Edouard Naville.

Ahnas el Medineh (Heracleopolis Magna) : with chapters on Mendes, the nome of Thoth, and Leontopolis (Volume 11) online

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its decorative carving, as Mr. Butler suggests
that it owes its domical designs, to Egypt, and
that M. Naville has thus brought to light the
earliest example of Byzantine art yet known.



T. HAYTER LEWIS.



November, 1893.



INDEX.



Aahmes, piicst ...
Aakhennu, locality
Abode, the eastern

the good
Aboosir ...

Abiil-'Alibas Alnned, geographer
Acacia
'Ad, locality
Aelianus...
Ahnas

el Medineh

Akcn,ca.\ia\

Alexandria

nome of
Alexandrian calendar ...
Amasis, king
Ambassadors
Ameuemlia III. ...
Anienophis III. ...
Anient ...

Aniniianus Marcellinns ...
Anion, god

horns of ...
Amonrasonter ...
Anaaref, sanctuary

go^l

^?irwf?f/, sanctuary

Annbis, god ...

'Ai'i^Vis •••

Antoninus, Itinerary of

Apis, bull

Apries

Arihes, god

Arsinoij ...
Arsinoite nome ...
Arsaphes, see Ilcrshef.
Ashmun er Rumman
Ashmuu Thanuah



9,19,



PAGE




23, 25


Asiatics ...


... 27


Assurbauipal


... G


yl<r/ headdress


... G


Athribis ...


1 note, 19


Avaris ...


... IG




G


Bii. aiilili, god


... IG


Buha, god


... 27


Bah, city


1 2 11


IJahrYnsuf


o


Baklich


... 19


Bald-hcadod, the, priest


... 18


Bchbeit el llagar


... 23


Lehuesa ...


9


Benha


17, 18


Beni Siief


■>

... 'J


Bcs, god ...


... 11


Bindidi, city


... 12


Book of the Dead


... 13


British Musouni...


... IG


Brugseh, Prof. II.


20, 27, :10


Brugseh-Bey, E.


... 20


Bubastis


... 30


Burton


... 7,8


Busiris ...


... 10


Buto


G, 7, 8




13, 14


Calasiriaus


... 4


Caracalla


... IG


Chabas, F


... 21


Champolliou


... 18


Cisterns


... 27


CofRu, basalt, at Baklieh


21, 31


Coptic churches


4


Cynocephalus


... 2o


Damanhoor


... 2.3


Dam ietta branch



11







PAGE




,


. 30






.. 3






.7, 10


...


3,


IG, 27

.. 28

20, 21
.. 9




23,


24, 25




1,4


,5, 11


23, 24,


25,


2G, 29

23, 25

19, 22

5

... 27

1, 5, G

... 12

... 19


7, 8, 9


10,


12, 13




10,


22, 29


3,


G, 9


19, 2o
19, 20


, 18, 22


, 24


30, 31
... 17

... 4, 9
... 23

... 15
... 18
2, note
... 25
16, 19
25, 26
... 1
... 24

... 23
... 27



36



Daninos-Pacha ...
Daphnac...

Delta

Denderah

Devcria, Th

Dillmann, Prof. ...

Diocletiiin

Diospolis...

parva ...
Duemichcn, Prof.

Ebers, Prof.

Edfoo

Elements, the four

El MondiJ

Ermopolis, see Hermopolis

Ethiopians

Ezekiel

Fayoom ...

papynis of the ...

Feshn

Firmament, raising of the

Gebel Ahmar

Ghizeli, musenni at

Girard

Griflfith, Mr. F. LI.

Grueber, Mr. H.

Ilamamilt
llarnehi, goddess

nome ...
Ilamenna, official
Ilanes
Harabchent
Harmakliis
Harpocrates
Haru, priest
Hathor ...

capital
Hawara ...
Hawk
He-goat ...

Heliopolis, see also On . . .
Henassieh

Henassiet el Medineh ...
Heracleopolis magna

island of...
kings of ...



3, 4, 15,



1 2



INDEX.


PAGE




21


Heracleopolis, nome of ...


3,4


parva


17, 23, 27, 20, 30


Heracles ...


9


Hermopolis parva


28


magna


3, note


nome of


16


Herodotus


24


//''/•.n/^i"/" (Arsaphes) ... 1


20


house of


... 3, 1, 11


llierocles




Ilor, officer


28


Ilormes, officer ...


9


Horns, god


21


neh ma l-herv, the justified


15


Ilonit'a, priest ...


24


Hotepha, official


29


Hours of day and night


15


llidi, canal




Iluneh, god


2,11


Hiinensu, Huneni^ufeti ...


6,11


Hunt, woman


.5


Ihinuri, priestess


8,9


Hyksos ...


16, IS


Ibis


18, 20, 27, 28


Illahun ...


17


Iphicrates


1


Isaiali


18


Iseum




Isis


3,25


Islands ...


19,25


inner


19


Israelites


12




3,4


Jomard


4


Josephus


7,10




19


Kantarah


19


Karoamam, queen


14, 19


Keniseh, ehurcli...


18


Khataanoh


6


Kliaui, official


7


.ff/(ens, locality ...


... IG, 19, 20


Kherneter


9


Khinimi, city


1


Khnum, god


1


Kom el Dinar ...


3, 4, r,, G, 7, 8, 11




4,5,6


Leontopolis


1


Lepsius, Prof. ,.,



4,7, 15, IG, 19,
1,2,0,7,9,10, 11,



PAGE
4

.. 10
7
.. 23
.. 24
..7,22
20, 29
14, 20

10

24

9

30

G, 8, 9

7,10

19

14

26

6,11

9

2, 8, 9, 10, M
... " 13, 14

14

28

— ^-tf -J"

2, 6

15

3,4

24

G, 30

4,5

6

3

4,16

..., ... 15

16

30, 31

1

11

2

4

13

3, 4

7,20

1

15, 27, 28, 30
20



INDKX.



37



Library of Thniuis

Libya

Lion deity

Louvro Museum

Luxor

Lycopolis

Ma, goddess
Macarius, St.
Mameluks
Mansoorali
Mareotis, lake ...
Mariettc ...
Marseilles, museum at
Maspcro, Prof. ...
Melalia, village ...
Memphis...
Mendes, city

coins of...

nome of . .

god
Mendesian branch
Mencs, king
Menkhepm-a, king
Menment, locality
Mer, mountain ...

hoe ...
Merenpldhah
Merutensa, official
Mescn, locality ...
Military caste
Mit Ghamr
Moeris, lake

king
Mohammed All ...
Murray, Mr. A. S.
Murtahia, province

Nar, sanctuary ...
Nebesheli
Nehkara, king ...
Nectanebo I.

ir. ...

Negroes ...
Neliasi, king
NeouT

Nile, the...
Upper
Nilometer
Nilopolis...



1.5, 1



17,1



19,



4,5





PAGE 1






21






4






27






30






o






23




...i)


10






l(j






1






2.3
23


. 2,


27,


2S


1, 2 note,


10






1






16


0, 23,


2o,


2G

20


. 1.3,


19,


21
19




1,5

I..


2.5
29
12
11
6
13


. 10


18


28
2

6

15




27


29


■ 5,6,7,


11


.




29






1






18






IG






G






30






2






24


. l.-.,


23,


2o




28,


29




28,


29

24


6, 11,


15,


21

29

6

4



Noniuis ...
Nubians ...

Oleander...

0mm el Keman ...

On, llcliopoli.s ...

Oppert, I'ruf.

Osiris 6, 7, 9, 10, 1

anaarcf

Her she f
Osoikon II.
O.\yrynchos

nome of



Fit ha neb Dad, Mendes
P(( en Dlinfi, Ilermopolis

up lieliuh
Palestine...
Pan as Mendes ...
Pancphysis, city...
Panithusos, city...
Pa tisar neh Dad, Busiris
Pennsylvania, University of
Persian trooj)s ...
Pctric, Prof. Fi.
Phanieuolh, month
Pharnabazus
Phatnitic mouth ...
Phileas, Bishop ...
Phconix, sacred ...

Phthah

Piankhi, king
Ploughing, festival of ...
Plutarch ...
Pottery ...
Psammetichus II.
Ptolemy, geographer
Ptolemy Philadelphus ...

lia, god ...

Kam

liames, scribe

Rameses II. ... ... 2, 9, 10,

III

Ravenna, geograpiier of
Roahtu, locality ...
Roba

Tell

Rohennu, Ilamamat

Roset

Rouge, Vtc. J. de



PAGE

... 19

... 29

... G
... 1

10, 18, 19

o
•J

5, 21, 29, 30
... 10
8

4, 29, 30, 31
5, 16



10
24



24,



15

16, 19

. 24

. 24

. 19

. 11

. 15

.2,28

. 9

. 15

. 23

. 16

. 9

. 31

6

9

.7,19

12, 14

18,26

4, 5, 6, 15, 23, 24

21,31

6, 8, 9, 10, 21
7, 17, 19, 20, 21

14

11, 14, 18, 28, 29, 31
10
23
28
18
15
2

9
24,27



38



INDEX.



iSaharagt el Koubia

Saladin, sultan ...

Salatis, king

Saltpetre pits

Samanood

Sand, he who is on his, god

Sayce, Prof.

Seab, Temple

Sebakh ...

Seb, god

Sebennytos
Sebennytic branch
Sed, periods
Sekhei, goddess ...
Semneh ...
Serapeum
Serapion, bishop
Set, god ...
Sheplionf, priestess
Shmun, city ....
Shrine of Mendes
jS7»/, god ...
Simbillaonin
Sioot

Sokaris, god
Spoons, carved ...
Ssedment

Gebel

Stephanus Byzantinus ...

Steward, high ...

Strabo

Suez canal

Suidas ...

Superintendent of the temples

Tanis, San

Tannah ...

Tahral-a Tarqu, king ...

Tell Ibn es Salam

TellMokdam



6,



4.



PAGE

... 27

ri

... 2S

1

... 19

>7
/

... 21

... G

1 00

... I , -
17,21

O
... «'

15, 23
... 9

S
... 29
... 24
... 16
8, 9, 28, 29
... 19
24, 25

16, 17
8, 9, 17, 21

... l.j
... 1
... 13
... 12
...o,U
... 11
... 2.3
2
5, 15, 19, 23
... 16
... 19



S, IG, 28, 30

ir>

3

15

27, 28, 29, 31



Temi, mound
Tctih, region

islands of ...

Thebes

Theomis, city
Thmuis, city
Thoth Aprehii ...
Thoth, god

norac of ...

the city of

the places of

month

Titus

Tmei el Amdid ...
Tombs at Ssedment
Tonen, god

city of

Phthah

Toora, quarries of
Turn, god
Tumei, locality ...

University College, Egyptian museum at
Usertesen II., king

III

IhhehU's ...

Wa, sacred eye...

Version of the Bible, revised ...

Chaldapau
Vestibule...
Vineyards

Wasta

Yusuf

Zaweh

Z€V9, Amon as

Zoan, see Tanis ...



PAGE

... 15



6

1, i, 5, 20, 30

24

15, 21, 23, 24

2."i

7 9 04 Of,

... 22,24,25
24,25

24

6

15

15, 19, 22, 25

11-14

S

21

9

25

7

16

... 13

...2,10

29, SO

12

... 12



4

19

3



30



INDEX TO APPENDIX.



BYZANTINE SCULl'TUllliS FOUND AT AUNAS.



rAGE

Ahnas, Dyziviiliue chapel of ... ... ... 33, 31

,, „ „ compared with that of Wliitc

Monastery ... 33-31

„ „ „ its colunnis, pillar.s, and caj)!-





tals




3:.', 33




,, ,, its pi-ohalilo


date


... 31




described by jMiss Edwards




... 32




M. Naviile




... yj




site of Heraclcopolis Magna




... 32




three churches of




... 32




position oi"




... 32


Apse,


siiij^le, of Byzantine chapel




... 33


Apses


three, of Coptic cliurches




... 33



Butler, A. J., his plan of White Monastery



34



„ his Ancient Coptic Cliurches in Egijid ... 3'1



Coptic churches, characteristics of

„ cross at Ahnas ...

„ sculptures at Ghizeh
Corinthian capitals at Ahnas ...



32, 33
... 32
32, 33
32, 33



Gayet, IL, his work ou sculptures in Museum at

Ghizeh ... ... ... ... ... ... 33

Helena, Empress, founder of White Monastery ... 31



Kaneseh, or "church," at Almas

Lewis, T. II

Lion, sculptured figure of, in Myconean attitude



I'AQE

. 32

. 34
. 34



l^IacGregor, Kev. W., his description of Byzantine

chapel ... ... 33-34

,, ,, his ground-plan of ditto ... 33
,, ,, his photographs of the sculp-
tures 32,33

j\Iurray, A. 8., on sculptured group of man and lion at

Ahnas ... ... ... ... ... ... 34

Orpheus, in Early Christian art ... ... ... 34

,, sculptured figure ofj at Ahnas ... ... 34

Roman temple, remains of, at Ahnas ... ... ... 32

Sculptures, the, liyzantiue character of ... 33, 34

,, „ now at Ghizeh ... ... ... 32

„ „ probable date of ... ... ... 34

,, ,, subjects of ... ... ... 32, 33, 34

White Monastery, its chapel compared with Byzantine

chapel at Ahnas ... ... ... ... 33-34



CONTENTS OF PLATES.



Frovfisjnece. General View of the Temj^le discovered at Almas. Phot. Rev. W.
MacGregor.

Pl.ath I. A.B. Tuscriptions on the entrance to the Temple (pp. 7, 10).

C. Side of a Statue of Rameses 11. (p. 11).

D.E. Stray Blocks with Standard of Usertesen II. (pp. 2, 10)
F. Group of Priest and Priestess (pi. XII. B., p. 14).

II. Columns of the Vestibule (pp. 7, 10).

III. A.B.C. Inscriptions from Baklich (pp. 23, 25, 26).

D. Inscription from Tmei el Amdid (p. 17).

IV. A.C. Statues of Usertesen III. discovered at Tell Mokdam (p. 30).

B. Cartouches of Nehasi (p. 28). Ghizeh Miisenm.

v., VI. Columns and Architraves from the Vestibule of the Temple at Ahuas
(p. 10). Phot. Rev. W. MacGregor.

VII., VIII. Mummy Cases from the Necropolis at Ssedment (p, 13). Phot. Rev. W.
MacGregor.

IX. Pottery from the same Necropolis (p. 14). Phot. Rev. W. MacGregor.

X. A.B. Statue of Rameses II. presented to the University of Pennsylvania '
(p. 11).

C. Unknown Head (p. 11).

XI. Mummy Cases from the Necropolis at Ssedment (pp. 13, 14).
XII. A. Baklieh, Heap of Stones for an unfinished Temple (p. 22).

B. Group of Priest and Priestess found at Ssedment (p. 14). Ghizeh

Muaeum.

C. Statue of Usertesen III, found at Tell Mokdam (p. 29).
XIII. Map of the Mound of Ahnas. Drawn by Prof. Erman.

APPENDIX.
XIV. -XVII. Byzantine Sculptures from Ahnas.

' The Photographs of Plates X.-XII. were taken by the author.



Plate I.




O C c=^?^





IF



2F








IF




2F








I F



2F



HERACLEOPOLIS.

INSCRIPriONS ON ENTRANCE OF TEMPLE (A, B) ON STATUE OF RAMESES II. (O !
ON STANDARD OF USERTESEN II. (D, E); ON GROUP OF PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES (F)



Plate II.





IF



?F



■ ' ■ ■




D





V_^'










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^SS«S^^jV%(!i






c= p=> p=






KziJ




OflOQ




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li -^J







HERACLEOPOLIS.

COLUMNS OF THE VESTIBULE



I-

Q.




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Q

5



x; H



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<



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01



Ui

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cc


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Platl VII.





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V I



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■^#im^^#i-:-c#?Ap3



MUMMY CASES FROM THE NECROPOLIS AT SSEDMENT.



Plate VIM



rr^.'CSW-^rvTr.^/r'TT^



^^sfisr-fiSfSl^^fS^^^f^pQ^ ijl.







;x






GX-v



'^^M-^r^^^S^C-^s^!^:.




i-^S^^'«*^^^f''-£/^dfn^E»=»L-t >»•.:



MUMMY CASES FROM THE NECROPOLIS AT SSEDMENT.



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Plate X.




.^';

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M^^^ ■^'■^^■■'■- '^"■^' xT-..: w^



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HERACLEOPOLIS.

STATUE OF RAMESES II. (A, B); UNKNOWN HEAD (0),



Plate XI.












\ • •• \ - v-'



- -VdtefeiiK .'"TWtSiii'^- -



MUMMY CASES FROM THE NECROPOLIS AT SSEDMENT.



Plate XI




'i^^'^i^^'-^''^&^









BAKLIEH (A). PRIEST AND PRIESTESS: SSEDMENT (B).

STATUE OF USERTESEN III.: TELL MOKDAM (C).



Plate XIII.



The Mounds

O F

imMAm miL Muduktieih



FaJJh
VilLaffe

Old/TrwuruLf




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THE

TOMB OF PAHEEI AT EL KAB.



PEEFAGE.



The Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund, taking advantage of the
Hberal offer of Mr. J. J. Tylor to phice at tlieir disposal a selection of his
drawings from the tombs of El Kab, decided to provide the subscribers with
a complete delineation of that of Tahcri, one of the most representative
examples existing of its period (the middle of the XVlIIth Dynasty). Not-
withstanding that numerous details from the tomb have already appeared
in the "-reat works on Egyptian monuments, there has never been any
approach to a complete publication of the scenes and inscriptions.

Mr. Tyler's materials lent to the Society for this purpose were —

(1) An admirable collection of photographs, the negatives of which were
taken for him by Mr. Harold Roller in 1892. They are as follows, all except
the first four being to the scale of one-sixth actual size : —

VicAV of the interior of the tomb, from the entrance.

Two views of the fac-ade, and one of the side wall, scale 1 : 16.

Two photographs of the fragment that remains of the front wall.

A series of fourteen photographs of the left side of the main chamber.

A similar series of the right side.

A series of seven, of the inscriptions on the back wall.

(2) Tracings of the scenes on the sides of the niche, Avhich could not be
photographed.

(3) Annotated copies of the above photographs.

(4) Drawings based on enlargements (to nearly double the scale) of most
of the photographs of the scenes. These enlargements were made in order to
serve as a basis for Mr. Tyler's owii edition do luxe.

The plates in the present volume Avere prepared as follows :—
Pis. vi., vii., and the inscription on the back wall in pi. ix., were first
traced from the original photographs by a draughtsman, and then carefully
corrected and completed. The drawing of the statues on pi. ix. is derived
from that in Lepsius' Denkmdler.



yi PREFACE.

Pis. i.-v, and viii. Avcrc traced from the enlarged drawings: this method was
calculated to give more satisfiictory results, owing to the abundance of detail
in the scenes. The services of Mr. Anderson, a skilful draughtsman, especially
practised in the delineation of classical sidijects, Avere engaged for this work.

PI. X. is from a drawing founded upon Mr. Tylor's tracing. It has been
compared with the copies published in Lepsius' Denhndkr, but docs not
pretend to absolute accuracy of detail.

All the above have been subjected to careful revision, by close examination
of the photographs and comparison of numerous published and unpublished
copies. The method adopted has been to draw the reliefs in outline, and to fill
in the incised work in full black. Restorations have been inserted only so f^ir
as they arc authorized by the direct evidence of the earlier copies ; and in all
cases the outlines of the more recent fractures have been clearly marked
within the restorations, so as to indicate their extent at the time that the
photographs were taken.

No plans of the tomb could be found, excepting a very small and inaccurate
one published in the I)e.<icn'pfion do VEiiijpfe. Fortunately, ]\Ir. Somers Clarke,
F.S.A., Avho was in Egypt Avith Mr. Tylor in 1892, had taken some measure-
ments, which lie was good enough to communicate to the authors, together
with some remarks upon the architecture. From these, Avith the help of the
photographs, a useful sketch has been possible, and is shown upon pi. i.

The present memoir does not represent the final outcome of Mr. Tylor's
work upon the tomb of Paheri. He is now engaged upon a limited edition
de luxe, in Avhich the scenes Avill be reproduced to a larger scale by a collotype
process. His drawings for this Avork are based upon the photographs, and
are intended to render the effect of the reliefs in a more natural Avay than
has ever before been attempted.

In conclusion, the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund desire to
express their extreme obligation to Mr. Tylor for the generous manner in
Avhich he has placed his materials at their disposal and for the share Avhich
he has taken in the preparation of this memoir.



CONTENTS.



PAGE I'LATK



I. Intkoduction —

1. General description of the tomb of Palieri

2. Previous work at the tomb .

3. The noiuarch Paheri .

4. Genealogical tables

II. Explanation of tiik Scenes and Inscription

1. Pai;ade and wall at side of entrance

2. Front wall

3. West wall

South end : the official life of Paheri

Centre : Paheri's unofficial life and amusements

North end : funerary scenes ....

4. East wall ........

North end : the banquet ....

South end : worshipping the gods .

5. Longitudinal inscriptions (frieze and ceiling)

(5. Back wall and niche . .....

Back wall .......

Statues in the niche .....

Sides of niche ......

Index < . . .



1
3
5

7



I. (plan)



10


I.


11


II.


12




12


III.


17


IV.


19


V.


22




23


VI., VII.


25


VIII.


26


III.-VIII.


27




27


IX


32


IX


32


X



33



THE



TOMB OF PAHEEI AT EL KAB



I. INTEODUCTION.



1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE
TOMB OF PAHERI.

The ruins of the ancient city of Nekheb, now
El Kab, lie on the edge of the Eastern desert,
and form a square of about half a mile in each
direction, clearly defined by an immense forti-
fied enclosure of crude brick. It was an
important city, worthy of its position as capital
of the Ilird nomo of Upper Egypt. At some
distance to the north-east of the enclosure is
a rocky mass of sandstone honeycombed witli
tombs, and separated from the cliffs behind it
by a narrow gulley : this was the main ueci'opolis
of the place, and on its southern slope are some
interesting tombs, chiefly of the period of the
New Kingdom. The first and the most striking
of these is the tunnel-like sepulchre of Paheri,
dating from the middle of the XVIlIth Dynasty.
The dimensions of this tomb, however, are
but moderate, the main chamber being only
25-26 feet long and 11^ feet broad. The
original excavation comprised^ a levelled plat-
form before the entrance, in which the mummy
pit was sunk ; a sculptured facade ; an oblong
main chamber with arched roof, decorated
throughout with sculpture and painting ; and
finally, a niche or shrine at the inner end of
the last, containing three statues.



' See PlauSj &c., on pi. i.



At a later period a neat doorway was cut
through the sculptures of the East wall, and
two rough-hewn chambers, with a mummy pit,
were added. The floor of the main chamber
appears also to have been quarried away to
some depth, leaving irregular masses in the
corners; while the facade in its ruinous con-
dition now affords a wide entrance, which
lights up the whole of the interior.

The fariade of the tomb ^ was cut back in the
slope of the hill, leaving a level platform with
an almost vertical face of rock on either flank :
on the left this rock-face was insignificant, and
was perhaps dressed away to free the approach
from that quarter, but on the right the wall
was broad and high, and displays a figure of
Paheri, carved in cavo relievo, kneeling and
looking outward, while he pronounces an
adoration to the local goddess Nekhebt — a
solar deity, and mistress of the South. The
facade itself is about 14 feet wide, with the
slight "batter" or slope from base to summit
that was usual during the New Kingdom. The
doorway in the centre of it is now entirely
destroyed ; it was flanked by columnar inscrip-
tions in large hieroglyphs, with prayers for the
lea (ghost) of Paheri, and above it were scenes
of adoration.



See pi. i.



BB



THE TOMB OF PAHEE.T AT EL KAH.



Inside, the main chamber is of very simple
form, tunnel-like, with straiglit sides and
arched ceiling ; its dimensions are nearly
2G feet in length, 12 in breadth, and 10^ in
height down the middle ; the side walls are
adorned with scenes in coloured sculpture,
representing on the East wall ' banquets and
worship of the gods, indoors, and on the West
wall^ — first, the out-of-door occupations of
Paheri and his serfs, such as harvesting,
fishing, loading ships and the like, and at the
inner end the funeraiy rites of the time. Tlie
roof being arched, the front and back walls
are rounded at the top ; the former ^ shows on
the right of the doorway a large figure of
Paheri with staff in hand, as if about to walk
out of the chamber, and in the ai-ched portion
above the level of the door a ship, the whole
being surmounted by remains of an emblematic
representation ; but the central part over the
door and the whole of the left side is destroyed.
The back wall,' in which the niche is cut, may
bo compared to an enormous round-topped
tablet or stela, and is almost entirely covered
\)y a very long incised inscription in small
hieroglyphs ; the upper part of the curved
portion is injured, but showed, perhaps, a
repetition of the design at the other end, con-
sisting of the two jackals of the North and
South facing each other, and other emblems
such as are commonly represented on steins of
this age.

All of these scenes and inscriptions are
raised about 18 inches above the ancient floor
(which is now much quarried away), and are
bordered below by bands of colour. On each
of the side walls above the scenes is a line of
large hieroglyphs running the whole length of
the chamber,^ and over this, at the rounded
spring of the arched ceiling, there is a con-
tinuous cornice ornament of hliehers A , followed



' PI. vi.-viii.


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