Edward A. (Edward Ashdown) Bunyard.

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JBRARY AGRIU. L



A HANDBOOK OF HARDY FRUITS

MORE COMMONLY GROWN

IN GREAT BRITAIN



FURTHER VOLUMES
IN PREPARATION

STONE FRUITS

Cherries, Plums, Peaches and
Nectarines

BUSH FRUITS

Currants, Raspberries, Nuts, &c.



A HANDBOOK OF

HARDY FRUITS

MORE COMMONLY GROWN IN
GREAT BRITAIN

APPLES AND PEARS



BY

EDWARD A. BUNYARD, F.L.S.



LONDON

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET
1920



35?



i^y We. ow"



PREFACE.

THE present work is designed to fill the place formerly
occupied by Dr. Hogg's Fruit Manual which has now
been out of print for some time, and as it is more than
thirty years since the last edition appeared, there
are a large number of fruits which have not yet been
described save in the weekly gardening Journals.
In preparing the present handbook, the author has
endeavoured to provide information in a popular form
without any loss of accuracy, and the references given
to the coloured plates in the standard Pomologies
will facilitate a study of the fuller descriptions in these
works.

The present volume will shortly be followed by a similar
one on Stone Fruits, Peaches, Nectarines, Plums and
Cherries, and completed by one containing the smaller
fruits, Gooseberries, Raspberries, Currants, Nuts, etc.
It was thought well to publish the Apples and Pears
at once rather than wait another year or eighteen months
before presenting the complete volume.

There are, of course, a large number of varieties
not included in the work, but the Author has thought
it unwise to include other than those which are more
generally cultivated. In Pears, for instance, the list
might easily have been quadrupled but without any
corresponding advantage to the general reader.

5

744192



The Author will be glad to receive from any readers
any historical facts respecting fruits and also any old
varieties which he has not included so that they may
appear in a second edition should such be needed.

He has to thank a large number of friends, too many
to mention individually, for their help in sending him
grafts of various kinds and in many other ways.

E. A. BUN YARD

Allington,

Maidstone.

September, 1920.



INTRODUCTION.

THE descriptions will be easily followed, but the follow-
ing points require explanation. Following the name
will be found a reference where possible to a coloured
plate of the variety described. Thus Adams Pear-
main is illustrated in the Herefordshire Pomona, Vol. I. t
plate 14, abbreviated as Her. Pom. I., 14, the volume
being given in Roman, and the number of the plate
in Arabic figures. For a complete list of the works
referred to, see below. Next follows the name in
French where it is different, abbreviation F., and in
German, abbreviation G. Next follow the synonyms
in brackets. The season, use and size of fruit is then
given, the latter being in inches, the breadth always
coming first, height second. A word of caution must
be given as to the very deceptive appearance of many
fruits. Thus Adams Pearmain is in appearance conical
but the measurements of height and breadth are
identical. It must also be noted that these dimensions
are only given from average specimens and are chiefly
of value in denoting the relation between height and
width.

The descriptions of fruits follow the accepted methods,
but those of leaves need some explanation. These
always refer to the spur leaf, not that of the shoot.

7



I have chosen this as on many older trees it is often
difficult to find a young shoot. After the size has been
given the pose is next considered. This is a very
valuable aid to recognition which has hardly received
the attention it demands. The leaf may be fiat or
the edges may be folded upwards (upfolded} giving
a V shape, it may be curved upwards as a spoon,
upcupped, or the reverse, downcupped, The edge of
the leaf may also be curved or undulating, or if much
so, twisted, thus an upfolded leaf may also have its
edges curved. The small teeth or serrations of the
leaf may be either serrate or with sharp angular teeth
like a saw, or they may be rounded without a point.
These are crenate. An intermediate type occurs which
is called curved serrate. In this the tooth is pointed,
but the edges are curved and not straight as the serrate
toothing.

This all refers to the pose taken by the leaf blade
and its edges. The leaf further be held on its petiole
in an erect position, held up, or if horizontally it is
outheld. If the petiole is weak, the whole leaf hangs
down it will be down-hanging or lax.

After the origin a general note is given of the value
of the fruit in my experience. It will, of course, often
be that a variety which is unsatisfactory with me
may do well on another soil.



TABLE OF THE
WORKS REFERRED TO.



ABBREVIATION :

Arbor. Beige. " Bulletin d' Arboriculture Beige/'

Bivort. " Album de Pomologie." A. Bivort,

4 Vols., 1847-51.

Decaisne. " Le Jardin Fruitier." J. Decaisne,

1858-75-

Deutsh. Obstb. " Deutsche Obstcabinet." L. E.
Langethal, 1855-8.

Fl. and Pom. " The Florist and Pomologist."
G. Mag. " Gardener's Magazine."

Garden. " The Garden " in publication.

Gard. Chron. " The Gardener's Chronicle " in

publication.

Her. Pom. " Herefordshire Pomona " by Hogg

and Bull, 2 Vols. London and
Hereford, 1876-1885.

///. Hort. " Illustration Horticole."

Jo urn. Pom. " The Journal of Pomology," a

periodical in publication .

Lanche. " Deutsche Pomolgie, ' 6 Vols.,

1882-3.



ABBREVIATION :
Lind. Pom. Brit.

Ned. Boom.
New York.
Rev. Hort.
Ronalds.
Svensk. Pom.
Trans. R.H.S.
Verger.



Pomologia Britannica." J. Lindley
3 Vols., 1828-30.

Nederlandsche Boomgard." Otto-
lander and others. 2 Vols., 1868.

The Apples of New York." S. A.
Beach, 2 Vols., 1905.

Revue Horticole." A periodical
in publication.

Pyrus Malus Brentfordiensis " by
Hugh Ronalds, London, 1831.

Svensk Pomona " by Olaf Eneroth,
1864-66.

The Transactions of the Royal
Horticultural Society, 1815-35."

Le Verger." Alphonse Mas., 8
Vols., 1865-74.



10



KEY TO APPLES DESCRIBED
IN THIS WORK.



IT is extremely difficult if not impossible to formulate;
a key or classification to apples. The differences of
colour, size, flavour, which result from varying external
conditions are perhaps greater in fruits than any other
garden plants.

I have, however, attempted to make a key to the
varieties described in the following pages in the hope
that it will be of some service to the pomological student.
Even a faulty classification is better than none and
this attempt must be regarded only as a ladder which
can be discarded when it has served its purpose. The
arrangement of the key is purposely made as simple
as possible and is based first on the external appearance
and secondly on season and form.

Each variety is placed as nearly as possible in the
middle of its season, thus a winter apple in season from
November to February will be found in December.
In shape the following rules have guided the grouping.
Flat apples are those which are wider than high, round
are those which are apparently equal in both dimen-
sions. Conical are those which are higher than wide
and which taper more or less to the eye ; oblong those
which are higher than broad but with an inclination
to flatness at eye and stem. Oval fruits are those
which taper equally to eye and stem, but are higher
than broad. Intermediate forms are placed as far as
possible in an intermediate position. In using the
key the greatest reliance must be placed upon season
next upon form.

Apples which are round and even in shape in
transverse section, such as Stirling Castle, are marked
with an asterisk.

II



There are certain apples of which the ground colour
turns quite white when fully ripe, e.g., Lord Grosvenor
in the Codlins and Emperor Alexander in the striped
group, these are marked with a dagger. Large fruits
are printed in the large type, and medium in medium,
and small in italics.

Other special marks will be found in the different
talks. Thus if a flat green apple is found, of which the
cross section is round, e.g., Ecklinville Seedling and the
r-eison is not known, it will only be necessary to glance
'down 'the column headed " Flat " and pick out those
marked with the asterisk. Similarly if the apple turns
white it will only be necessary to refer to those marked
with the dagger.

Table I. Lord Derby Group. This contains the green
skinned apples which are not striped and only rarely
flushed of which Lord Derb}^ may be considered a type.
In this come the Codlins and large cooking apples,
which are as a rule green when on the tree. They
are all such as would be classed as cooking apples.
There are, however, a tew which turn white on the tree
such as Lord Grosvenor, Domino, Venus Pippin. These
are marked with a dagger to show this typical character,
as described above.

Table II. Lanes Group. This contains those
smooth skinned apples which will also in most cases
be classed as " cookers " but which are distinctly
striped, the typical representative being Lanes Prince
Albert. A few here are a little sweet and are specially
designated by //.

Table III. Peasgood Group. This contains the
smooth skinned striped apples which are nearly all
of sufficient sweetness to be classed as dessert. In
cases where doubt might exist as to this quality, they
are also placed in Table II.

All these have the stripes distinctly marked and not
obscured by any extent of flush.

12



Table IV. Golden Noble Group. This contains
those apples which have a markedly golden skin, such
as Golden Noble and Golden Spire, and are occasionally
flushed, but not striped. A few of these turn white
when fully ripe and are so marked.

Table V. Baumann Group. This contains those
fruits which have a dark brown red flush covering
nearly the whole of the fruit and which are rarely
striped, or if so, the stripes are not prominent as in
Class III., but are largely obscured by the overlying
flush. This may be called the Baumann group.

In this group, flavour is not a special distinction,
but a few are notable for this and are so indicated.
They are distinguished from Class VI. by the absence
of Russet.

Table VI. Cox's Group. This contains the Reinettes
and includes a very large proportion of the best flavoured
fruits. The characteristic is a mixture of red and
russet as in Cox's Orange Pippin and Blenheim Orange,
coupled with a good or fairly good flavour. No acid
cooking varieties will be found in this group.

Table VII. Russet Group. This contains the russet
varieties which have no red flush or striping. The
Russet may be golden as in Egremont Russet, gray
as in White Nonpareil, or dark brown as in Golden
Knob.



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APPLES.

ADAM'S PEARMAIN. Her. Pom., I., 14. F.,
Rousse de Norfolk ; G., Adam's Parmane. (Hanging
Pearmain, Norfolk Pippin.) Dessert, December to
March, medium, 2j by 2 J, conical, colour, deep yellow,
red stripes and flush, with russet patches. Flesh, firm,
yellow, very aromatic. Eye open, tips reflexed in a
shallow plaited basin. Stem very short in a shallow
even russet cavity. Growth slender, fertile. Leaf,
medium, narrow oval, slightly up-cupped, boldly
serrate, grey green, nearly smooth below. Origin
probably English, brought to notice about 1826, and
it was named after the donor of the grafts to the Royal
Horticultural Society. This is one of the best late
dessert sorts ; it thrives in nearly all soils.

Akero : see Akero.

^

AKERO. Svensk Pom., 15. (Akera, Okera.)
Dessert, September to October, meolium, 2j by 2\,
conical. Colour, pale creamy yellow with crimson
peach-like flush and bloom. Flesh, white, firm, and
juicy. Growth, moderate, fertility moderate. Leaf,
rather large, upward folded, much twisted, coarsely
crenate. Origin, probably Swedish. This is now
rarely grown, but is of interest only from its remarkable
coloration.

Albermarle : see Newtown Pippin.

ALBURY PARK NONSUCH. Cooking, December
to March, medium, 3 by 2|, round coni9al, ribbed,

15



irregular. Colour, creamy yellow with faint stripes and
flush. Flesh, crisp juicy, slightly yellow, sub-acid, no
flavour. Growth, spreading. Leaf, medium, oval,
sharply pointed, held-up, much up-folded, much twisted,
coarsely serrate. Origin undiscovered. An award of
Merit was given to this variety in 1892 to Mr. Leach.
Not worthy of retention.

ALFRISTON. Ronalds p. 35. (Shepherds Pippin,
Shepherds Seedling), culinary, keeps till April, large,
3i by 2f, round, conical, flattened, irregular. Colour,
green to yellow russet veined. Flesh, crisp, pale yellow,
sub-acid. Growth, vigorous, fertile. Leaf, pea green,
flat undulating, broadly serrate. Origin, raised by a
Mr. Shepherd at Alfriston, Sussex, about the end of the
eighteenth century. This apple cooks a tender, golden
brown with a delicious pear-like flavour.

ALLENS EVERLASTING. Card. Chron. 1899,
p. 222. F., Eternelle d' Allen; G., Aliens Dauerapfel.
Dessert, April to May, z\ by if, flat, regular. Colour,
pale greenish-yellow, with brown red flush and russet
netting. Flesh, crisp and juicy, greenish, excellently
flavoured. Eye, large, open, in a wide angular basin.
Stem rather slender in a very wide and deep cavity.
Growth, dwarfish ; fertile. Leaf, small, oval, flat, finely
serrate. Origin, undiscovered ; said to be a seedling
from Sturmer Pippin. Known before 1870. One of the
best late dessert sorts.

American Mother : see Mother.

ALLINGTON PIPPIN. The Garden. 1906, 131.
(South Lincoln Pippin.) Dessert, October to December,
Medium, 2j by 2j, round, conical, regular. Colour,
lemon yellow slight red flush and faint stripes. Flesh,
crisp, juicy, pale yellow, sub-acid, pleasantly aromatic.
Eye, slightly open, very long, tips reflexed in a slightly
plaited, shallow basin. Stem medium in a moderately
deep, even cavity. Growth, vigorous ; very fertile.
Leaf, narrow oval, grey green, upfolded undulating,

16



coarsely rounded serrate, nearly crenate. Origin, raised
in South Lincolnshire and introduced by Messrs. G.
Bunyard & Co., Ltd., in 1896. A most valuable variety,
which is now in the front rank. Thrives in nearly all
soils. Its fault is in making rather too much lateral
growth as a pyramid.

American Plate : see Golden Pippin.
American Red : see Astrachan Red.
Anglesea Pippin : see Astrachan Red.
Anis : see Caraway Russet.

ANNIE ELIZABETH. Her. Pom. 52. Culinary,
December to June, medium to large, 3 by 2|, oblong
conical, irregular. Colour, pale yellow, flushed and
striped brilliant red. Flesh, crisp, white, acid. Eye,
closed in a rather broad and deep basin. Stem short
in a fairly deep cavity. Growth, vigorous, upright.
Fertility good when tree is developed. Leaf, large, long
oval, dark, upfolded and twisted, regularly serrate.
Origin, raised by Mr. Greatorex at Leicester about 1857,
and introduced by Messrs. Harrison of Leicester about
1868. A valuable fruit deserving of extended cultivation .
It can be recognised by the " hammered " appearance of
the skin, especially marked on the sunny side.

ANTONOWKA. Culinary, October, December,
3 by 2f, round conical, ribbed, five-sided, uneven.
Colour, pale, whitish yellow, with dots under the skin,
greasy. Flesh, white, loose grained, rather dry,
aromatic. Eye, closed, on a level basin surrounded by
knobs and beads. Stem, moderately long in a rather
narrow, russet lined cavity, the russet spreading out.
Growth, very vigorous, moderately fertile. Leaf, very
large, little upfolded, sharply serrate. Origin, a very
popular central Russian variety. This is hardly worthy
of retention and is best described as a late edition of
White Transparent.

17



API. Ronalds, 32. F., Api ; G., Kleine Api.
{Api rouge, Api petit, Lady.) Dessert, November
to April, very small, 2 by ij, flat, regular. Colour,
bright yellow, rich crimson flush. Flesh, tender,
aromatic. Eye, half open in a shallow wide basin.
Stem short in a rather wide cavity. Growth, upright,
very slender making a small close tree, fertile. Leaf,
small, oval, upfolded, shallow crenate. Origin, of great
antiquity ; possibly dating from Roman days. Known
in this country in the seventeenth century. It is
hardly worthy of cultivation except as a curiosity.

Api Petit : see Api.

Api Rouge : see Api.

Aporta : see Emperor Alexander.

Arbroath Pippin : see Oslin.

Aromatic Pippin : see Kerry Pippin.

ARD CAIRN RUSSET. Garden, 1911, 570. Des-
sert, January to February, medium, 2j by 2f, round
conical. Colour, dark red, nearly covered with pale
russet. Flesh, yellow, firm, good russet flavour. Eye,
closed in a moderate even basin. Stem, very long
and slender in a deep narrow cavity. Leaf, long
oval, upfolded, coarsely serrate. Growth, rather
upright, compact. Origin, an old Irish variety, intro-
duced to notice by Messrs. Hartland, of Ard Cairn,
Co. Cork.

ARMOREL. Card. Chron., 1893, March 4th.
Dessert, February to May, very small, 2j by if, oblong,
regular. Colour, yellow, covered with russet. Flesh,
crisp, of good flavour. Eye, closed in a deep and wide
basin. Stem, short, in a meolium sized cavity. Growth,
moderate, fertility moderate. Origin, raised by Mr.
Charles Ross, and introduced by Messrs. Cheal, in
1893. Now almost out of cultivation, as it is too small
for present day needs.

18



AROMATIC RUSSET. Her. Pom., p. 54. F.,
Rouge aromatisee. Dessert, December to February,
medium, 2| by 2, round, conical, irregular. Colour
entirely cinnamon russet, faint red showing through.
Flesh, firm, aromatic, greenish white. Eye, very small,
closed in a shallow basin. Stem, slender in a rather
deep even cavity. Growth, weak ; fertile. Leaf,
long, slightly upfolded, little undulating, coarsely
crenate. Origin unrecorded, came into notice about
1830. A nice winter fruit, of Nonpareil flavour. There
is some confusion about this fruit, it is probably the
Aromatic Russet of Hogg, but not of Ronalds or
Lindley. It is possibly the Petit Barbaric of Normandy.

Aromatic Russet : see Caraway Russet.

ARTHUR TURNER. Culinary, October to Novem-
ber, large, 4 by 3^, very even. Colour, yellow with
brown red flush. Flesh, white, slightly acid, baking
very well. Eye, open in a rather wide even basin.
Stem, medium in a wide cavity. Growth, moderate,
slightly upright ; fertility good. Leaf, narrow oval,
grey green, little up-cupped, shallow serrate or crenate.
Origin, introduced by Mr. Chas. Turner, in 1914, when
it gained an Award of Merit. A very handsome apple,
which deserves cultivation for an early winter cooking
variety.

ASHMEAD'S KERNEL. Ronalds, p. 32. F., Semis
d'Ashmead. G., Saemling von Ashmead. Dessert,
December to March, medium, 2j by 2j, round-square.
Colour, greenish-yellow, faint brown flush, covered
with russet. Flesh, firm, pale yellow, very aromatic.
Eye, closed in a fairly deep and wide basin, which is
slightly ribbed. Stem, variable in a deep wide cavity.
Growth, moderate, fertile. Leaf, rather large, oval,
up-folded, twisted, bi-serrate. Origin, raised by Dr.
Ashmead, of Gloucester, about 1720. A valuable
fruit for late use but a poor cropper. A larger form
exists known as Improved Ashmead's Kernel, q.v.



ASTRACHAN RED. Ronalds, p. V. (American
Red, Anglesea Pippin.) Dessert, early August, medium,
2 i by 2j, flattened round, fairly regular. Colour,
deep crimson, unstriped. Flesh, crisp, white, sweet.
Eye, closed in a shallow basin. Stem, short in a scaly
russet cavity. Growth, moderate, fertility poor. Leaf,
long oval, pale green, held flat, crenate. Origin, pro-
bably from the country of its name. Introduced to
England in 1816. A most attractive fruit but too poor
a cropper for general use.

ATALANTA. Card. Chron., 1893. Culinary or
dessert, November to January, small, 2f by 2}, conical,
irregular. Colour, lemon yellow with red streaks.
Flesh, firm, flavour moderate. Growth, moderate,
very fertile. Origin, raised by Mr. Chas. Ross, from
Scarlet Nonpareil, and introduced by Messrs. Cheal
and Sons, in 1893. It has now dropped out of cultiva-
tion, presenting no marked advantages over other
varieties of the same season.

AUTUMN PEARMAIN. Ronalds, p. 22. (as
Royal Pearmain). F., Pearmain d'Ete. G., Sommer
Parmaene. [American Pearmain, Royal Pearmain (in
error).] Dessert or culinary, September to October
medium, 2,\ by 2, conical, fairly regular. Colour,
golden-yellow, partly covered with russet which is
netted, and slight flush. Flesh, firm, yellow, highly
flavoured. Eye, open in a very shallow, faintly ribbed
basin. Stem, slender in a moderate cavity, always
with a fleshy bump on one side, forcing the stem side-
ways. Growth, vigorous, upright, fertile. Leaf,
roundish, pale, upfolded, undulated, finely serrate.
Origin, an Old English variety mentioned by Parkinson,
in 1629. It is the Summer Pearmain, of Hogg, but
not of Continental Authors. It makes a fine standard
tree.

AUTUMN ROUGE. Culinary. September, med-
ium, 2j by 2j, round, conical, slightly flattened at eye.
Colour, bright yellow, flushed with dull red faint stripes.

20



Flesh, close, pale yellow, acid. Growth, moderate,
fertility moderate, makes a flat headed tree. Leaf,
rather small, pale, upfolded, very undulated, boldly
curved serrate. Origin, undiscovered. A worthless
fniit.

Backhouse's Lord Nelson : see Nelson Codlin.
Baddow Pippin : see D'Arcy Spice.
Balgone Pippin : see Golden Pippin.

BALLINORA. Culinary or dessert, December to
January, medium, 3 by 2j, nearly even. Colour,
golden-yellow, with bright red flush and very faint
stripings. Flesh, firm, pale yellow, fair flavour, of
Blenheim character. Eye, open in a shallow much
ribbed basin. Stem, very short in a wide shallow cavity.
Growth, vigorous, spreading. Leaf, large, flat, down
hanging, roundish, boldly serrate. Origin, unrecorded.
This apple may be called a Red Blenheim Orange,
but it is not quite so good in flavour or so fertile.

Baltimore : see Gloria Mundi.

BARCELONA PEARMAIN. Ronalds, p. 21. G.,
Kleiner Casseler Reinette. (Speckled Golden Reinette,
Speckled Pearmain.) Dessert, November to January,
smallish, 2j by 2j, roundish-oblong, regular, Colour,
pale yellow, flushed with red. Flesh, crisp, pale yellow,
aromatic. Growth, moderate ; fertile. Leaf, medium,
flat, oval, with a long point, broadly serrate. Origin,
continental ; country uncertain. It is now almost
out of cultivation.

BARCHARDS SEEDLING. Her Pom., p. 67.
Culinary or dessert, October to November, 2f by 2\,
medium, irregular. Colour, pale yellow, with dull
brown-red flush. Flesh, firm, yellowish, sub-acid.
Eye, open in a shallow broad basin. Stem, rather
long in a medium sized cavity. Growth, moderate ;

21



fertile. Leaf, rather small, much twisted, oval, shallow
serrate. Origin, raised in the garden of J. H. Barchard,
Putney, and introduced to notice in 1852. It is now
little cultivated.

Bardfield Defiance : see Waltham Abbey.

BARNACK BEAUTY. Card. Chron., 1900, p. 251.
Culinary or dessert, December to March, medium,
2 1 by 2 1, oval, regular. Colour, golden-yellow, dark
red flush and faint stripes. Flesh, crisp, fair flavour,
briskly acid, yellowish. Eye, large open in a shallow
even basin. Stem, moderate in a very narrow russet y
cavity. Growth, vigorous ; fertile. Leaf, rather small,
pale, slightly upfolded, very finely curved serrate.
Origin, raised by a cottager at Barnack, Northants.
Introduced by Messrs. Brown, of Stamford, about 1870.
A useful and handy sort which does well on chalky
sub-soils. Quite one of the most interesting fruits in
February, as it keeps its acid flavour later than many.

Baroveski : see Duchess of Oldenburg.


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