Edmund Alexander De Schweinitz.

The history of the church known as the Unitas Fratrum, Or, The unity of the Brethren, founded by the followers of John Hus, The Bohemian reformer amd martyr online

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For a criticism on this work see our History, p. 151, Note 20.
The second part, published in 1882, treats of Peter Chelcicky,
but reached us too late for use.


62. [Cranz.] The Ancient and Modern History of the Brethren, by

David Cranz, translated into English, with Emendations and addi-
tional Notes, by Benjamin La Trobe. London. MDCCLXXX.

The original appeared at Barby in 1771. The Ancient His-
tory is very brief and antiquated.

63. [Holmes.] The History of the Protestant Church of the United

Brethren, by John Holmes. 2 vols. London. 1825.
Brief and atiquated.

64. [Croeger.] Geschichte der Alten Briiderkirche, Von E. W. Croeger

Zwei Abtheilungen. Gnadau. 1865 and 1866.

Bishop Croeger follows Plitt, often word for word, but makes
use of the newer sources also, without, however, attempting to
give a critical history.

65. [CrcEger G. E. B.] Geschichte der Erneuerten Briiderkirche.

Erster Theil. Gnadau. 1852. By Bishop Croeger.

66. [Gindely.] Geschichte der Bohmischen Briider von Anton Gindely.

2 Bde. Prag. 1857 u. 1858.

Professor Gindely is a Koman Catholic, but writes with com-
mendable fairness and uses all the newest sources. His work is
very important, although as a Romanist lie cannot understand
the true spirit of the U. F., which he looks upon as an interest-
ing development of the national life of Bohemia.

67. [Czerwenka.] Geschichte der Evangelischen Kirche in Bohmen.

Von B. Czerwenka. 2 Bde. Bielefeld u. Leipzig. 1869 u. 18V0.

The author is a Protestant clergyman familiar with the Bo-
hemian language. Although he had no opportunity of consult-
ing the L. F. he has used nearly all the other newest sources and
produced a history which deserves the highest praise. He fully
understands and forcibly sets forth the spirit of the U. F.

68. [Regenvolscius.] Systema Historico-Chronologicum Ecclesiarum

Slavonicarum. Opera Adriani Regenvolcii E. P. Trajecti at Rhenum

(Utrecht). Anno M. D C. LII.

The author's real name was Adrian Wengierski, which ap-
peared in the second edition published at Amsterdam in 1679.
Both editions came out after his death. For particulars see our
History, p. 574, Note 1.

69. [Camerarius.] Camerarii Historica Narratio de Fratrum Orthodox-

orum Ecclesiis in Bohemia, Moravia et Polonia. Heidelbergae.


Written originally at the request of the Brethren, but not
published until thirty years after the death of the author. The
volume contains a large number of additional documents. See
our History, p. 412.

70. [Rieger.] Die Alte und Neue Bohmische Briider, Von M. Georg

Cunrad Rieger. 6 Bde. Ziillichau. 1734-1739.


71. [Lochner.] Entstehung u. erste Schicksale der Briidergemeinde in

Bohmen u. Mahren, u. Leben des Georg Israel. VonG. W. K.
Lochner. Niirnberg. 1832.

72. [Anbeten des Sacraments.] Vom Anbeten des Sacraments des

heyligen Lychnams Christi. Mart. Luther. Wittemberg. Anno

See our History, pp. 234 and 235, and Note 13.

73. [Reichel's Geschichte.] Kurze Darstellung der alten Bohm.-Mahr.

Briider Kirche, mit besonderer Riicksicht auf das Leben der Bischofe
Horn, Augusta u. Comenius. Kothenburg. s. a.

Written by Henry L. Reichel and based on the newest sources.
A second edition published at Bunzlau.

74. [Hist. Persecutionum.] Historia Persecutionum Ecclesiae Bohem-

icffi. Anno Domini. M. D. C. XLVIII.

A remarkable book written by exiled Protestant ministers,
chiefly by Comenius and Adam Hartmann, giving a full account
of the persecutions in Bohemia, and intended for Fox's Book of
Martyrs; but completed (1632) too late to be incorporated with
that work. It was originally published in Holland, according
to a resolution of the Synod of the U. F., to which church the
majority of the contributors belonged. See our History, p. 534,
Note 3, 568, 569.

75. [Eisner's Verfolgungs-Geschichte.] Martyrologium Bohemicum,

oder die Bohimsche Verfolgungs-Geschichte, Von S. T. Eisner, Nebst
einem hist. Vorbericht u. einigen Zugaben. Berlin. 1766.
A German translation of No. 74.

76. [Persekutionsbuechlein.] Das Persekutionsbiichlein. Von B. Czer-

wenka. Giitersloh. 1869.

The newest and best German translation of No. 74, with im-
portant notes.

77. [Hist, of Persecutions.] The History of the Bohemian Persecu-

tion. London. M D C. L.

A quaint English translation of No. 74.

The Bohemian version appeared at Lissa in 1655, at Amster-
dam in 1663, and at Zittau in 1756 ; earlier German versions in
Switzerland in 1650 and 1669.

78. [Comenii Hist.] Jo. Amos Comenii Historia Fratrum Bohemorum.

Halae. 1702.

The first edition appeared at Amsterdam in 1660 ; the edition
of 1702, which we cite, was edited by Buddeus. In both the
above History forms the introduction to the Ratio Disciplinse
(No. 100). See our History p. 602. A German translation.
Schwabach. 1739.

79. [Mueller's Reports.] Reports of his Historical Researches, by the

Rev. Joseph MuUer, the newly appointed Historiographer. Pub-
lished in German and English. 1884 and 1885.


80. [Fischer.] Versuch einer Geschichte der Eeformation in Polen.

Von G. W. T. Fischer. 2 Theile. Gratz. 1855.

81. [Lukaszewicz.] Von den Kirchen der Bohmischen Briider im ehe-

maligen Grosspolen durch Joseph Lukaszewicz. Aus demPolnischen

iibersetzt von G. W. T. Fischer. Gratz. 1877.

The original Polish work contains 155 pages of important
lists of bishops, churches, schools, etc., not found in the Ger-
man translation.

82. [Krasinski.] Historical sketch of the Kise, Progress, and Decline of

the Eeformation in Poland. By Count Valerian Krasinski. 2 vols.
London. 1838.

83. [Con. Send.] Historia Consensus Sendomiriensis. Studio et Opera

D. E. Jablonski. Berolini. 1731.

84. [Dekrete d. B. U.] Dekrety Jednoty Bratrske. Edited by Anton

Gindely. Prague. 1865.

This volume contains the enactments, in Bohemian, of the
Synod of the U. F. It is, however, not a complete collection ;
the enactments of very many years are wanting. We cite this
work in so far as it is referred to by Czerwenka.

85. [Salig's Aug. Conf.] Christian August Salig's Vollstandige His-

toric der Augspurgischen Confession u. derselben Apologie. 3 Bde.
Halle. 1730-1735.

The Sixth Book of the second volume of this voluminous
work contains an extended account of the Bohemian Brethren.

86. [Moravian Episcopate.] The Moravian Episcopate, by Edmund de

Schweinitz. 2d edition. Published in London. 1874.

87. [Lemme.] Das Evangelium in Bohmen, dargestellt von L. Lemme.

Gotha. 1873.

88. [Zezschwitz.] Lukas von Prag u. die Bohmischen Briider. By G.

von Zezschwitz, in Herzog's Real-Encyklopiidie.

89. [Acta Fratrum.] Acta Fratrum Unitatis in Anglia. MDCCXLIX.

A collection of historical and other documents published in
London, in 1749, in connection with the negotiations carried on
with the British Parliament by the Renewed U. F., and result
ing in its recognition.

90. [Koelbing's Nachricht.] Nachricht von dem Anfange der bischof

lichen Ordination in der Erneuerten Evangelischen Briiderkirche
Von F. L. Kolbing. Gnadau. 1835.


91. The Bible. The titles of the various editions of the Kralitz Bible
are given in Chapter XL. of our History.


92. [Eisner Bibel-Gesch.] Versuch einer Bohmischen Bibel-Geschichte

entworfen von J. T. Eisner. Halle. 1765.

93. [Malin Boh. Bible.] History of the Bohemian Bible, with an Ex-

amination of its claim to European priority. By William G. Malin.
Appendix to Catalogue of his Library.

94. Hymnals. The titles of the Hymnals are all given in Chapter

XXXVII. of our History.

9,5. [Zahn.] Die Geistlichen Lieder der Briider in Bohmen, Mahren u.
Polen, in einer Auswahl, fiir eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des
Harmoniums oder des Klaviers eingerichtet, von Johannes Zahn.
Nurnberg. 1875.

96. Catechisms. The titles of the Catechisms are all given in Chapter

XXXVIII. of our History.

97. [Zezschwitz Katechismen.] Die Katechismen der Waldenser u.

Bohm. Briider. Von G. von Zezschwitz. Erlangen. 1863.

98. [Koecher.] Catechetische Geschichte, von J. C. Koecher. Jena.


99. [Cat. Boh. Brn.] The Catechism of the Bohemian Brethren. Trans-

lated from the old German, with an Introduction. By Eimund de
Schweinitz. Bethlehem. 1869.

100. [Ratio Disciplinae, or R. D.] Ratio Disciplinae Ordinisque Eccles-

iastici in Unitate Fratrum Bohemarum.

Firstedition at Lissa, 1633; German version in same year;
second edition at Amsterdam. 1660 ; third at Halle, 1702. We
cite the Halle edition of 1702. See our History, pp. 477, 478,
and Note 25, 479, 568, 602-605. Later German editions : Schwa-
bach, 1738 ; Koppen's, Leipzig, 1S45.

101. [Seifferth Ch. Con.] Church Constitution of the Bohemian and

Moravian Brethren. The original Latin, with a Translation, Notes,
and Introduction. By B. Seiflferth. London. M D C C C LXVI.



Confessions of the Brethren. For titles, etc., see our History
Appendix, pp. 648-653.
103. [Lydius.] Waldensia id est Conservatio verte Ecclesise. Demon-
strata ex Confessionibus. Studio et Opera B. Lydii. Tom. I. Roter-
odami, 1616. Tom. II. Dordraci. 1617.

A collection of Confessions of Faith, including a number
issued by the Brethren.
[Koecher's Glaubensbekenntnisse.] Die drey letzen Glaubens-
bekenntnisse der Bohmischen Briider. Von J. C. Koecher. Frank-
furt u. Leipzig. 1741.



105. [Ehwalt.] Die Alte u. Neue Lehre der Bohmischen Briider. Von

J. G. Ehwalt. Danzig. 1756.

106. [Niemeyer Conf.] Collectio Confessionum in Ecclesiis Eeformatis

Publscatarum. Edidit Dr. H. A. Niemeyer. Lipsiae. 1840

107. [Gindely Dog. Ansichten.] Ueber die dogmatischen Ansichten der

Bohm. Mlihr. Briider. Von Anton Gindely. Sitzungsbericht der
Kaiserl. Akademie. Wien. 1854.

108. [Plitt's Lehrweise.] Ueber die Lehrweise der Bohm. Briider. Von

Dr. Herman Plitt. Theologische Studien und Kritiken. 1868.


109. [Todtenbuch.] Todtenbuch der Geistlichkeit der Bohm. Bruder.

Herausgegeben in Bohmischer Sprache von Joseph Fiedler. Aus

dem Bohmischen iibersetzt. Alt-Tschau. 1872.

An important Necrology of the Bishops and Ministers of the
U. F., from 1467-1606, originally written in Bohemian, for the
most part, by Orlik, according to the data furnished by Blahos-
law and Cerwenka.

110. [Chlumecky's Zerotin.] Carl von Zerotin und seine Zeit. Von

Ritter von Chlumecky. Briinn. 1862.

111. [Gindely's Comenius.] Ueber des Comenius Leben und Wirksam-

keit in der Fremde. Von Anton Gindely. Sitzsungsbericht der
Kaiserlichen Akademie. 1855.

112. [Palacky's Comenius.] Ueber Comenius und seine Werke. Von

Franz Palacky. Monatsschrift des Vaterliindischen Museums in Boh-

113. [Comenius nach Palacky.] Das Leben des Johann Amos Comenius,

nach Palacky, u. dessen Testament der sterbenden Miitter d. B. U.
Aus dem Bohmischen iibersetzt. Leipzig. 1866.

114. [Benham's Comenius.] An Essay on the Education of Youth

by Comenius. To which is prefixed a Sketch of the Life of the
Author. By Daniel Benham. London. 1858.

115. [Laurie's Comenius.] John Amos Comenius, Bishop of the Mora-

vians, his life and Educational Works. By S. S. Laurie. London.
'.6. [Criegern's Comenius.] Johann Amos Comenius als Theolog. Ein
Beitrag zur Comenius literature, von Hermann Ferdinand von Crieg-
ern. Leipzig u. Heidelberg. 1881.
117. [Zoubek's Comenius.] Johann Amos Comenius. Eine biographische
Skizze von Fr. J. Zoubek. Leipzig, s.a.

Prefixed to the " Grosse Unterrichtslehre " of Comenius and
followed by a list of his works.


118. [Mueller's MS. Notes.] Biographical Notes of some of the Ministers

and Laymen of the U. F. who were prominent after the Anti-Eefor-
mation. MS. furnished us by the Kev. Joseph Miiller and based on
Josef Jirecek's Bohm. Literaturgeschichte. Prag. 1875.

119. [Pelzel's Abbildungen.] Abbildungen Bohm. u. Miihrischer Ge-

lehrten u. Kiinstler, nebst kurzen Nachrichten von ihren Leben u.
Werken. Von Franz Martin Pelzel. 4 Bde. Prag. 1773-1782.

120. [Pelzel's Jesuiten.] Boehmische, Maehrische u. Schlesische Gelehrte

u, Schriftsteller aus dem Orden der Jesuiten. Von Franz Martin
Pelzel. Prag. 1786.

121. [Tomek Zizka.] Johann Zizka. Versuch einer Biographic desselben

von W. Wladiwoj Tomek. Uebersetzt von Dr. V. Prochaska. Prag.

122. [Malin Zizka.] Zizka. Brief Notices of the Career of this great

Captain of the Hussites. By William G. Malin ; Appendix to Cata-
logue of the Malin Library.

123. [Bily's Slaven Apostel.] Geschichte der Heiligen Slaven-Apostel

Cyrill und Method. Zur tausendjiihrigen Jubelfeier der Christianisir-
ung von Miihren u. Bohmen. Von Dr. J. E. Bily. Prag. 1 863.



The History of Bohemia and Moravia preparatory to the page
History of the Unitas Fratrum.— A. D. 451-1457. 1 102


The History of Bohemia and Moravia Prior to the Time

OF Hus.— A. D. 451-1369. • 3-26


I. — The Introduction of Christianity and its earliest

Development.— A D. 451-885. 5

II.— The further History of Christianity in Bohemia

and Moravia.— A. D. 885-1347. 13

III.— The Forerunners of John Hus.— A. D. 1347-1369. 18


The Life and Times of John Hus, the Precursor of the

Brethren's Church.— A, D. 1369-1415. 27-78


IV. — The Beginning of the Bohemian Reformation as

inaugurated by Hus.— A. D. 1359-1411. 27

v.— Hus and the Papal Indulgences.— A. D. 1412. 39

VI. — Hus in voluntary Exile devotes himself to literary

Labors.— A. D. 1412-1414. 45

VII.— Hus and the Council of Constance. — A. D. 1414-

1415. 55

VIII. — The Condemnation and the Martyrdom of Hus. —

A. D. 1415. 68


The History of the Hussites. — A. D. 1415-1457. 79-102


IX.— The Hussite "Wars and Factions.— A. D. 1415-

1434. 79




X. — Eokycana and the Utraquist National Church. — page.
A. D. 1434-1453. 93

XI.— Peter Chelcicky and the Men who founded the

Unitas Fratrum.— A. D. 1454-1457. 95

PART 11.

The History of the Ancient Unitas Fratrum.— A. D. I457-




The Church under the Rigorous System Introduced by

ITS Founders.— A. D. 1457-1496. 104-178


XII. — The Founding and Earliest Development of the

Church.— A. D. 1457-1460. 105

XIII.— The First Persecution of the Brethren.— A. D.

1461-1463. 114

XIV.— The Synod of Reichenau and final Separation of
the Brethren from the Utraquist Church. — A. D.
1464-1466. 121

XV.— The Synod of Lhota and Institution of an Inde-
pendent Ministry. — A. D. 1467. 132

XVI.— The Introduction of the Episcopacy and Second

Synod at Lhota.— A. D. 1467. 141

XVII.— The Second Persecution of the Brethren.— A. D.

1468-1471. 155

XVIII.— Increase and Prosperity of the Church. — A. D.

1471-1490. 163

XIX.— Dissensions and a Schism.— A. D. 1490-1496. 172


The Unitas Fratrum under the Influence of Bishop

Luke of Prague.— A. D. 1497-1528. 179-239


XX.— Increase of the Church in Spite of the Persecutions

inaugurated by Uladislaus.— A. D. 1497-1506. 179

XXI.— The Edict of St. James and the General Persecu-
tion which it brought about.— A. D. 1507-1516. 189

XXII.— Doctrine and Life of the Unitas Fratrum at the

Beginning of Luther's Reformation. — A. D. 1517. 200




XXIII. — The Ministry, Constitution, Ritual and Discipline

of the Unitas Fratrum at the Beginning of page.
Luther's Reformation.— A. D. 1517. 208

XXIV. — The Growth and Enterprises of the Unitas Fratrum
at the Beginning of Luther's Reformation. —
A. D. 1517. 223

XXV. — Intercourse of the Brethren with Erasmus and
Luther ; and other Events to the Death of Luke.
— A. D. 1517-1528. 228

The Unitas Fratrum in its Relations to the Reformers

AND ITS consequent DEVELOPMENT. — A. D. 1529-1580.

XXVI. — Further Intercourse between the Unitas Fratrum
and Luther ; new Confessions of Faith. — A. D.

XXVII. — The Unitas Fratrum and the Strasburg Reformers.
Last Mission to Luther.— A. D. 1539-1546.




-The Smalcald War and a General Persecution of
the Unitas Fratrum.— A. D. 1546-1548.

-The Unitas Fratrum established in Prussia and
Poland.— A. D. 1548-1553.

-The Brethren and the Reformed in Poland.-


XXXL— The State of the Unity in Bohemia and Moravia
during the Continuance of the Persecution. —
A.D. 1548-1557.

XXXII.— The Synod of Slezan and the History of the
Church in Bohemia and Moravia to Augusta's
Liberation. — A. D. 1557-1564.

XXXIIL— The Polish Branch of the Unitas Fratrum; its
Relation to the Reformed and Lutherans ; and
renewed Correspondence with the Swiss Divines.
—A. D. 1557-1564.

XXXIV. — Augusta reconciled to the Council. The Synod
of Sendomir in Poland.— A. D. 1564-1570.
XXXV. — The Bohemian and Moravian Branch of the Unitas
Fratrum in the Reign of Maximilian the
Second— A.D. 1564r-1576.

XXXVL— The Beginning of Rudolph's Reign. A. D. 1576-
1580 ; and the Polish Branch of the Unitas Fra-
trum in the first Decade after the Synod of
Sendomir.— A. D. 1570-1580.


-Hvmnology of the Unitas Fratrum. — A. D. 1517-










XXXVIII.— The Catechisms, other Literary Works, and the page
Schools of the Unitas Fratrum. — A. D. 1517-
1580. 406


The Unitas Fratrum in the Time of its outward Pros-

Bohemian Charter.— A. D. 1580-1620. 415-502


XXXIX. — The Unitas Fratrum in Bohemia and Moravia.—

A. D. 1580-1590. 415

XL. — Progress of the Unity and the Kralitz Bible. —

A. D. 1591-1593. 421

XLL— Further History of the Brethren's Church in

Bohemia and Moravia.— A. D. 1594-1607. 432

XLIL— The Polish Branch of the Church to the General

Synod of Thorn.— A. D. 1581-1595. 442

XLIII. — Negotiations with the Greek Church and further
History of the Polish Branch of the Unity. —
A. D. 1595-1607. 449

XLIV.— The Bohemian Charter.— A. D. 1608-1609. 457

XLV. — The Unitas Fratrum as a legally recognized Church
in Bohemia. Its further History in Poland. —
A. D. 1610-1620. 467

XLVL— The Bohemian Revolution.— A. D. 1617-1620. 481


The Unitas Fratrum as a Church in Exile and a Hidden

Seed.— A. D. 1621-1722. 503-646


XLVIL— The Day of Blood at Prague.— A. D. 1621. 503

XLVIII. — The Anti-Reformation in Bohemia and Moravia. —

A. D. 1621-1628. 532

XLIX. — The Overthrow of the Unitas Fratrum in Bohemia

and Moravia.— A. D. 1621-1628. 548

L. — The Bohemian and Moravian Branches of the
Unitas Fratrum reorganized, with Lissa as a new
Centre.— A. D. 1628-1636. 559

LI. — The Labors of Amos Comenius and the History of
the Unitas Fratrum from the Synod of 1636 to the
Peace of Westphalia.— A. D. 1628-1648. 574

LII. — The Unitas Fratrum from the Peace of Westphalia

to the Destruction of Lissa.— A. D. 1648-1656. 587

LIII. — The Resuscitation of the Church in Poland.

Further Labors of Comenius.— A. D. 1657-1662. 597




LIV. — Perpetuation of the Episcopacy. Death of Come-
nius. The Hidden Seed in Bohemia and Moravia.
—A. D. 1662-1670.

LV. — The Polish, Hungarian and Silesian Remnant in
the Half Century prior to the Renewal of the
Unitas Fratruni.— A. D. 1671-1722.

LVI. — The Bohemian and Moravian Hidden Seed which
developed into the Renewed Unitas Fratrum —
A. D. 1671-1722.






A.— The Work of the Renewed Unitas Fratrum in

B. — The Confessions of the Unitas Fratrum.

C— The Bishops of the Unitas Fratrum to the Transfer
of the Episcopacy to the Renewed Church. —
A. D. 1467-1735.





John Hus,
John Rokycana, .
John Horn, .
John Augusta,
Wenzel von Budowa,
Charles von Zerotin,
John Amos Comenius,

To face page 90








A.D. 451-1457.




A.D. 451-1369.


The Introduetion of Christianity and its earliest Developments.
A. D. 451-885.

Bohemia and Moravia. — Coming of the Czechs. — Their Manners, Customs,
Government and Religion. — First Introduction of Christianity through
the Latin Church. — Christianity as introduced by the Greek Church. —
Cyrill and Methodius. — Their Labors in Moravia. — Tiiey are cited to
Rome. — Death of Cyrill and Consecration of Methodius as Archbishop
of Pannonia. — Spread of Christianity in Bohemia. — Methodius again
cited to Rome. — His Death.

Bohemia is the original home of the Brethren's Church.
It is a country that lies in the heart of Europe, like a natural
fortress, with four mountain-chains for its ramparts and its
rocky bastions directed to the four points of the compass.
The Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge defend its northern sides ;
the Bohmerwald and Saarer ranges form its bulwarks on the
South. Although but a small kingdom of the Austrian
Empire, comprising only twenty thousand square miles, it is a
land of plenty. Its meadows are rich and its fields fruitful.
Mineral springs abound. Numerous rivers bring the tribute
of their waters to the Elbe, which makes its way toward the
German Ocean through a rugged gorge on the Saxon frontier.

To the southeast of Bohemia is Moravia, a still smaller
margraviate of the same Empire, embracing about eighty-five
hundred square miles. There the Brethren found adherents
at so early a day that it may be said to constitute the twin
land of their birth. In former ages it embraced a larger
extent of territory than at present, stretching into Silesia and
Hungary. Bohemia and Moravia have substantially the



same history. One in their joys and in their sorrows, they
look back upon a joint ancestry of Reformers before the
Reformation and upon a common but most disastrous Anti-

About the time that Attila had left the Catalaunian plains
reeking with the blood of his followers and retreated to
Hungary by way of Bohemia and Moravia (451)/ there
migrated into these two countries a body of Slavonians led
Dy Czech. Tradition says that they came from Chrowatia,
in the northern regions of the Carpathian Mountains. The
remnant of the Boji and Marcomanni, which had survived the
devastations of the Huns, passively submitted to their sway.
By way of distinction they adopted the name of their leader
and called themselves Czechs.

During the first five centuries of their history they were
devoted to the pursuits of peace; whenever they took up
arms, it was in self-defence.^ They tilled the ground, raised
cattle, and opened an extensive traffic with neighboring nations
in grain and horses. Patient industry distinguished them,
and a tenaciousness which has become proverbial. Social in
their habits, they pressed hospitality to unlawful extremes,
not hesitating to rob their neighbors in order to entertain
their guests. Music and dancing, but especially singing, for
which they are still celebrated, constituted their pastimes.
Family ties were held sacred.^ The shades which darkened
their character were their frivolity and dogmatical ways, their
quarrelsome disposition, their vindictiveness.

In the court of the castle at Wyssehrad,^ under the open
heavens, stood a block of hewn stone, called the Furstenstuhl.

* Palacky, I. p. 70. Great uncertainty exists with regard to the time in
which the Czechs took possession of Bohemia and Moravia.

2 Palacky, I. p. 185.

^ The chastity and faithfulness of the Slavonian women seemed to the
Greek writers to be superhuman, and filled them with astonishment.
Palacky, I. p. 60.

* An ancient castle, on the right bank of the Moldau, at the southern
extremity of Prague, the earliest seat of the Dukes, inclosed, in the four-
teenth century, by Charles the Fourth, within the city walls.


In this rude throne inhered the limited sovereignty of the