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minims of 10 per cent, phosphoric acid is sufficient to convert
one dram of the official tincture of ferric chloride into the
phosphate. Practically it requires from one and a half to two
times as much dilute acid as tincture, depending to some
extent upon the amount of tannic acid, to prevent the forma-
tion of the dark tannate of iron. 10. With purely ferrous
salts in concentrated solution (not in dilute solution) it gives a
white gelatinous precipitate, which quickly becomes blue on
exposure to air. Nearly all commercial samples of ferrous
sulphate contain some ferric salt. 11. A strong solution of
tannic acid gives precipitates with concentrated sulphuric,
hydrochloric, or phosphoric acids. These precipitates are

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supposed to be compounds of tannic acid with the respective
acids, and are soluble in pure water but not in acidulated
water (U. S. D.» 8i). 12. Saturated solutions of sodium
ohloride, calcium chloride, potassium acetate, and some
other salts precipitate tannic acid from strong solutions.
Precipitated by mineral salts or acids, tannic acid loses its
astringency (Br. P., 21). 13. Potassium bichromate gives
precipitates with most tannins (M. & M., IV. 634). 14.
Potassium cyanide gives a green coloration with a solution
of tannic acid (M. & M., I v. 634). 15. With tannic acid
and water iodine forms hydriodic acid, which combines with
part of the tannic acid and remains in solution ; the oxygen
of the decomposed water combines with tannic acid and
forms an insoluble compound ; the solution is capable of dis-
solving iodine ; the iodine in a liquid containing an excess of
tannic acid does not give a blue color with starch (U. S. D.,
8i). 16. Nitric acid, chromic acid, chlorine, or bromine
oxidizes tannic acid to formic and oxalic acids (A. D., 95).
17. Tannic acid reduces potassium permanganate. 18.
Tannic acid with Fowler's solution or a solution of sodium
arsenate gives a nearly white precipitate which with the
liquid turns to a dark dirty green within a day. 19. Hydro-
g^en dioxide water with tannic acid shows no change at first
but after a few days a light brown precipitate falls. 20.
Tannic acid reduces salts of gold, silver, mercury, and
copper (Allen, ill. part i. 35). 21. Triturated with potas-
sium chlorate or other substances which yield their oxygen
readily, tannic acid is liable to cause an explosion. 22.
With spirit of nitrous ether, amyl nitrite, or nitrous acid
tannic acid causes a decomposition and the formation of
gaseous compounds some of which are oxides of nitrogen.
The solution becomes deep red. 23. Tannic acid gives pre-
cipitates with solutions of albumin, gelatin, glutin, or starch.
24. It precipitates as tannates nearly all alkaloids from
aqueous or dilute alcoholic solutions of their salts ; the pre-
cipitate is generally soluble in mixtures containing over

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fifteen to forty per cent, alcohol. The presence of some
organic acids, acacia^ or starch also tends to prevent the pre-
cipitation. 25. Tannic acid precipitates some g^lucosides,
neutral and bitter principles. 26. It precipitates aqueous
solutions of antipyrine. 27. Tannic acid slowly decomposes
iodoform (U. S. D., 662). 28. All drugs containing tannic
add in large proportions will have the incompatibilities given
above. Some of the drugs which contain notable quantities
of tannic acid are catechu, kino, krameria, logwood, geranium,
blackberry-root bark and oak bark. [See Acida.]

Acidum Tartaricum* — i. When tartaric acid is added
in excess to a rather strong solution of potassium hydroxide or
many of its salts, a crystalline precipitate of potassium bitartrate
forms. 2. When tartaric acid is associated with boric acid it is
not precipitated by potassium hydroxide, even on adding acetic
or hydrochloric acid (U. S. D., 84). Boric acid seems to act
the part of a base with tartaric acid (Watts, i. 648). 3. Tar-
taric acid in excess with a strong solution of ammonia gives
a precipitate of ammonium bitartrate. 4. Potassium tartrate
or Rochelle salt gives a precipitate of potassixmi bitartrate on
adding many acids, the precipitate dissolving in a large excess
of a.mineral acid. 5. The soluble tartrates precipitate as tar-
trates neutral solutions of salts of most metals. The precipi-
tate is generally soluble in tartaric acid or mineral acids. Many
of the tartrates form soluble compoimds with the alkali hydroxides,
due to the formation of double tartrates. 6. Tartaric acid
decomposes potassium iodide, forming a tartrate and hydriodic
acid which is slowly decomposed by the air, liberating iodine.
7. Under certain conditions tartrates reduce salts of gold, silver,
and platinum; mercuric chloride becomes mercurous chlo-
ride. 8. Potassium permanganate with an alkaline solution
of a tartrate is reduced to manganese dioxide, while the tartaric
acid is converted into formic acid, carbon dioxide, and water;
free tartaric acid is acted upon but slowly. 9. Chromates
oxidize tartaric acid to formic acid, carbon dioxide, and water
(M. & M., IV. 642). 10. Tartaric acid and tartrates tend to

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prevent the precipitation by alkali hydroxides of the oxides and
hydroxides of the metals aluminum, antimony, bismuth, nickel,
calcium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. ii. Tar-
trates in aqueous solutions have more or less solvent effect on
certain salts which ordinarily are insoluble, as calcium phosphate,
lead sulphate, and barium sulphate. 12. Tartrates are transposed
by mineral acids. 13. Tartrates of the alkali bases are soluble
in water. The bitartrates of potassium and ammonium are
sparingly soluble. The manganous and ferric tartrates are
soluble; calcium tartrate, sparingly soluble. TTie other tartrates
are nearly insoluble. Tartrates are generally insoluble in alcohol.
[See AciDA.]

Acldum Trichloraceticmn. — i. Trichloracetic acid
precipitates solutions of albumin. 2. It is decomposed when
heated with alkalies and carbonates, forming carbon dioxide
and chloroform (N. S. D., 92).

Aconltina« — i. Aqueous solutions of salts of aconitine
are precipitated by alkali hydroxides, the carbonates of the
fixed alkalies, and by the general alkaloidal reagents, but
not by ammonium carbonate or the bicarbonates. 2. Aconitine
is decomposed by long standing or by heating with acids, alka-
lies, or water, forming benzoic acid, acetic acid, and aconine.
3. Nitric acid gives a red-brown solution. [See under Alka-

Adeps* — I. Lard oxidizes on exposure to air and light,
becoming acid and rancid, and in this condition liberates iodine
from potassium iodide. 2. Lard is decomposed by alkali
hydroxides or carbonates, forming glycerin, and oleates, stear-
ates, and palmitates of the alkalies. Commercial lard some-
times contains alkalies or alkaline carbonates in small amounts,
and consequendy has the incompatibilities of these. [See AcmuM
Oleicum and AcrouM Steamcum.]

Adrenalin* — i. Adrenalin is weakly alkaline and forms
salts with acids. 2. Strong alkalies will precipitate adrenalin
from solutions of its salts (Bui. Pharm., xvn. 478). 3. Adrenalin
is not precipitated by the alkaloidal reagents imless it is hydro-

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lized by heating in an autodave or treating with strong hydro-
chloric acid, when it then assumes the properties of an alkaloid
(N. S. D., 107). 4* Exposure to air destroys its action (BuL
PhamL, xvn. 478). 5. Ferric chloride gives an emerald
green color, changing to brown (N. S. D., 107). 6. Iodine
gives a vivid pink (N. S. D., 107). 7. Oxidizing agents like
gold chloride, silver nitrate, nitric acid, or potassium dichromatei
are reduced, the adrenalin is rendered inert (Bui. Pharm., xvn.
478) and the liquid is colored pink to red (N. S. D., 107).

^ther. — I. In partly filled botdes, particularly in the
presence of water, ether becomes acid, due to the formation
of acetic acid. 2. Ether in the light is said to tend to produce
hydrogen dioxide (M. R. xvm, 228). 3. After a few days ether
with bromine forms ethyl bromide, bromal, and other products.

3. Hot nitric acid forms carbon dioxide, acetic and oxalic acids.

4. Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid (M. & M., n. 465).

JBther Aceticus. — i. Ethyl acetate in the presence of
moisture decomposes into alcohol and acetic acid. 2. With
alkaline hydroxides it yields alcohol and an acetate of the
alkali. 3. It forms chlorinated compounds with chlorine.
4. With lime water and chlorinated lime it yields chloroform.

^thyleni Bichloridum.— i. Dichlorethane with water
in the sunlight yields hydrochloric acid and acetic acid. 2.
Ammonia water forms various ethylene amines (M. & M.,
n. 488).

^thylls Bromiduni. — i. Ethyl bromide is decomposed
by light and air, forming alcohol, hydrobromic acid, and some
free bromine. The presence of one per cent, of alcohol or three
per cent of ether makes it more stable (N. S. D., 115). 2. With
alkali hydrates it gives ether and potassium bromide (M. & M.,
480). 3. Ethyl bromide with ammonia gives hydrobromate of
ethylamine (Watts, n. 528).

jEthylis CarbamaSy Urahane. — i. Urethane in the
presence of iodine and an alkali hydroxide or carbonate
produces iodoform. 2. Warming it with a solution of potas-
sium hydroxide causes ammonia to be given ofiF (U. S. P., 32).

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With an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide it gives large
crystals of potassiiun cyanate (M. & M., i. 679). 3. When
rubbed with benzoic acid or some other solids urethane gives
a liquid or soft mass. [See page 267.]

^thylis lodidmn. — i. Ethyl iodide or hydriodic ether
on being exposed to air and lig^ht is decomposed with libera-
tion of iodine (N. S. D., 119). 2. lodme is liberated by chlorinei
nitric acid, and sulphuric acid. 3. Silver nitrate gives a
precipitate of silver iodide (M. & M., n. 499).

Aguriiiy yTheobromine'Sodium and sodium aceUUe. — i.
Agurin is readily soluble in water but not in alcohol. The
solution is strongly alkaline and the alkalinity causes many
incompatibilities. 2. Adding dilute acids to not too dilute
solutions of agurin gives a precipitate at once or on standing
and the precipitate is probably theobromine. 3. In the presence
of air and moisture it absorbs carbon dioxide and is decom-
posed and precipitated. 4. A solution of ferric chloride with
an excess of agurin gives a red-brown precipitate. 5. With
solutions of mercuric chloride, lead acetate, tartar emetic,
magnesium sulphate it may give a precipitate at once or on
standing. 6. An aqueous solution darkens calomel at once.
7. It reduces potassium permanganate to some extent 8.
A dilute aqueous solution gives a gelatinous precipitate with silver
nitrate but the silver is not reduced on standing for several
hours. 9. Excess of tincture of iodine causes little or no pre-
cipitation at once when added to a solution of agurin, but if the
agurin is in excess the iodine is decolorized and a yellowish,
gelatinous mass or thick liquid results, which slowly becomes
thin again and deposits a white precipitate. lo. It precipitates
many alkaloids from solutions of their salts, ii. Rubbed with
chloral hydrate, carbolic acid, or piperazine it gives a mass.

Airol, Bismuth OxyiodogalkUe. — i. Moist air causes the
powder to become red (N. S. D., 311). Mixed with water airol
partially decomposes and turns red. Glycerin tends to prevent
this. 2. It is soluble in solutions of acids and 4lkalies with
decomposition and change of color (N. S. D., 311). 3. With

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calomel it tends to form mercuric iodide (D. C, XLvn. 43),
4* No metallic instruments should come in contact with it as
they may liberate iodine (U. S. D., 1373).

Albmnin. — !• The coagubility of the different albumins
varies. 2. Aqueous solutions of egg albumin are precipitated
by heat and by many mineral acids, as hydrochloric, nitric,
and meta-phosphoric (not by ortho- or pyro-phosphoric acid) ;
3. by salts of many heavy metals, as mercuric chloride (pre-
vented to a considerable extent by the presence of ammonium
or sodium chloride or hydrochloric acid), alum, copper sulphate,
silver nitrate, gold chloride, and ferric chloride; 4. by some
neutral salts, as ammonium sulphate; 5. by hydrogen dioxide
water; 6. by some organic acids, as tannic acid and substances
containing it (not by gallic acid), lactic acid, picric acid,
carbolic acid, creosote, acetic and trichloracetic acids;
7. by some organic compoimds, as alcohol (the precipitate is
redissolved by dilution with water if the albumin has not been
in contact with the alcohol too long), formaldehyde, ether,
collodion, resorcin, camphor, thymol, sozoidol, volatile
oils, and coniine (not nicotine).

Alcohol. — I. Alcohol precipitates albumin, acacia, and
many inorganic salts from their aqueous solutions; to pre-
cipitate the acacia the resulting mixture must contain about thirty
or forty per cent, alcohol before a permanent precipitate re-
sults. 2. Strong nitric acid (not dilute) acts violently on alco-
hol, forming nitric oxide, nitrous ether, carbon dioxide, alde-
hyde, acetic and formic acids (M. & M., I. 97). 3.
Chromic acid or a chromate in an acid solution oxidizes
alcohol to aldehyde and acetic acid. 4. Potassium per-
manganate in acid (not in alkaline) solution oxidizes it to
aldehyde and acetic acid. 5. Chlorine is rapidly absorbed
by alcohol and in sunlight may ignite the alcohol. The
ultimate product is chloral alcoholate, there being a number
of intermediate products, such as hydrochloric acid, aldehyde,
ethyl chloride, acetic acid, chloral, etc. (M. & M., I. 97).
6. Bromine forms hydrobromic acid, water, ethyl bromide,

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bromal, and bromal alcoholate (M. & M., i. 97). 7. Mer-
curic chloride is slowly reduced to calomel by alcohol (M. &
M., I. 98). 8. Nitric acid with the nitrate of mercury or
silver and strong alcohol forms the explosive fulminate of
mercury or silver (M. & M., I. 97). 9. Concentrated mineral
acids convert alcohol into esters and ethers. 10. Alcohol
combines with many metallic salts, acting like water of
crystallization (M. & M., I. 98). 11. With chloral hydrate
alcohol forms chloral alcoholate which is not very soluble in
elixir and less so in the presence of potassium bromide.
12. Alcohol sometimes contains traces of aldehyde or other
impurities which are darkened by alkali hydroxides. 13. The
official alcoholic preparations, except those mentioned in the
following classes, give precipitates when mixed with water, the
precipitate sometimes being the active principle and sometimes
inert matter: tinctures, except chloride of iron, iodine, and deo-
dorized tincture of opium; fluidextracts, except glycyrrhiza,
lobelia, sanguinaria, and squills; spirits, except nitrous ether,
ammonia, whiskey and brandy; wines, except white, red, and anti-
monial. 14. Water generally causes a precipitation, when mixed
with alcoholic solutions of the following substances: free alkaloids,
alkaloids combined with any of the general alkaloidal reagents,
glucosides, neutral and bitter principles, salicylic, gallic, or benzoic
acid, volatile oils, resins, camphors, oleoresins, or balsams. 15.
Among the many substances which alcohol generally dis-
solves may be mentioned acetates (except mercurous and
silver), benzoates, bromides, chlorides (except potassium,
sodium, ammonium, lead, silver, and mercurous), iodides
(except lead, silver, and mercurous), nitrates (except potas-
sium, lead, and bismuth), salicylates (except mercury and
bismuth), deliquescent salts (except potassium carbonate),
acids, alkali hydrates, alkali hypophosphites, phosphorus,
sulphur, iodine, organic and inorganic acids (except arsenous),
hydrocarbons and carbon derivatives, volatile oils, phenols,
camphors, resins [see under Resinae], oleoresins, balsams,
alkaloids and their salts, glucosides, and neutral principles.

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16. Inorganic substances that are insoluble in water are also
generally insoluble in alcohoL

Alkalies. — ^The following preparations contain an alkali
hydroxide or carbonate: ammonia water, stronger ammonia
water, fluid extracts of glycyrrhiza, senega, and taraxacum,
saccharated carbonate of iron, ammonia liniment, lime liniment,
lime water, solution of potassium hydroxide, solution of sodium
hydroxide, solution of potassium arsenite, mass of carbonate of
iron, compound iron mixture, chalk mixture, mixtxu^ of rhubarb
and soda, pills of carbonate of iron, spirit of ammonia, aromatic
spirit of ammonia, syrup of lime, ammoniated tincture of guaiac,
ammoniated tincture of valerian, syrup of rhubarb, and aromatic
syrup of rhubarb. [See Aqua Ammonia and Liquor PoTASsn

Alkaloids* — i. Alkaloids combine with mineral acids
and acetic and citric acids to form salts which are generally
soluble in water or alcohol, but insoluble in ether, chloroform,
benzol, petroleum ether, carbon bisulphide, or oils. In com-
bination with most other organic acids the alkaloids form salts
that are not generally soluble in water. 2. Alkaloids com-
bined with acids and dissolved in water or very dilute alcohol
are generally precipitated as free alkaliods by solutions of alkali
hydroxides or carbonates and by borax. Solutions of potas-
siufi arsenite, sodium phosphate and sodium arsenate are
slightly alkaline and may precipitate the free alkaloid. M.
Christiaens says: All salts whose reaction to litmus is alkaline,
whatever their be chemical function, precipitate the alkaloids
from their salts (D. C.^ xxxvm. 59). Anunonium carbonate
and the bicarbonates of potassium and sodium frequently do
not cause precipitation. 3. The alkaloidal salts are generally
precipitated from aqueous solution, combined with the precipi-
tant, by soluble salicylates, benzoates, bichromates, iodides,
bromides, piperazine and by the following general alkaloidal
reagents: tannic acid, picric acid, iodine in solution of potas-
sium iodide, bromine in solution of potassium bromide, potas-
sium mercuric iodide (Mayer's reagent), potassium bismuthic

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iodide, mercuric chloride, lead subacetate, platinic chloride,
gold chloride, and phosphomolybdic acid. The presence of
from twenty to fifty per cent, of alcohol will nearly always pre-
vent the precipitation. 4. A solution of a mixture of boric and
salicylic acids gives a precipitate with solutions of many alka-
loidal salts as boro-salicylates. [See AcmuM Boricum, No. 19.]
5. In the presence of acacia some alkaloids are not precipitated
from dilute aqueous solutions of their salts by tannic acid,
potassiimi mercuric iodide, or sodium phosphomolybdate (Allen,
I. 426). Starch dissolved by boiling in water has a similar
effect with the potassium mercuric iodide. 6. Some alkaloidal
salts are thrown out of solution by the presence of considerable
quantities of very soluble salts, e.g., strychnine hydriodide by
potassium iodide. 7. Some alkaloids are strong reducing agents;
most alkaloids are decomposed by oxidizing: agents. 8. The
free alkaloids are generally only sparingly soluble in water,
except atropine, caffeine, codeine, nicotine, and coniine, but are
generally soluble in alcohol, ether, or chloroform. A few are
soluble in excess of solutions of fixed alkali hydrates, e.g., mor-
phine; a few are soluble in excess of ammonia water, e.g., qui-
nine. 9. A strong solution of chloral hydrate dissolves
morphine, quinine, and many other alkaloids. The solubility of
the salts of the alkaloids is also increased. Dilution with water
may cause a precipitation of the alkaloid.

Alolniun. — i. Concentrated solutions of aloin are slowly
precipitated by a solution of lead subacetate (not the neutral
lead acetate), more quickly if the mixture is heated. The
liquid is turned brown. 2. An aqueous solution of aloin with
ferric chloride gives a green-black to a brown-black colon
3. With solutions of alkali hydroxides aloin gives an orange to
a red color, is readily decomposed, and rendered inert. 4. Con-
centrated nitric acid gives a red color with barbalom (not with
nataloin or socalom), and by further action chrysammic, picric,
and oxalic acids are formed. 5. Gold chloride gives a carmine
red, changmg to violet (U. S. D., 117). 6. Spirit of nitrous
ether gives a red solution with aloin, even in the presence of a

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larg^ amount of water. 7. A red color is produced more or less
quickly when one tenth of a grain of any of the following alka-
loids in a dram of alcohol is added to a sixth of a grain of aloin
in water, strychnine, quinine, morphine, cocaine, codeine, heroine, or
hydrastine. Sometimes a violet tinge is produced which is slowly
dissipated. The salts of these alkaloids, except qmnine give
little or no color (Bui. Pharm., xix. 294.)

Aliunen. — i. Alum in solution is precipitated as aluminum
hydroxide by the alkali hydroxides and their carbonates,
borax, and lime water. Citrates, tartrates, glycerin, sugar,
and acacia tend to prevent precipitation. 2. The alkali phos-
phates give the insoluble alummum phosphate. Citrates and
tartrates tend to prevent precipitation. 3. With tartaric acid
it gives a precipitate of potassiiun bitartrate. 4. Tannic acid
or its preparations, causes a slight precipitation. 5. Alum is
slightly acid to litmus. 6. Addmg a soluble carbonate to a
solution of alum produces an effervescence, due to the liberation
of carbon dioxide, aluminum hydroxide being precipitated. 7.
Alum has the incompatibilities of the soluble sulphates. [See


Almnlnl Hydras.^Aluminum hydrate, especially when
freshly precipitated, removes suspended solid matter and color-
ing matter in solution from liquids.

Almnnoly Aluminum Naphthol Sulphonate. — i. Alumnol
ffves an acid solution in alcohol or water, and the solution
has a blue fluorescence. 2. The aqueous solution gives a
precipitate of aluminum hydroxide when an alkali hydroxide
is added. The precipitate redissolves in an excess of the alkali.
3. The alkali carbonates give a white precipitate. 4. With a
solution of ferric chloride alumnol gives a deep blue colon
5. Silver nitrate is not precipitated at once but is slowly decom-
posed and precipitated as metallic silver. 6. Nitric acid gives
a yellow to a red color. 7. It is precipitated by a solution of
albumin or gelatin, the precipitate bemg soluble in excess of
these substances (N. S. D., 2glS). & Rubbed with carbolic
acid it gives a mass.

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Alypln. — I. An alkali hydroxide or carbonate gives a
precipitate with an aqueous solution of al}rpin. 2. Mixed with
calomel and dampened with alcohol it gives a black color.

Ammonii Carbonas* — i. Ammonium carbonate with
calomel gives a black mixture of merciuic ammonium chloride^
having the formula NH2HgCl, with some metallic mercury
(P. & J., 39). 2. With a solution of mercuric chloride it
gives a white precipitate of ammoniated mercury, NH2HgCl.
3. It gives no precipitate with magnesium salts, except in con-
centrated solutions. 4. The precipitate of copper or silver salts
is dissolved by an excess of the carbonate. 5. Ammonium car-
bonate does not precipitate as many of the alkaloids from
solutions of their salts, as do the carbonates of potassium and
sodium. Some of the alkaloids not precipitated are atropine,
hyoscyamine (except in strong solution), nicotine, coniine, codeine,
and caffeine. 6. Ammonium carbonate with resorcin in solu-
tion gives a red-brown solution at first which changes to deep
blue in a day or two. 7. Excepting the reactions noted above,
ammonium carbonate acts similarly to potassium or sodium
carbonate. [See Cailbonates and Ammonium.]

Anunonll Chloridmn. — i. An aqueous solution is de-
composed by chlorine, forming hydrochloric acid and the ex-
plosive nitrogen chloride (M. & M., i. 202). 2. Ammonium
chloride aids the solution of several salts that are more or less
insoluble ordinarily, and sometimes renders other salts less
soluble. [See AcmuM Hydrochloricum and Ammonium.]


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