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a travelling felt, carried forward to the front of the
machine, and knocked up by boys or girls. An
automatic " layer " replaces the boys in some mills,
keeping the piles knocked up. To prevent waste in



FINISHING 33

cutting out blanks, envelope papers are cut at an
angle, this being accomplished by swinging the frame
carrying the revolving knife to the desired angle, and
the papers are delivered in sheets ready for the
envelope maker.

From the cutting machines the paper is taken to
the " salle " the sorting and packing room of the
paper mill. A number of girls rapidly examine every
sheet of paper, withdrawing those sheets which fall
below the papermaker's standard of perfection, sorting
into retree and broke proceeding as in the case of
hand-made papers. Counting, cutting, and packing
take place very quickly after the paper is sorted. The
nimble fingers of the counters turn up the edge of a
quantity of paper, the fingers of the other hand run
down the edges quickly, counting into reams with
extraordinary accuracy. Some papers are trimmed
before packing, while others are cut from double to
single sheets. Wrappers are carefully folded round
the paper, and fastening is done by means of string,
tape, or paper tape according to the size and weight of
the reams.

As will be seen from " Paper Trade Customs," on
page 135, the number of sheets to the ream is a vary-
ing quantity. A ream may consist of 472, 480, 500,
504 or 516 sheets.

In hand-made papers a mill ream consists of two
qualities of the same paper, whether the paper is bought
as good or retree. If the paper is good it will consist
of 1 8 quires of insides or best paper, each quire
containing 24 sheets, and two quires of outsides or
slightly inferior paper, the quires containing 20 sheets
each. " Retree " paper is marked on the outside by
two crosses x x , and the mill ream will be 472 sheets,
whether the paper be good or retree. The price of



34 PAPER AND ITS USES

a ream of insides is usually 10 per cent, above the
price for a mill ream.

Machine-made paper is good, retree, and outsides,
the prices being 10 and 20 per cent, less for the second
and third qualities respectively. Paper is usually
supplied in inside reams of 480 sheets, that is, all good
paper, but the papermaker may supply mill reams of
480 sheets, but with a quire of outsides at the top and
bottom. The ream of 480 sheets is also known as
the stationer's ream writing, drawing, cartridge, and
fancy papers being packed in that quantity. Paper
classed as news is packed in 500*5, envelope papers in
5<D4's, and many printing papers in perfect or printer's
reams of 5 1 6 sheets.

The variety of reams suggests that it might be well
to move for a standard ream of 500 sheets. The
present system makes for confusion in giving out
paper, keeping stock, estimating and pricing out, and a
simplification should be welcomed.



CHAPTER VI
MANUFACTURE OF BOARDS

THE manufacture of boards is varied, ranging from
Bristol boards to millboards, and including ivory
boards, pasteboards, triplex boards, strawboards^ and
pulp boards.

For pulp boards the description of papermaking
will serve in its entirety, as the boards are made on the
Fourdrinier, being engine-sized, reeled at the end of the
machine, well rolled later, cut into sheets, sometimes
plate-glazed after this, and then sorted and packed.
There is one point of variation only, and that is
in speed. As there is much more "stuff" let down to
the wire, a greater thickness of material for the water
to drain from demands more time, and so the output
is relatively slower than when paper is being made.

For ivory boards, two or more sheets of fine paper
made on a Fourdrinier, or else on a cylinder machine,
are brought together at the couch rolls, and the sheets
are pressed and rolled together without the use of
paste.

Cylinder machines are invariably used for duplex,
triplex, and boards of several layers other than paste
boards and those already described. Instead of a
travelling wire, a wire-covered cylinder is the means of
forming the film of pulp. The cylinder revolves in a
vat of pulp, takes up a thin layer of the fibre, and,
pressing against a travelling felt, leaves its film of

35



36 PAPER AND ITS USES

paper, and as there are several cylinders, each in its
own vat, producing paper in the same way, the several
webs are brought together, rolled, dried, and reeled.
In the case of a duplex board the pulp may be the
same colour, or of two different shades. In triplex
boards, the outsides are frequently thin and different
in colour, compared with the middle sheet. Cylinder
machines with as many as seven vats are in use, and
forty to fifty drying cylinders are necessary to complete
the extraction of the water.

Pasteboards are made up from middles and past-
ings. These are obtained from mills making special-
ities of these lines, the middles very often consisting
of a moderately thick paper of poor quality, but the
outsides are of fairly fine paper. The papers are not
glazed, but after pasting together the web is thoroughly
rolled and the surface obtained by subsequent calender-
ing. Bristol boards are made from the finest materials,
all-rag, tub-sized papers, the same paper throughout
pasted, pressed and surfaced by hot-pressing. Other
boards supplied under this title are made of good
drawing paper for outsides, and cartridge for middles.
The best boards are made by hand, and take con-
siderable time and care in manufacture.

Millboards, the thicker kinds of box boards, slate
boards, leather boards, portmanteau boards, and carriage
panels are made on a special board machine. For
leather boards a large percentage of pulped leather is
sometimes employed. For the other kinds a large variety
of materials finds its way to the machine, but it is waste
in the form of flax, ropes, coarse rags for the best
qualities, and for the lower grades waste papers of all
kinds. The stronger materials are boiled and beaten,
bleaching being unnecessary. Waste papers are simply
steamed and pulped. All materials are strained, diluted



MANUFACTURE OF BOARDS 37

with water, and forwarded to the vat or stuff-chest of
the machine. The board machine is comparatively
short, consisting of a cylinder which lifts the film of
pulp, delivers it to the endless felt, and a cylinder at
the other end of the machine receives the web, which
continues to roll round until the desired thickness is
attained, when the wet board is dexterously slit by the
attendant and taken off to the pile. Here the boards
are alternated with sheets of felt or canvas, and the
water is pressed out. The boards are hung up singly
to dry in a heated chamber, and are afterwards damped
slightly, rolled heavily, and cut to size.



CHAPTER VII
WRITING PAPERS

A LARGE variety of papers falls under the heading of
writing papers : account book, bank, bond, cheque,
ledger, loan, and typewriter papers being placed in this
category. The printer uses writing papers of all kinds,
some as superior printings, and others he prepares as
stationery, or prints some part of a document upon
them for subsequent filling in or completion.

Writing papers must be smooth and hard-sized to
fulfil their purpose of bearing writing ink, and other
qualities will depend upon the use for which they are
^destined. The fibres used include rag, chemical wood,
(^esparto, and in the poorest qualities, which but few
printers or stationers will stock, mechanical wood.
Writing papers of the highest class are all -rag, tub-
sized, air-dried, and plate-glazed. Every variety of
writing paper may be wove or laid without alteration
in quality ; in fact, most mills make woves and laids
from the same stuff, merely changing the wove dandy
roll to one which makes the laid marks on the paper.
This first class of paper is used for the best stationery,
for printed and written documents of the highest
importance which are required to stand a good deal of
handling, and for ledgers and similar books subject to
hard wear. Bank-notes are printed on hand -made
paper, while the papers for stamps, cheques, postal
orders, and money orders are usually machine-made.

38



WRITING PAPERS 39

Bank-notes, loans and banks demand the use of the
strongest rags, such as linen, duck, and sail-cloth.
The fibres are drawn out rather than cut up, the result-
ing paper being hard and resistant to wear. Bank-
notes are cream wove ; banks, cream wove or blue
wove ; loans are cream wove. Being hand-made the
sizing, drying, and finishing are carried out as described
in Chapter V.

Ledger or account book papers may be hand- or
machine-made, and are usually azure or blue laid. If
machine-made, the characteristics of the hand-made
papers are as far as possible retained : strength, hard
tub-sized surface, opacity, moderate finish, both sides
alike in surface. To attain these qualities the same
materials are employed, an all-rag furnish with a fair
proportion of strong linen, prolonged beating to draw
out the fibres, a shake to ensure good felting, slow
drying to allow gradual contraction, tub-sizing, air-
drying over skeleton drums will attain the desired end.
The finish of ledger or account book papers is not
quite so high as that for loan papers, but it must be
equal for both sides of the sheet, in order that writing
may be done easily on all pages of the books. The
sizing must be thorough, or the ink will sink through
the paper, and if erasures are made, the abraded surface
will not take ink without spreading.

Machine-made bond or loan papers are not always
all-rag papers, and are not essentially tub-sized, but
the best of the class will be all-rag, tub-sized papers.
One paper mill carries an enormous stock of high
class engine-sized bond and bank papers in eighteen
colours, and each of these in six substances. Bank
papers are thinner than bonds, the usual substances
being foolscap 7 lb., large post I I lb., medium 1 3 Ib.
Here again the best papers are all -rag, tub -sized,



40 PAPER AND ITS USES

and while a very good chemical wood, tub - sized,
super-calendered bank paper is obtainable, papers of
the best quality, such as " 3009 Extra Strong," always
command a high price, being extremely strong and
durable. Typewriting papers are similar to bank
papers, but usually have a matt finish to prevent the
smearing that may always take place on a highly
polished paper, as the typewritten characters are not
indented into the paper, but the colour is on the
surface. Watermarked typewriting papers are well
known, and the prices vary according to the substance
and fibrous constituents of the papers, thin papers (8 Ib.
large post) costing nearly twice the price per pound for
which 1 6 Ib. large post can be purchased.

Cheque papers are strong, even in texture, and
present a good surface for printing. There is a fair
range of papers to choose from for cheque printing,
without taking into consideration safety cheque papers.

As the same pulp may be wove or laid, so may
the colour be varied without changing the quality.
Cream wove, blue wove, yellow wove, cream laid,
azure laid, blue laid, or tinted papers may be made
from the same stuff, the colouring matter added giving
the necessary difference in tint, the description of
the paper varying accordingly. There are, of course,
certain cases where one or other is preferred, but the
quality is neither indicated by the colour of the paper
nor by the pattern of the dandy roll employed. The
surface may be rough (antique), moderately smooth
(machine finish, vellum, ivory), or highly glazed (super-
calendered or plate-glazed), each being attained by the
different treatment in finishing the paper. Papers made
entirely of rag will always be tub-sized, air-dried, and
frequently plate-glazed, but papers which are only partly
rag, and even chemical wood papers, are sometimes tub-



WRITING PAPERS 41

sized, but as a rule papers which contain no rag fibre
are sized in the pulp, that is, engine-sized. The large
variety of high-class engine-sized papers now obtainable
is at once creditable to the enterprise of the manu-
facturers, and a sign that papers of this description
fulfil the requirements of a large body of consumers.

A good deal of writing paper is used for printing,
from which it might be inferred that there is a close
resemblance between printings and engine-sized writings.
The sizing of writings is harder than that of printings,
and the materials used are manipulated to give a firmer
handle to the paper, but there is no reason why all
writing papers should not be used as -printings in
work of the character of booklets, magazines without
illustrations, and a large part of the jobbing work which
keeps to leaflet and pamphlet sizes. The nature of
writing papers makes them less absorbent than print-
ings, so that the ink does not sink into the paper
quickly. This is desirable in the case of writing, but
not in the case of printing, where a fair absorbency aids
the rapid drying of printed work.

Drawing papers are made in various qualities. The
best kinds for water-colour drawings are made from
strong rags, chiefly linen, only boiled to remove dirt
and other impurities, and reduced to pulp without
the use of bleach or other chemicals. Hand-made
papers are the best, being tub-sized, air-dried, and
the surfaces rough, " not " (matt), or hot pressed
obtained by pressure, not by rolling. A few high-class
mills are responsible for machine-made drawings similar
in furnish and finish to those made by hand. Engine-
sized drawing papers are more like cartridge papers,
but some of the cheaper varieties resemble thick toned
printings. Cartridge papers are made from long-fibred
stuff which is only partly bleached. Some cartridges



42 . PAPER AND ITS USES

are tub-sized, and the papers serve as substitutes for
drawing papers. Being very strong they make excel-
lent cover papers for books and lists of various kinds.
Crayon papers are coloured or tinted drawing papers
used for crayon and water-colour work.



CHAPTER VIII
PRINTING PAPERS

THERE is considerable variety in printing papers, as
regards fibre, sizing, and surface. As generally under-
stood, printings are papers of good colour, not too
hard-sized, of good surface, even in texture, fairly
opaque, showing a clear look-through, free from specks
and spots. The fibrous composition will depend largely
upon the price. An all-rag paper is a splendid white
paper, soft to print upon, pleasant to handle, very
durable, and a type of moderate colour printed with a
good black ink gives a very rich appearance on such
paper. Hand-made, Dutch hand-made, mould-made,
and machine-made rag papers are the papers for very
special editions. Special moulds or dandy rolls are
sometimes made for these papers to secure a distinctive
appearance.

High-grade printing papers are produced from a
mixture of rag and esparto fibres, a soft paper, taking
a good finish, being produced. A blend of chemical
wood and esparto, skilfully manufactured, produces a
very good printing paper for all ordinary purposes, and
papers composed entirely of chemical wood may be
good or indifferent according to the treatment and skill
devoted to their production. Sulphite papers tend to
be harsh and transparent, but a mixture of soda -pulp
partly counteracts these faults, and even if it is not quite
as soft as an esparto mixture, excellent results in print-

43



44 PAPER AND ITS USES

ing can be obtained if the fibres have been carefully
beaten and blended. Papers containing mechanical
wood are classed as common printings, and are suit-
able only for common work. A small proportion of
mechanical wood may not be noticeable in the finished
paper, but when a large proportion is used, greyness of
colour and poorness of appearance are sure indications
of the low quality of the material. Hand- and mould-
made papers have no mineral filling in their composition.
For machine-made papers the addition of a small
proportion enables them to take a very good finish.
The amount of china clay present in the finished paper
should not exceed 10 per cent, of the total weight.

Hand-made and mould-made printings are tub-
sized and plate-rolled, without giving a high glaze to
the paper. Machine-made printings are engine-sized,
hard or soft according to the use to which the paper is
to be put, and sometimes the surface will govern the
sizing, some papers being hard-sized and super-
calendered, others soft-sized and with only machine
finish. As a matter of fact, super-calendered printings
are used largely for illustrated work, and with half-tone
blocks the ink must dry thoroughly and fairly quickly,
so the paper is not hard-sized. All thin printings
require to be well sized to prevent the ink sinking right
through the paper, and most papers with machine finish,
excepting the commoner news, are usually well sized,
and coloured printings, too, incline to hard-sizing.

The best Bible papers are made of rag fibres with
a fair amount of loading, and some starch to ensure
opacity and good printing qualities. The Oxford India
paper is still manufactured under special conditions
which are kept secret, but there are many imitations
which serve excellently for the purpose of thin paper
editions. The graphic demonstration of the difference



PRINTING PAPERS 45

between the thickness of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica "
printed upon India paper and ordinary printing paper
will be fresh in the minds of most readers.

Toned papers are made of the same materials as
white paper, the creamy colour being obtained by the
addition of a small amount of colouring matter to the
pulp.

Featherweight papers are made entirely of esparto,
very little sizing is added, no loading is used, the paper
is treated so that the wire and felt marks are not easily
visible, and the drying and finishing are carried out so
as to retain the bulkiness of paper. It must always be
remembered that all papers made under such conditions
are not durable, and therefore should never be used for
work which must withstand any considerable handling.

Coloured and tinted papers are made of the same
materials as white printings, but usually the fibres will
be chemical wood and esparto, all chemical, or a
mixture of chemical and mechanical wood pulps. The
variety of tints in which papers can be obtained is very
extensive, and this is impressed upon one when trying
to match up some particular shade, when it appears as
though makers have many substitutes for the desired
colour. The colours of papers should be fairly fast to
light, and with the large variety obtainable by the use
of the pigments and dyes now on the market, paper-
makers manage to offer a long range of fast colours.
Although it may not always be so, fastness usually
follows the price of the paper, the cheapest being the
most liable to fade quickly. Delicate tints are more
expensive because of the necessity of a better quality
of paper to take the colours evenly and cleanly.
Coloured printing papers should be fairly well sized,
well finished, and free from spots and specks.

In addition to possessing the good qualities of



46 PAPER AND ITS USES

printings, lithographic papers must be firm and free
from permanent stretch. In letterpress printing, only a
portion of the paper is pressed by the printing surface,
but in lithography the whole of the paper is brought
into contact with the stone or other surface. If the
printing surface is full or solid, as in the case of printing
a ground tint, the pull on the surface of the paper is
heavy, and unless the paper is well made the surface
will pluck or pull up in patches, or even all over the
sheet. The pressure exerts a stretching influence on
the paper, and the moisture from damping induces
expansion of the sheet. Lithographic papers require
special care in selection of material and manufacture, so
as to introduce and preserve all the necessary qualities
of easy printing, perfect register, and quick drying.

Esparto fibre is short and soft, prints easily, and
experience has proved that esparto papers stretch
less than most other papers, and therefore litho papers
usually contain a large proportion of this useful material.
An all-rag litho. paper is the first quality ; then rag and
esparto, all esparto, chemical wood and esparto, mark
the various grades of paper for lithographic printing.
While the papers should not be hard-sized, they should
not err on the other side, or absorption of moisture
may cause trouble when registering. Soft materials,
beaten quickly, dried gradually, not drawn too fast by
the drying cylinders, are necessary to produce a
satisfactory paper. The surface must be perfectly
smooth, and this is obtained by super-calendering or
plate-glazing, both of which tend to reduce the liability
of the papers to stretch. The latter method is the
better but more expensive method of producing the
desired surface, and by turning the piles of paper and
rolling in each direction of the sheet, subsequent stretch
in working is reduced to a minimum.



PRINTING PAPERS 47

Plate papers are fine papers, soft-sized, lightly
rolled, usually having one side only with a smooth
finish. Thick plate papers are made by rolling two
or more webs of wet paper together, and finishing as
usual. The softness of the paper enables it to take all
the ink from the finest lines of the steel or copper
plates printed upon the surface.

Poster paper for lithographic or letterpress printing
is made with a rough back to enable pasting to hoard-
ings to take place more easily. These papers are
made on the single cylinder machine, and, having only
one side glazed the printing side are known as
M.G. poster papers.

Imitation art papers are distinctly between super-
calendered printings and art papers in printing quality,
but they lack strength, owing to the method of their
manufacture. Art paper has a mineral coating, while
imitation art has a large percentage (about 2 5 per cent.)
of china clay mixed with the pulp. China clay, having
no cohesion, does not assist in felting the paper in any
way, but tends to weaken its resistance to wear. That
weakness or tenderness is one feature of imitation art
papers. After leaving the paper machine the paper
is super-calendered, receiving a water finish, that is, the
paper is just wetted on the surface immediately before
entering the rolls of the calender. The loading is thus
brought to the surface, and a -very smooth level sheet is
produced, only a little inferior, as a printing surface, to
art paper. Being opaque, suitable for half-tone printing,
and of good appearance, imitation art is used largely for
illustrated magazine work, and serves the purpose well,
but it should be remembered that the large proportion
of mineral matter renders the paper liable to disintegra-
tion from frequent handling.



CHAPTER IX
COATED PAPERS AND BOARDS

COATED papers comprise those to which, after manu-
facture as paper, a mineral coating, white or coloured,
is applied, in order to produce a smooth unbroken
surface for the reception of fine printed work. Art,
chromo, enamel, and surface-coloured papers are all
coated after the body paper is made.

Art papers may be made of rag, esparto, chemical
wood, or chemical and mechanical wood, or a mixture
of any of the fibres. The body paper is carefully
made, its ultimate state being kept in mind, and it
is fairly well sized, but without a high glaze. The
surface is kept so that the coating will cover properly
and the adhesive be fully effective in holding the
mineral. The operations comprise coating, drying,
and finishing. The coating is carried out on a com-
pact machine. A mixture of china clay, glue, and
water is supplied at a constant level to the feed trough
of the machine, from which it is transferred to paper
by means of a roller and felt ; oscillating and stationary
brushes rub the coating into the paper, filling up all
inequalities and leaving a smooth film on the surface.
The purpose of the coating is to give a perfectly smooth
surface, obliterating entirely the marks of the machine
wire and felts, and to do this effectively the consistency
of the mixture is regulated so that it may enter the
minute depressions and deposit sufficient matter to take

4 8



COATED PAPERS AND BOARDS 4$

a good finish. An ingenious overhead railway carries
the web forward in a series of loops supported on a
series of rods, hot air driven forward by mechanical
fans effecting the drying. If the paper is two-sided
art, it is reeled and the operations repeated on the other


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