bride's
party to go to the bridegroom's house, to dine with him,
and test his health by seeing how much he can eat.
They allow- a boy, whose suit for the hand of a girl within
certain degrees of relationship is refused by her parents,
to marry the girl, notwithstanding, by tying a tali
(marriage emblem) round her neck. They also permit
the betrothal of infants, the form observed being to pre-
sent the child with a new cloth and a mat, and to apply
sacred ashes to its forehead. At their funerals, the
mourning party has to chew some rice and spit it out on
the return from the burning-ground, and, on the sixteenth
day, the widow is made to worship a light, and to touch
a salt pot. The Nattaman women do not, as a rule,
cover their breasts. The lobes of their ears are very
distended, and they tattoo their chins and cheeks in the
Paraiyan fashion. This is supposed to be in recollection
of their origin. The Malaiyaman women wear their tali
on a golden wire instead of on a thread."

"The Udaiyans," Mr. Francis writes,* are a caste,
which is specially numerous in South Arcot. Most of
them are cultivators, and in Kallakurchi many are also
money-lenders on a large scale. They adopt numerous
different titles in an indiscriminate way, and four brothers
have been known to call themselves respectively Nayak,
Pillai, Mudali, and Udaiyan. They have three sub-
divisions Malaiyaman, Nattaman, and Sudarman
which all admit that they are descended from one
common stock, will usually dine together, but do not
intermarry. Some of the caste, however, are now turning

* Gazetteer of the South Arcot district.


vegetarians, and these will not only not eat with the
others, but will not let their girls marry them. They do
not, nevertheless, object to their sons taking brides from
the meat-eating classes, and thus provide an interesting,
if small, instance of the (on this coast) uncommon practice
of hypergamy. In all general matters the ways of the
three sub-divisions are similar. Sudarmans are uncom-
mon in this district, and are stated to be chiefly found in
Trichinopoly and Tanjore. The Udaiyans say that the
three groups are the descendants of a king who once
ruled at Tirukkoyilur, the first of whom took the hilly
part of his father's country, and so was called Malaiya-
man ; the second the level tracts, whence his name
Nattaman, and the third was the scholar of the family,
and learned in the holy books (srutas), and so was called
Sudarman. These Udaiyans are the caste from which
were drawn some of the kavalgars (watchmen) who, in
pre-British days, were appointed to perform police duties,
and keep the country clear of thieves ; and some of the
descendants of these men, who are known to their
neighbours as poligars, and still have considerable local
influence, are even now to be met with. The connection
of the members of the caste with the Vepur (criminal)
Paraiyans, which is of course confined to the less
reputable sections among them, seems to have had its
origin in the days when they were still head kavalgars,
and these Paraiyans were their talaiyaris, entrusted,
under their orders, with police duties in the different
villages. It now consists in acting as receivers of the
property these people steal, and in protecting them in
diverse ways finding and feeing a vakil (law pleader)
for their defence, for instance when they are in trouble
with the police. It is commonly declared that their
relations are sometimes of a closer nature, and that the


wives of Veppur Paraiyans who are in enforced retire-
ment are cared for by the Udaiyans. To this is popularly
attributed the undoubted fact that these Paraiyans are
often much fairer in complexion than other members of
that caste."

The village of Mangalam in the South Arcot district
is " chiefly interesting on account of its being the only
village in the district where buffalo sacrifices on any
scale are still regularly made. Buffaloes are dedicated
to the Kali shrine in Mangalam even by persons in
the Salem, Tanjore and Trichinopoly districts, and the
village is commonly known as Maduvetti Mangalam, or
buffalo-sacrificing Mangalam. When a man or any of
his belongings gets seriously sick, he consecrates an
animal to this shrine, and, if the illness ends favourably,
it is sent to its fate at the temple on the date of the
annual sacrifice (May-June). When the buffalo is
dedicated, a piece of saffron-coloured cloth, in which is
placed some small coin and a cadjan (palm) leaf con-
taining an announcement of the dedication, is tied to
its horns, and it is allowed to roam wherever it likes
through the fields. On the day of the sacrifice, fourteen
of the best of the animals which have been dedicated and

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