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Ahnas el Medineh (Heracleopolis Magna) : with chapters on Mendes, the nome of Thoth, and Leontopolis (Volume 11) online

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' For Uazmcs I. and II., sec above, p. 6.



CO



II. EXPLANATION OF THE SCENES AND

INSCBIPTIONS.



Perhaps tlic most instructive programme for
the tour of the tomb would be, on entering it,
first to visit the shrine with its statues,^ and
there make acquaintance with some of the
family and ancestors of the noraarch;" next
to inspect the festive gathering of his kin,
upon the East wall;' then, having offered a
sacrifice,* to " go out upon the earth " with
the princelj'^ scribe as he is pictured at the
entrance,^ and be spectators of the occu-
pations of an ofiicial and landowner as they
are depicted upon the West wall ; ^ after
which we should follow Paheri's corpse in its
funerary procession, and wonder at the strange
ceremonies/ On the back wall we might
read his lengthy and impressive epitaph;* and
before leaving the tomb of the great man we
should endeavour to repeat the prayers for his
soul, while admiring the ceiling upon which
they are written.

Some such arrangement may have been in
the mind of the artist who designed the tomb,
and that artist may have been Paheri himself.
But our duty in this book is clear — it is to
explain the plates, and to this end we had
bettei" take them as they come.

1. FACADE, &c. Pl. I.
On the Eastern wall of the entrance-platform
or outer court Palieri is represented in a very
simple dress, kneeling, with his arms raised
towards the south. The inscription over his
head is somewhat injured, but can be re-



1


PI.


ix.


2


PI.


X.


3


PI.


vi.


and


vii.


4


PI.


viii.


5


PL


ii.


c


PI.


iii


and


iv.



PI.



s PI.



stored with certainty as an address to the
local goddess Nekhebt, the mistress of the
south : —

1. HM [(/(/;t en Nek/iehi, sen Id en netert] 2. aat (?),

an [Zfti] mcr hcnu neter en NeMelbt. [ a«]

Paheri, maa Meru: 3. [zetl-ef ' ld7icz her-et], ncht

Ue-diiii, ncht pet, heniit neteru, hevi nefer 4

hem-ef, uzai reyt em pe.t cm fa, sha nefer 5

671 (?) tekek-iu se sep nefer: iu-nd khe.ret

G re-d er metet 1. refui-d er .sjiemt,

vierti(?)-d er ma -et em khert heru, k/ieni-d

8. em hu nefer en tetet-nn, t-et uba{l)-d Anient
nefert em kheri heru ent ra neh '

" Giving [praise to Nekhebt, obeisance to] the
great [goddess], by [the prince], superintendent

of the priests of Nekhebt, the scribe,

Paheri, deceased.

"He says: ' [Homage to thee], lady of Re-anti
(the mouth of the two valleys), lady of heaven,
mistress of the gods, goodly helm [to him that
hath no] rudder (?) : balancing-power (?) in

heaven and in earth, goodly star [of ]

that none sees [but in (?)] time of good ! I

have come to thee grant me my

mouth to speak, my feet to walk, my eyes to
see thy [brightness] every day, that I may
enjoy the good things that are given me ;
grant thou me to pass through the goodly
Ament (West) day by day.' "

The phrases applied to the goddess are
mythologically important, but are only half in-

telhgible, owing to the lacunae. [J ^

IS evidently a variant of m

•' ^ I ill c \\ CZZD '

which is preserved in some MSS. of Burton as
a title of Nekhebt in one of the temples of
El Kab.''

'■' Cf. also Brugscli, Didionnaire Gcographique, p. 47.



SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS.



11



The ffi^ade lias suffered severely, the whole
of the doorway being destroyed ; at either
end are inscriptions, originally about 9 feet in
height, containing prayers to various deities —

pn ka en ha rn NcMeb Pahrri maii- k/irru

" for the ghost of the prince of Nekheb (El
Kab) Paheri, deceased." Of these the two
columns on the left are a prayer to " Amen-ra,
king of the gods, that he may give his pleasant
breeze coming [from the North] " and other
blessings, now difficult to understand, in the
mutilated text. On the right, in two lines,
were prayers to two goddesses, and in the
third line a prayer to Osiris (?) and the god of
Hieraconpolis, a city opposite El Kab, on the
other side of the Nile. The texts are —

(1) [/c adcn ketep Nekhebt hezt Nelihen '] nebt pet
henut taui, t-cs perert nebt her uteh-es em khert
hcru cut ra neb

prayer to " [Nekhebt, the white one of
Nekhen] (?), lady of heaven, mistress of the
two lands, that she may give everything that
is offered upon her altar from day to day."

(2) [tft selen hetep He/her nebt set] uscrt db, henut
neteru, t-es perert nebt her Ichat-es em khert hern
ent ra neb

" [Prayer to Hathor, mistress of the naountain],
mighty of heart, mistress of the gods, that
she may give everything that is offered upon
her table from day to day."

(3) Prayer to '[Usdr (?) ?ie6] pet Kemhes [?} her db

Nekhen te sen Met nebt hrulcet nebt nebt

shesep senu en ra neb

" [Osiris (?), lord of] heaven and Kemhes (?)
in Nekhen, that they may give all things, all

offerings and the receiving of daily

food" to the ka (or ghost) of Paheri."

The mummied hawk wearing the crown of
Upper Egypt is read by some Kemhes. This
deity gave one name to the city of Nekhen,
now Kum el Ahmar, opposite El Kab, on the

1 For the restoration of this and tho following line,
compare pi. ix., 1. 1-3.



other side of the river, it being known to the
Greeks as Hieraconpolis, " the city of hawks."
There were probably shorter inscriptions on
the jambs of the doorway, which are now quite
gone. Above arc tho remains of inscriptions
and scenes of Paheri in adoration ; these
formed two rows, but they are too much
destroyed for any restoration to bo made of
them. On the right we can ascertain that
the deities adored were " [Anubis of] Ut and
[Osiris of] Abydos {Ahhi) "—

an mi'h ah nienkh en ne.h'\_-ef u.ii\ Paheri maa-khcru
" by the excellent satisfier of the heart of his
lord, the scribe Paheri, deceased," who is now
dressed in a long tunic.

The doorway probably reached to the level of
the feet of the figure of Paheri.

In the passage-way, or, technically, " in the
thickness of the wall," there must have existed
other inscriptions ; but all this is destroyed.
We can now proceed to the interior of the
tomb.



2. FRONT WALL. Pl. II.

On the East half of the front wall, within a
border of coloured rectangles, Paheri is repre-
sented wearing a loin cloth, a thin tunic, a
broad collar and armlets, holding in his right
hand a napkin or handkerchief, and in his left
a staff. He is proceeding towards the door —

I. 2'cci em la er ma dten 2. an ua res

tep her 3. khert neb-ef, ert-en 4. ar-ef rekhiit-ef
5. ha, an, 6. Paheri maa kheru

" eoinsr out on to the earth to see the sun's disk

by the uniquely watchful over his

master's interests, one whose pen brought
(him) his knowledge,^ the prince, the scribe,
Paheri justified."

The wall on the left of the door is destroyed.
We may suppose that for the sake of symmetry
there once had been a figure of Paheri corre-



2 Or ''brought him fame (■!)," cf. pl. ix., 1. 27.



CC



THE TOI\rB OF PAIIERI AT EL Tv.\B.



sponding to that on the other half, but turned
in the opposite direction ; in that case one
figure would represent Paheri about to visit
the indoor banquet and scene of offering upon
the East wall, while the other would represent
him "coming out upon the earth," as if cross-
ing over to the out-of-door occupations upon
the West wall.

Above the level of the lintel was an important
scene with a boat, but only a fragment of it
is preserved over the figm'e of Paheri, already
described : possibly it indicated that Paheri
or his ghost was prepared for a voyage on the
river. Of a symbolical representation at the
top of all, there remains only one sign, pro-
bably meaning ab, " the East." '



3. WEST WALL. Pl. IIT.-V.

Upon the West wall of the main chaml^er
are three series of scenes. The first of these
(pl. iii.) occupies nearly one-half of the total
length, and represents Paheri in his public
capacity as scribe and nomarch, pushing
forward the operations of agriculture within
his district, superintending the yearly stock-
taking of the herds, and receiving the tribute
of gold for the king. In the second series
(pl. iv.) he is in his private domain, receiving
game and fish, the produce of his vineyard and
gardens, and of the looms &c. in his own
house. The last section (pl. v.) is occu2:)ied
with ceremonial scenes from the funeral ritual.
It will be observed that all the scenes on this
wall are enacted out of doors.

The Official Life of Paheri. Pl. iii.

(1) Inspection of Agriculture and Corn.

The greater part of the plate (more than two-
thirds) is occupied with agricultural scenes, in
three registers, dominated by a largo standing
figure of Paheri. The figure has been altered,



' Cf, the top of pl. ix.



the sculptor having made grievous mistakes
about the head. Paheri was probably to be
represented exactly as on the front wall, but
the aristocratic wig, beard, and profile were
forgotten until the stone had already been
cut away irretrievably. The plebeian features
are still the mosi^ prominent, in spite of the
efforts made to rectify the mistake. Probably
a coating of cement was laid on the surface
and the head recut, partly in the stone, partly
in the cement ; but the latter having crumbled
off, leaves the sorry sight of two profiles, two
eyes, two ears and two wigs, neither face being
now complete.

The inscription reads —

ma dfrn .'^eriui dtru "pert, hcnut ncht drerf em se/c/ief
an hu en Neh/icJi, ha en Aiujt, drer man cm did nu
a resi, an hcseh at Paheri maa /c/ieru

" Seeing the seasons of summer, the seasons of
winter, and all the occupations performed in
the fields, by the prince of Nekheb, the prince
of Anyt, who acts and inspects in the corn-
lands of the south district, the scribe of the
accounts of corn, Paheri, justified."

Accompanying Paheri on his tour of in-
spection are three attendants bearing bags,
napkins, sandals and a stool, as on the East
wall;- one of them is the "attendant of the
ha-Tprinee en (?).^

In front waits a chariot with its pair of
horses of different colours; the groom Khnemem
(Jcazana Khnemem) stands by holding the reins
and his master's bow in one hand, and the
whip in the other. The empty bow-case is
seen attached to the side of the chariot. The
groom endeavours to soothe and steady the
impatient steeds —

aha cm dr nezeh* fa hetcr dqer, hit (?) mery neh-ef,
aba en pa ha um-cf en hu neh

" Pl. vi., bottom row to left.

' The first sign in the name seems to be incorrectly formed
in the original,

* —n—'' — \ !=»-=(?) seems to be for ""^'^ — > J 0A, which

is found in pl. vii., speech of the servant to Sen-senbet.



SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS.



13



" Stand siill, bo not disobedient, excellent
horse, ha-Tprmcc (?), beloved by liis master, and
of whom the /ui-prince boasts to everyI)ody !"'
The construction of the chariot is very primi-
tive, the wheel having only four spokes.
Horses were no doubt still scarce in Egypt ;
they are found, perhaps for the first time,
amongst the hieroglyphs in the toml) of
Paheri's grandfather, Aahmes, son of Abana,
during: the reigfu of Thothmes T."

Ploughing and sowing are shown in the
lowest of the three rows, reaping in the second,
threshing, &c., in the first, and finally loading
the corn-ships in a lower corner at the right-
hand end of the fourth row. A second figure
of Paheri is here introduced : as he goes down
to the river to the corn-ships, he passes the
ploughmen and bids them be quick. ^

Two ploughs are drawn by oxen in pairs ;
with each is a driver, and a man sowing broad-
cast. They are singing —

Iiru ni'fcr, tutu qelni,va ru li/ni her dlh, in 'pci her art
en idi-oi, hak-en en pa ser

" A fine day, one is cool, the oxen are drawing,
the heaven is doing according to our hearts,
let us work for the noble !"

One of the ploughmen calls to the other in
front of him —

a$-tu, 2>n hati, k/icrii va en dhu, melc ^in hU uhu her
peter

" Hasten, leader, forward with the oxen ! behold
the /i«-prince is standing and looking on."

Four men are breaking up the clods with
hoes. One exclaims —

khenems as-iu cm Jialni, fe-cJc uhli-en cr nu nefer

" Friend, hasten at the work, let us finish in
good time."

' Translations by Maspero of many of these inscriptions
are to be found iu the Zeitschrift fur Aegyptisclie Sprache,
xvii., pp. 58 ir. Others by Erman, in his Aegypten, and by
Bnigsch in his Thesaurus, vol. vi., pp. 1528 ff.

' L.,D.,m., 12, G.

' His speech is translated below.



To which the reply is —

dii-(( er dri hnu her liakn en pa .'<er Item,

" I shall do more thau the work (due) to the
noble : be silent (?)."

A plough of the usual form is being drawn
in the opposite direction by four men with
ropes, an old ploughman guiding it with both
hands, and a boy sowing. Probably this is for
a different crop, e.g. flax. Behind them is
Paheri, who, coming down to the river to see
the barges laden with corn, passes by the
labourers —

uza an ha Paheri mau kheru cr dtep na cii. nsc/c/m em
fa sek/iet: zet-cf en na en dhiiliu, as-ten, ta aht
petet-td, k/ier pa Map aa urt

" The /ifl.-prince Paheri, deceased, proceeds to
load the barges in the (river-) meadow : he says
to the farm-labourers, ' Hasten ye, the corn-
fields are broken up (?) : the Nile was very
great.' "^

The drawers of the plough, replying —

zet-sen dry-en, mek-cn. ; em dr sen/ her ta aht, si
nefertd urt

" say, ' We are doing (so), behold us ; fear not
for the corn-fields, they are very good.' "

And the old driver, taking up the last Avord,
exclaims —

neferui ijeru en rc-ch 2]ay\-d^ sherd; rcnpct nefertshut
em setehu, senbet semu neh ; k/icr na en behesu nefer
er khet neht

" Twice excellent is your exclamation, my son !
the year is good, free of ills ; healthy in all
herbs ; and the calves are excellent beyond
anything."

In the next row above is the harvest. On
the left we see the flax pulled up by men and
women, the earth cleaned from the roots, and
the stems tied in sheaves, after which the seed-
heads are torn off with a comb. The old man



* This must be the meaning of the passage, since no
ploughing is done just be/are the inundation.



14



THE TOMB OF PAHERI AT EL KAB.



afc the comb calls out to the youth who brings
him a sheaf —

dr (in-ck na 11009 nuh sc-khcm-d sei

"If you bring me 11009, 1 am the man to strip
them all." The youth answers —

ai^-iu cm c'lr a-^m-re, jia aa «s en nhntlu

" QuicJi, do not chatter, you old fjuach of a
labourer!'"

Beyond the flax is the corn. The reapers
are at work, holding the corn in their left
hands, while they cut it high up with the
right. The sickles are red, of wood, the teeth
white, of flint (?). One of the reapers puts his
sickle under his arm, and refreshes himself
with a draught of water. They are singing —

A'Aen en usheb, zrf-scn ' hru jien nefer /)er em fa' ' ta
mehyi pertn ' ' ta pet her art en db-en ' ' hak-en
mert dh-en.'

" In answering chant they say, ' This is a good
day, come out on to the land,' ' the north wind
has come out,' ' the sky is doing according to
our heart,' ' let us work and bind firm (?) our
heart.' "

There are two kinds of corn — one tall with
beards (barley?), the second shorter and not
bearded ; and the stalks of the reaped portion
seem to be shown also.

A woman and a cliild are gleaning behind
the reapers, the former with a heavy load on
her back ; another is cleverly carrying a basket
and two vessels with provisions. One of them
exclaims —

(iviem nduat let,mclc d-en cm mestheru ; em drnn en
kehesu en nef, her cm jia he.ru

" Give me a hand (or a handful ?) ; behold we
shall come in the evening, do not repeat the
meanness (?) of yesterday, cease it (?) to-day."
The comfort of the reapers is not forgotten :
a light and artistically constructed shelter is



' Literally, " you old follow, refuse of labourers," but
tbore is a play upon the words as "hasten," and as "refuse."



seen on the right, beneath which are placed
jars of wine or water; these have rounded
bases, and some are supported on ring-stands
of pottery, others on wooden frames. Several
jars are outside, and an attendant holding a
napkin and a large palm-leaf fan stands by,
endeavouring to cool them with a current of
air, ready for the nomarch's arrival.

In the top row we see the short-stalked
ears of corn taken in immense baskets to the
threshing-floor. The baskets consist of net-
work stretched on a frame, and are borne
on a pole between two men. An overseer
holding a twig in his hand calls out to the
carriers —

ds-ten, meh retui-ten, pa inu du, peh-ef na en qendu

" Hasten ye, quicken your feet : the water is
coming, and (will soon) reach the baskets."
The inundation is coming before the harvest
operations are complete.
The carriers say —

du pa Sh u .ihermi, fe-tu en pa Shu sunt at em remu

" The sun is hot, may the sun be given fish in
payment for the corn." (The inundation would
bring the fish.)

A man carrying back the pole of an empty
basket, exclaims —

en ursh pa nehd her remen-d, retui? su db-d

" Haven't I stuck to the pole all day like a
man? That is what I like!" (Lit. "Does
not the pole stay-all-day on my shoulder very
firmly ? That is my wish.")

The corn on the threshing-floor forms a
circular heap, high at the circumference and
with a depression in the middle, in which the
oxen are treading it out ; a boy with a branch
of a tree or broom of twigs sweeps in the
strayed stalks. The oxen are five in number,
not muzzled,^ and are driven by a man with a
whip, singing —

- Cf. Deuteronomy, ch. xxv., v. 4.



SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS.



15



he-lcn cii-lcii (^'ey .stwh), h/iii, lie-li:ii oi-teii, hc-lvn
en-ten; h'ka rr am, at en. nalia-tcn ; cut. riic mi en
dh-te.n : tutii qeb

" Thresh for yourselves, thresh for yourselves,
oxen : thresh for yourselves, thresh for your-
selves : straw to eat, corn for your masters :
let not your hearts be still : it is cool."

The next process to which the corn is sub-
jected is the winnowing, which is accomplished
by tossing the threshed grain into the air with
pairs of shovels shaped something like the sole
of a foot. The operators wear cloths over their
hair to protect it from the chaff ; one of them
is sweeping the grain together for the others to
scoop up.

After this the results of the crops are
measured : " the scribe of the accounts of
corn, Tehuti-nefer " is registering, seated on a
heap of corn, from which two labourers fill
their measures, afterwards to empty them upon
a second heap. Another labourer stands by,
holding a shovel ; probably he is noting the
numbers upon his shovel, as a second scribe
is generally figured in these scenes.

Finally sacks are filled at the second heap,
conveyed to the walled granary, and there
emptied. Of the granary we are shown the
plan of the square enclosure and an elevation
of the doorway at one corner, and the crenel-
lated ornament at the top of the wall is
indicated. It contains a tree (sycamore?)
and four heaps of grain. The material com-
posing one of them is quite unlike the grain in
the other three, and possibly represents the
flax-seed.

When the granary is full, the shipment of
the supply due to the government granaries is
next attended to, in the fourth row. Three
boats are here seen just starting on their
northward voyage, with the masts shipped and
resting on the rudder-post, the pilots in the
bows holding their sounding-poles, and a man
drawing water ; the grain-compartments ai'e
doubtless full. The rudder in all the boats



is a broad oar turned in a rope l)eariug by
means of a short lever. Close by are four
other boats taking in cargo : the stepped (?)
gangways are put to shore, and the labourers
are emptying their sacks of corn into the
barges. The inscription above reads : —

atep usek/m em at heleti : ze/sen ' en du ursh-en her
fat at henli heleti liezt : shenut meJi, her ncmesmes
uhuu en. re-se}i, nan line /f Ml aieji tens, at her set er
hem : k/ier tvtu her as-en em shevit, as hutl-en en
k/iemt '

" Loading barges with wheat and barley : they
say, ' Are we to spend the whole day carrying
wheat and white barley ? The granaries are
full, and heaps are pouring over their edges,
the barges are heavy laden, and corn is jutting
out : but the master is hastening us in going,
behold our breasts are of bronze ! (i.e. never
fear, we are made of iron !).' "

Above, on the right, is Paheri " proceeding
to load the barges." His words, translated
above,' might pei'haps be interpreted to apply
only to the field-labourers who are putting in
the cargo.

It will be observed that an abundant crop
is hinted at throughout this scene ; the cheerful
idea of wealth and abundance is naturally
implied in all the pictures.

(2) Registration of Cattle.

On the lower i^art of the wall, at the left
end, is a scene much smaller than the last.
Paheri is seated on a stool, writing; before
him is a box, and above it on a tray the
palette, a roll of papyrus, and a water-skin.

heseh tenut menment an ha en Anyt, vier aht nu a
resi, meh db men.M en neb-ef sthaa em Per-Hether
neferyt er Ne/fheb an Paheri

" Counting the numbers of the cattle by the
/ta-prince of Anyt, the superintendent of the
corn-fields of the southern disti-ict, the excel-
lent satisfier of the heart of his lord, beginning

' P. 13.



16



THE TOMB OF PAHERI AT EL KAB.



from Per-Hathoi' ' and reacliing to Nekheb, the
scribe Paheri."

The animals arc driven towards him l}y their
herds in four rows — oxen and cows with their
calves in the upper two, and below asses, goats
with kids, and swine. The asses are driven by
a man with a whip, carrying a staff and a foot-
hobble over his shoulder. The oxen lying
bound upon the ground in the upper register
are waiting to be branded ; unfortunately the
scene is imperfect, but one man appears to be
heating the branding instrument at the fire,
and another to be operating on an animal,
The representation of swine is very rare.

Paheri's assistant in counting the animals
is —

sen-ef mery-cf an dqer tn uu maa, se-ketn nes, dqcr
nezu [-re ?] Paheri maa kheru

"his brother, whom he loves, an excellent
scribe of very truth, perfect in tongue, excel-
lent in conversation, Paheri, deceased."^ He
receives the asses in the two lower rows, and
a similar individual is seen in the two upper
rows, in one case with traces of the same name,
which has here been almost entirely erased.

(3) Receipt of Gold.

This scene is of the same extent as the last,
except that the corn-ships have been intruded
into one corner. Paheri is seated, holding
staff and baton : he wears a peculiar head-
covering, that falls down the back almost to
the waist, and a collar {iiseM) is on his breast.
It is unfortunate that the inscription is muti-
lated in an important passage, leaving the
sense doubtful —

shesep neb en heru qem en shesep shayt em

a kherpu nu temd pen, an res tep shu em beki, fern
meh[a Aer] tetet em her{iyef ha Paheri

" Receiving the gold of the chief miners



' Denderali, see above, p. C.
' For this Paheri II., see p. 8.



receiving what has been ordained from

the superintendents of this town, by the prince
Paheri, watchful without tiring, not failing in
what has been entrusted to him."

His brother Paheri again assists, recording
the amounts. In the upper row four contri-
butors are looking on in a respectful attitude,
while the gold rings are weighed in the scales
against an ox-shaped weight ; another man,
kneeling, watches the tongue of the balance,
and perhaps the plummet;^ above are the rings
in four heaps. In the lower row three bags
of ore or dust are seen, beside rings; a box and
a tray are in front of Paheri's brother, the
scribe Paheri II., and apparently one of the four
men above is having a taste of the stick, his
contribution not being sufBcieut. The names
of two of the others are given, viz., her inert
Menu (?) and her mert Hern, the chiefs of serfs
Menu (?) and Heru.

The inscriptions in the temple of Hedesiyeh
show that there were certain gold workings in
the Eastern desert the produce of which would
reach the Nile valley not far from El Kab.

On the river are two ships passing each
other ; one is going south, with sail up, the
other, with mast shipped, is being rowed
northward down the stream. The latter is
probably bound for Thebes, while the former
is just arriving thence for a cargo of bullion.
The two ships are exactly alike, each having
a deck-house with two windows and look-out
platform at bow and stern. A chariot is on
the top of the deck-house, and the horses are


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Online LibraryEdouard NavilleAhnas el Medineh (Heracleopolis Magna) : with chapters on Mendes, the nome of Thoth, and Leontopolis (Volume 11) → online text (page 8 of 11)