Edward A Dawe.

Paper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others online

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ADVERTISEMENTS




44 For over 120 years the House of Spalding
& Hodge has been the great centre for the

supply of everything in the way of Paper/'


Publishers' Circular.



ADVERTISEMENTS



BERTRAMS LIMITED

paper ]Mill engineers

SCIENNES :: EDINBURGH



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SIMPLEX STRAINER. Self- cleansing. Nothing better in use.

DOUBLE DRUM REELER. Preferred to all others.

VICTORY DAMPER. Best in the Market. Perfect Regulation.

PERFECTA WATER DOCTORS. Produce excellent quality of
Imitation "Art" Papers and others of highest finish direct
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ACME BEATERS. Of improved design, effecting great economy
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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. Our own design, for Paper Mill work.

PATENT STEAM CONNECTIONS AND TRAPS. For Drying
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PATENT LEADING ROLLS. Which automatically run forward
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REFINING ENGINE. 1909 design upon which further valuable
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PATENT ROPE GEARING FOR PAPER MACHINES. A large
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PATENT WATER LIFTER. For Couch Rolls saving Jackets.
PATENT SPRAY CUTTER. For Wire Frame most useful.
SPECIAL AIR COOLING SYSTEM. For Calender Joints.

PATENT RAISING AND LOWERING GEAR. For Wire Frame-
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Ill ADVERTISEMENTS



PETER SPENCE & SONS

LIMITED

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MANCHESTER :: ENGLAND

Manufacturers of the finest quality of

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Sole Manufacturers of



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the cheapest form of soluble alumina
used by paper makers all over the world



SAMPLES AND PRICES ON APPLICATION



PAPER AND ITS USES



A TREATISE FOR PRINTERS
STATIONERS AND OTHERS



BY



EDWARD A. DAWE

I I

Assistant Examiner of Paper, H.M. Stationery Office

City and Guilds of London Instructor in Typography ;

Honours Silver Medallist in Typography



TJQttb 34 Samples of paper




LONDON
CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON

7 STATIONERS' HALL COURT, E.G.
1914



PRINTED AT

THE DARIEN PRESS

EDINBURGH



PREFACE



THE library of the papermaker is well furnished with
excellent works on the manufacture of paper, but the
printer, stationer, and student are not so well catered
for. The present volume aims to present a concise
and comprehensive treatise on the manufacture and
use of paper, which shall be intelligible to the student,
and at the same time sufficiently progressive to lead to
the study of the larger works on papermaking.

The late Mr Richard Parkinson was responsible
for a work which sought to fill the want in the printer's
technical library, and by extensive study and research
he was able to produce a clear and concise book on
paper and its uses. An important feature of great
practical value was a section of samples bound at the
end of the work. By adopting the plan of this earlier
volume, the Author feels that the utmost usefulness is
obtained. This has been possible by the generosity of
Mr R. E. Parkinson, who placed the rights in his
father's work at the writer's disposal.

Reference to the Syllabus of the Examinations of the
City and Guilds of London Institute for Typographic
and Lithographic Students will show that a more
detailed knowledge of the manufacture of paper and
its use is expected than can be found in the text-



346797



iv PREFACE

books on printing. It is believed that the sections
dealing with testing papers, the prices and weights of
papers, as well as the alphabetical list, will prove of
value to students generally.

Illustrations of methods of manufacture and of
various machinery have been kindly lent by the
manufacturers to render the mysteries of the making,
treatment, and testing of paper a little clearer. The
wholesale houses have rendered valuable assistance by
supplying the samples bound at the end of the volume,
and with helpful advice. To all these and to other
friends who have revised the proofs of the work the
Author tenders his grateful thanks.

EDWARD A. DAWE.

WALLINGTON, 1914.



CONTENTS



I. RAW MATERIALS - i

IL REDUCTION TO PULP 8

III. MANUFACTURE OF HAND-MADE AND MOULD-MADE

PAPERS - - H

IV. MACHINE MADE PAPERS 18
V. FINISHING 28

VI. MANUFACTURE OF BOARDS - 35

^ Vll} WRITING PAPERS 3 8

VIII. PRINTING PAPERS - 43

IX. COATED PAPERS AND BOARDS 48
X. MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS BLOTTING, TISSUE,

COPYING, DUPLICATING, COVER, GUMMED

WRAPPING 5 1

XI. CARDS AND CARDBOARDS 5 8

XII. DURABILITY OF PAPER - 61

XIII. DEFECTS AND REMEDIES 66

XIV. THE RIGHT PAPER 79
XV. THE STOCK ROOM 89

XVI. PAPER TESTING - 9 6

XVII. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS - - - 113



TABLES OF SIZES, WEIGHTS, AND PRICES OF PAPERS

AND BOARDS - 135

EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS OF PAPERS OF VARIOUS

SIZES - i44

PROBLEMS IN COST, WEIGHT, AND QUANTITIES OF

PAPER 146

PAPER TRADE CUSTOMS 149



VI CONTENTS

PAGE

GITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE EX-
AMINATIONS EXTRACTS FROM SYLLABUS OF
TYPOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHY - 152

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS ON PAPERMAKING AND

TESTING - . 154

INDEX - - r 55

SAMPLES OF PAPER - - at end of volume



LIST. OF ILLUSTRATIONS



FIG. PAGE

1. BEATING ENGINE 10

2. EDGE RUNNER OR KOLLERGANG 12
^) HAND MOULDS AND DECKLE 15

4. METHOD OF MAKING SMALL SHEETS ON HAND

MOULD - 16

5. ELEVATION OF PAPER MACHINE 19

6. FRONT VIEW OF PAPER MACHINE 22

7. END OF WOVE DANDY ROLL 24

8. END OF LAID DANDY ROLL 24

9. END OF SPIRAL LAID DANDY ROLL - 24

10. SINGLE CYLINDER PAPER MACHINE - 26

11. WEB GLAZING CALENDER - 31

12. BALL FRAME FOR HANGING PAPER - 69

13. "SWIFT" PAPER CURING MACHINE - 70

14. PAPER SCALE - 97

15. MARSHALL'S PAPER-TESTING MACHINE 98

1 6. LEUNIG PAPER-TESTING MACHINE 99
17 to 21. PAPERMAKING FIBRES: RAG, HEMP, MANILLA,

JUTE - facing 109

22 to 26. PAPERMAKING FIBRES : STRAW, ESPARTO,
BAMBOO, CHEMICAL WOOD, MECHANICAL
WOOD - - - - facing \\Q



PAPER AND ITS USES



CHAPTER I
RAW MATERIALS

PAPERMAKING is an industry which is in many ways
handmaiden to other industries. In the case of letter-
press, lithographic, and plate printing it furnishes the
supporting medium, without which the dissemination of
knowledge would be more difficult. Long ago the
printer appreciated the fact that the invention of the
art of typography enlarged the sum of the world's
knowledge, but perhaps he has not always been ready
to give the papermaker a fair share of the credit. It
must be conceded that while many things will serve as
printing surfaces, the question of cost decides against
their general use, and that paper is the principal
material employed for written and printed books. It
is with these uses that this work deals, while some
others are touched upon.

The history of papermaking takes us back beyond
the Christian era the Chinese being credited with
the production of paper from vegetable fibres about 80
to 150 B.C. The ancient Egyptians made paper from
the stems of the tall reed which we know as the
papyrus. By skilfully flattening out layers of the
stems, forming them into sheets, and preparing the



2 PAPER AND ITS USES

surface for writing, the Egyptians provided themselves
with excellent paper.

European papermaking dates from the eleventh
century, and English papermaking from the fifteenth
century. The colophon to Wynkyn de Worde's " De
Proprietatibus Rerum " mentions the paper mill of
John Tate at Stevenage in Bedfordshire. Early
English papers were made from rag fibres, and rag
papers still hold the premier place.

Cellulose is the substance of which the permanent
cell membranes of plants are composed, and it forms the
bulk of the tissues of wood and similar plant structures.
In most cases the presence of colouring matter and
various waxy and resinous substances taken up by the
growing plant render the cellulose very impure, and it
is desirable that, as far as possible, all impurities should
be removed before the fibres are made into paper.
Cotton is the purest form of cellulose found in nature,
9 1 per cent, of the natural cotton fibre being pure cellu-
lose, while esparto yields only about 50 per cent, of its
weight as cellulose. Notwithstanding the many dif-
ferent varieties of plants, the chemical composition of
the fibres is practically identical. One of the principal
characteristics of cellulose is its extreme permanence,
which is principally due to the fact that it forms but
few chemical combinations with other substances.

Vegetable fibres of all kinds may be converted into
paper, but no new fibre threatens those now employed,
unless it can be obtained in large quantities, responds
readily to the usual bleaching reagents, and can be
delivered to the papermaker at a price which enables it
to compete successfully with the fibres at present in use
at the paper mill. In some cases the plant fibres are
reduced to pulp near the place of growth, in others
the raw material is transported in its entirety. Other



RAW MATERIALS 3

sources of supply are the wastes of other industries,
and wastes which have no other uses.

The classification may take place as follows : (a)
waste rags, sails, sacking, ropes, textile wastes, waste
paper ; (&) plant stems and wood straw, esparto, bam-
boo, papyrus, hedychium ; (c] pulps or half-stuffs
straw, esparto, delta cellulose (or reed pulp), bamboo,
chemical wood, mechanical wood.

Rags are the cast-off fabrics of the civilised world.
Having served their purpose in administering to the
comfort of mankind, they are sorted, graded, and
offered in the market for papermakers. For the
manufacture of paper for bank-notes new linen cut-
tings are used, but this is an exceptional material for a
special purpose. Sail cloth, bagging, sacking and
ropes, made from hemp, jute, manilla hemp, having
reached the waste market, are regenerated in the
mill as paper. Waste paper of all kinds is sorted
and re-made into paper or boards.

Esparto is the principal material that finds its way
to the papermaker in its original state. It is a wiry
grass, growing extensively in Spain and Africa, and is
harvested and packed in bales for export. Straw
is generally imported as half-stuff. Bamboo, papyrus,
and hedychium are being used in quite a small way in
this country, but may be extensively used in the future.

Straw, esparto, reed pulp, and bamboo are obtainable
as half-stuff or pulp, that is, they are already divested
of the portions of the plant which are non-fibrous, and
therefore useless to the papermaker. Wood pulp is
the chief material converted into paper, and may be
prepared as chemical or mechanical. Chemical wood
pulp is prepared, after removing the bark from the
felled trees, and cutting the logs into chips, by boiling
with caustic soda solution (soda pulp), with a mixture



4 PAPER AND ITS USES

of caustic soda and sulphate of soda (sulphate pulp),
or with bi-sulphite of lime (sulphite pulp). Mechanical
wood pulp is obtained by cutting the logs into short
lengths, removing the bark, and grinding to pulp on a
large grindstone, the surface of which is freely supplied
with water. The water renders the reduction to pulp
an easier matter, and also serves to carry the pulp
forward for subsequent treatment.

In speaking of paper it is usual to refer to the
material from which it is made, e.g., rag, rope, esparto,
manilla or wood papers. It does not always follow
that the papers are composed entirely of those fibres,
but the prefix of " pure " or " all " will generally indicate
the genuine articles. Paper which is free from mechani-
cal wood pulp is sometimes referred to as " free."

The strongest and best papers are made from
cotton or linen rag fibres. Linen is made from the
fibres of the flax. In the raw state the fibres are
from i inch to I J inches in length, and less than yuW of
an inch in diameter. Examined microscopically the
fibres appear to be smooth, cylindrical, with markings like
the joints of a cane, slight cross markings, and a very
fine channel running through the fibres. Papers made
from linen are close, strong, and durable. Cotton is
the seed-hair of the cotton plant, having a length of i^
to I \ inches with the diameter about the same as that
of linen fibres. Cotton is tubular, has a large channel,
and on drying the tube collapses and twists upon itself,
as many as 300 twists in the length of a single fibre
having been observed. This twisting assists in keep-
ing the spun cotton together, and also makes the felting
of the subsequent paper more efficient. Papers made
from cotton are softer than those made from linen,
and the tenderest rags, such as worn muslins, are em-
ployed for blotting papers. Hemp is obtained from



RAW MATERIALS 5

the stem of the hemp plant, and the papermaker
receives it in the form of old ropes and string. The
dimensions and properties of the fibre are similar to
those of the fibre of linen. Jute is the inner bark of
an Indian plant, producing fibres T<J of an inch in length
by roW of an inch in diameter. The fibre is smooth,
difficult to bleach, but the resulting paper is strong and
tough. The fibre of the manilla hemp is not as long
as the ordinary hemp, being about J- of an inch by TWO
of an inch, cannot be bleached to a good white, so a
white manilla paper is considerably lower in colour
than other white papers. Manilla paper is, however,
very tough and strong, and though a large quantity of
" manilla " paper is made entirely of wood pulp, there
is a great difference between the real and the imitation.

The fibres from straw are small, only about TF of an
inch by O-TT'OTT of an inch, and consequently straw papers
are much weaker than those made from longer and
broader fibres, but, as an admixture, straw still finds a
place in writing papers, giving translucency and rattle.
Esparto fibres are also very short and fine, about
TO to yV of an inch by ^Vcr of an inch, making a light
bulky paper when used by itself, and blended with other
materials with rags for good writings, and with chemi-
cal wood for fine printings and litho. papers to impart
special characteristics, such as opacity and softness, which
may be lacking in the other fibres. The well-known
featherweight papers, used for bulky volumes of fiction,
are frequently manufactured from esparto fibre alone.

The fibres of the various wood pulps vary con-
siderably in length, breadth, and thickness, being from
irV of an inch to J of an inch long, and generally very
thin. Fibres of various shapes are met with in wood
pulps, some not unlike linen fibres, but many others
so distinct as to be unlike all those that have been



^ PAPER AND ITS USES

already described. Broad, ribbon-like fibres, some
pitted, and others perforated, all are very thin, lying
closely together, so that a paper made entirely from
sulphite wood pulp is rather harsh and fairly trans-
parent. Papers produced from soda pulp are softer
and more opaque than those made from sulphite pulp.
Mechanical wood pulp is made up of little pieces
of wood with all the resins and other impurities
of the original wood, and when examined carefully,
the fragments of wood can be seen, and the splinters
appear to be held together by the plant cells.
Mechanical wood pulp possesses very little felting
quality, and requires the addition of larger fibres, such
as chemical wood, in order to make paper successfully.

From the foregoing list and descriptions it can be
seen that papermakers have a variety of fibres at their
command, and it is by selecting, sometimes by blend-
ing, fibres of different characteristics, that the manu-
facture of the large variety of papers is possible.
Some of the demands made by the world of paper
users are for papers which are very strong or very
soft, absorbent, resistant to grease or water, very light,
very dense, and the selection of the fibres and their
treatment call for special knowledge and skill on the
part of the papermaker.

In addition to fibre, most papers contain sizing,
sometimes loading or filling. Sizing may be animal
or vegetable, the animal size being gelatine or glue
obtained from various animal substances, and the
vegetable size being made of a combination of resin
with soda. Alum is used to assist in fixing the size
in the paper. Mineral matters are employed for filling
or loading ; china clay is the principal, others being
barium sulphate (barytes, blanc fixe), calcium sulphate
(gypsum, terra alba, annaline, pearl hardening, crown



RAW MATERIALS 7

filler), satin white, magnesium silicate (asbestine, talc,
agalite). Colouring matters are required for the
majority of papers. For white papers small quantities
of blue and red colours are used, while for coloured
papers aniline dyes are employed in a large variety,
as well as the various pigments.



CHAPTER II
REDUCTION TO PULP

WHATEVER material may be used for making into
paper it has to undergo stages of preparation which
can be divided into removing all foreign matter and
dirt, reduction to fibrous state, bleaching, beating, and
lastly converting what is the pulp into paper. If the
material has already been manufactured, as in the case
of rags, ropes, sails, sacking, and other textiles, the first
process is somewhat simpler than in the case of really
raw materials, such as esparto, bamboo, or wood. But
here again the first and second operations may have
been carried out before the papermaker handles the
material, for wood, esparto, and bamboo are imported
as pulp boards. In the case of esparto the quantity
so imported is very small, but the quantity of wood
pulp is enormous. It will be advisable to take the
materials in order, so that the difference as well as the
similarity of treatment may be traced.

Rags are purchased already graded. There are
some twenty to thirty grades of rags regularly quoted
in the market reports, and the layman might fancy that
the papermaker could unpack the bales and proceed to
make paper from these graded rags. Unfortunately
he finds a large quantity of undesirable material, such
as silk, wool, buttons, elastic, and dirt, that must be
removed. First the rags are sorted, and cut into
pieces of uniform size, the undesirable parts mentioned



REDUCTION TO PULP 9

being put aside as useless, and the seams cut open or
thrown out. Standing at a bench, the top of which is
wire netting, the sorter takes rags from a pile, and cuts
them on a scythe-like knife which stands out obliquely
from the bench. A large amount of dust escapes
through the netting, and the rags are sorted into bins
as more suitable for one class of paper than another.
The rags are next taken to the willow or dusting
machine, where they are subjected to violent treatment,
the teeth of the machine carrying the rags against other
teeth, giving them a thorough shaking and loosening
the dust, which falls away. As they are cleaned, the
rags are taken to the top of the building by a travel-
ling band and dropped into the mouth of a boiler
prepared to receive them. For rags a special spherical
rotary boiler is employed, and when a charge has been
filled in, a definite quantity of a solution of caustic
soda in water is added. The lid is securely fastened,
steam is passed in, and the boiler is kept rotating slowly
for about eight hours. When the dirt in the rags has
been thoroughly loosened the rotation is stopped, steam
is shut off, the dirty water is run off, clean water is
run in. The boiler is again revolved, the rags rinsed,
and then the lid is removed and the boiler emptied by
continuing the revolution.

Next comes the washing and breaking, both of
which may be carried out in the beating engine. The
beating engine, of the Hollander type, consists of a
large vessel with rounded ends, with a central division
running down the length of the engine. Two cylinders
revolve : one, a very heavy cylinder known as the beat-
ing roll, reaches to the bottom of the engine and bears
a number of knives on its surface, which knives, in
conjunction with a bedplate also bearing knives, break
the rags into smaller fragments and open the threads,



10 - PAPER AND ITS USES

loosening the fibres, and allowing dirt to come away.
The second and smaller cylinder is' employed as a
washing drum. It is covered with wire gauze, through
which the water passes, and as the drum revolves the
dirty water passes into the interior, where a number of
bucket compartments carry the water and pass it
through the axis of the drum to the waste pipe.
When the rags are filled into the beating engine clean
water is run in, the beating roll is kept out of contact




FIG. i. Beating Engine, with covers partially removed to show
interiors of Beating Roll and Washing Drum.

with the bottom knives, and the rags are kept in
circulation. The washing cylinder is in action, and
the roll being gradually lowered the dirt is eliminated.
When this stage is reached the washing drum is lifted,
the beating roll lowered, and the rags are gradually
reduced in size until they attain a state of fibrous pulp,
being known technically as " half-stuff." In most
instances the next process is bleaching. There are
special drawing papers, of which " O.W." and " Un-
bleached Arnold " are examples, which are the colour of
the original rags, no bleaching having taken place. But



REDUCTION TO PULP II

usually a weak solution of bleaching powder (chloride
of lime) is let into the engine and thoroughly mixed
with the pulp. When the bleach is thoroughly
incorporated the half-stuff is let down into large
tanks, made of stoneware or cement, having perforated
bottoms, and there the bleach completes its 'task, and
the pulp is allowed to drain.

Next comes the beating, at which stage the blend-
ing of different fibres may take place. The object of
beating is to reduce the bleached pulp to fibres, and to
reduce the length of the fibre in accordance with the
requirements of the paper to be made. The rags are
chosen according to the class of paper desired softer
rags for soft papers, and, of course, stronger rags for strong
papers. For blottings, filter papers, and lithographic
papers, soft rags, sharp beater knives, quick beating are
adopted. For dense, hard papers, such as ledger, type-
writing, bank, imitation parchment papers, duller knives,
slow beating, with a gradual lowering of the beater roll
is the order. The normal time for beating the pulp for
an ordinary rag paper may be taken as eight hours.

To take the next material, esparto, and to follow it
in the same way. Esparto arrives in bales, fastened
either with ropes of esparto or with iron bands. Esparto
travels through the mill in the same way as rags, that
is, from the ground floor, where it is unpacked and
dusted, upwards by means of a series of claws, along
a travelling band where pickers remove foreign sub-
stances. In its travel broken fibres and dirt escape, and
the grass arrives at the mouth of an upright cylindrical
boiler, stationary, and so arranged that the boiling
liquor is vomited over the mass of esparto. The boiler
is filled, and a fairly strong solution of caustic soda is
run in, the manhole is fastened down, and steam under
pressure introduced. After several hours boiling the



12



PAPER AND ITS USES



siliceous and waxy substances taken up by the growing
plant are dissolved, the dirty water is run out, small
quantities of clean water let in to wash out as much
soda as possible. Most of the soda is recovered, but
that process, though of great importance to the paper-
maker, need not be treated here. The washed esparto
is conveyed to the breaking engine for treatment similar




FIG. 2. Edge Runner or Kollergang.

to that given to rags, being washed, broken, and bleached.
In many mills the half-stuff is carried over strainers,
and by the use of the presse-pate machine (a paper-
making machine with only a " wet end ") made into
sheets. The half-stuff in sheets is filled into trucks
and stored or taken direct to the beaters. Owing to
the small dimensions of esparto the reduction to the
fibrous state is easily accomplished, and very little
beating is necessary.



REDUCTION TO PULP 13


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Online LibraryEdward A DawePaper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others → online text (page 1 of 12)